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GDI+ in managed C++ applications.

, 17 Oct 2001
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This Sample demonstrates basic drawing techniques using GDI+ in a Managed C++ application.
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Introduction

This Sample demonstrates basic drawing techniques using GDI+ in a Managed C++ application. The application implements a control which acts as a ticker which scrolls text across a window at a constant speed. The Client can control the scroll speed (how often ticker moves), the scroll smoothness (how many pixels it moves in one step), and the text to display.

The control uses an "off screen" painting technique similar to drawing to memory device contexts.

Let's start from the Managed C++ Class Library.

The application wizard creates the TickerControl.h and TickerControl.cpp files for us, and created a managed class TickerControl. We do not want to write the control from scratch, so let's derive it from the Control class in the System::Windows:Forms namespace and inherit the functionality of Control.

In order to do that we should add code to access the .NET framework classes. Add following lines to the top of your Control header file. #using <System.dll> #using <System.Drawing.DLL> #using <System.Windows.Forms.dll> using namespace System; using namespace System::Drawing; using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

Class members that are used by the control are defined in the Control Members section of the control's header class.

In the constructor we create a timer and subscribe to a Tick event.

CTickerControl() : m_nScrollSmoothness(1),
                   m_strTickerText(S"Ticker"),
                   m_nOffset(0),
                   m_nTickerWidth(0),
                   m_bmpTicker(NULL)
{
    // Create timer and set interval.
    m_tmTicker = new Timer();
    m_tmTicker->set_Interval(10);

    // Subscribe for timer events.
    m_tmTicker->add_Tick(new EventHandler(this, &CTickerControl::OnTimer));
}

In the destructor we unsubscribe from the timer event.

// Destructor.
~CTickerControl()
{
    // Unsubscribe from timer event.
    m_tmTicker->remove_Tick(new EventHandler(this, &CTickerControl::OnTimer));
}

Some of them we need to expose as control properties. The Control Properties section of the Control header class demonstrates how to do this. All properties have get_ and set_ functions, so they are accessible for reading and writing. You can omit one of the function and get read-only or write-only properties. The following code implements the TickerText property.

// Text to show in the ticker.
__property String* get_TickerText()
{
    return m_strTickerText;
}

    __property void set_TickerText(String *strTickerText)
{
    m_strTickerText = strTickerText;

    // Recreate face image bitmap for the new Ticker text.
    // But we shouldn't do it before the first OnPaint call,
    // otherwise both of the bitmap dimensions will be 0
    // and Bitmap constructor will throw the exception.
    if(m_bmpTicker != NULL)
        m_bmpTicker = CreateBitmap();
}

The StartTicker and StopTicker methods start and stop the text moving. Internally it just starts and stops timer.

void StartTicker()
{
    // Start timer.
    m_tmTicker->Start();
}

void StopTicker()
{
    // Stop timer.
    m_tmTicker->Stop();
}

The bitmap that we use for the control face is created by the Create bitmap function. At first it creates a graphics object that is used by the control window to paint.

graphMeasure = Graphics::FromHwnd(this->get_Handle());

We use

sizeString = graphMeasure->MeasureString(m_strTickerText, font);

to define how many pixels the Ticket Text string occupies. After that it creates a bitmap that has a width equal to the width of the control client rectangle plus the width of the Ticker text string. In order to draw on the bitmap we get a pointer to the graphics object associated with bitmap using

graphImage = Graphics::FromImage(bmpTicker);

The rest of the code just fills a bitmap background and draws the Ticker text string to the bitmap.

Bitmap* CreateBitmap()
{
    Bitmap* bmpTicker;           // Result bitmap.
    Graphics* graphImage;        // Graphics used to draw to bitmap.
    Graphics* graphMeasure;      // Graphics used to measure string.
    SizeF sizeString;            // Size of Ticker text string.
    System::Drawing::Font* font; // Font used to draw string.
    SolidBrush* brush;           // Brush to fill background.
    Rectangle rect;              // Control client rectangle.

    int nBmpWidth;               // Bitmap width.
    int nBmpHeight;              // Bitmap height.
    int nRepeat;                 // How many time we should draw ticker
                                 // text string in the image.

    // Get a graphic object used by control window.
    graphMeasure = Graphics::FromHwnd(this->get_Handle());

    // Create a font and brush to draw.
    font = new System::Drawing::Font("Courier", 10);
    brush = new SolidBrush(get_BackColor());

    // Get a size that  ticker text string occupies on the string. 
    sizeString = graphMeasure->MeasureString(m_strTickerText, font);

    m_nTickerWidth = (int)sizeString.get_Width();
    
    rect = this->get_ClientRectangle();

    // Bitmap width equals size of the control client rectangle
    // plus width of the Ticker text string.
    nBmpWidth = rect.get_Width() + m_nTickerWidth;

    // Define how many time we have to draw the string to bitmap.
    nRepeat = (int)(nBmpWidth/m_nTickerWidth + 1);

    nBmpHeight = rect.get_Height();

    // Create a bitmap to draw off screen.
    bmpTicker = new Bitmap(nBmpWidth, 
                           nBmpHeight, 
                           graphMeasure);

    // Get a graphic object to draw to bitmap.
    graphImage = Graphics::FromImage(bmpTicker);

    // Fill the background.
    graphImage->FillRectangle(brush, 0, 0, nBmpWidth, nBmpHeight);

    // Draw string, if it is short, draw it several times.
    for(int nCounter = 0; nCounter < nRepeat; nCounter++)
        graphImage->DrawString(m_strTickerText, font, Brushes::Black, nCounter * m_nTickerWidth, 0);

    return bmpTicker;
}

OnPaint is a function that do actual painting job. We overwrite this virtual function to do our painting. All we do here is just get a pointer to the graphics object to draw and draw our bitmap using DrawImageUnscaled function using current offset.

virtual void OnPaint(PaintEventArgs* pe)
{
    Graphics* graph;

    // Get a Graphics object that is used to draw.
    graph = pe->get_Graphics();

    // If face image bitmap is not exist, create it.
    if(m_bmpTicker == NULL)
        m_bmpTicker = CreateBitmap();

    // Draw the face image bitmap.
    graph->DrawImageUnscaled(m_bmpTicker, Point((m_nOffset - m_nTickerWidth), 0));
}

Drawing or bitmap we cover all control client area, so n order to avoid flickering we should overwrite OnPaintBackground virtual function with doing nothing inside.

virtual void OnPaintBackground(PaintEventArgs* pe)
{
}

The last thing we should do is to implement Timer event handler. Here we just adjust bitmap offset and redraw control.

void OnTimer( Object* myObject, EventArgs* myEventArgs )
{
    // Adjust bitmap offset.
    m_nOffset -= m_nScrollSmoothness;

    // If we finish to scroll bitmap, recreate it.
    if(m_nOffset < 0)
        m_nOffset = m_nTickerWidth - m_nScrollSmoothness;

    // Redraw control.
    Invalidate();
    Update();
}

To create a client we need to create Managed C++ Application and add a code that implements a windows form to the main source file, it is very similar what we did for the control. Following code illustrates it.

#include "stdafx.h"

// Add it to get an access to .NET Framework classes.
#using <mscorlib.dll>
#using <System.dll>
#using <System.Drawing.DLL>
#using <System.Windows.Forms.dll>

// Import Ticker control information.
#using "..\Bin\TickerControl.dll"

using namespace System;
using namespace System::ComponentModel;
using namespace System::Drawing;
using namespace System::Windows::Forms;

// Class that implements simple windows form.
__gc class CTickerClientForm : public Form
{
    // Constructor.
public:
    CTickerClientForm()
    {
        // Create ticker control.
        ctrlTicker = new CTickerControl();

        InitForm();
    }

    // Initializes a form.
protected:
    void InitForm()
    {
        // Set window title and size.
        this->set_Text(S"Ticker");
        this->set_Size(System::Drawing::Size(400, 300));

        // Set control location and size on the form.
        ctrlTicker->set_Location(System::Drawing::Point(30, 100));
        ctrlTicker->set_Size(System::Drawing::Size(300, 100));

        // Set ticker properties and start ticker to move.
        ctrlTicker->set_TimerInterval(10);
        ctrlTicker->set_TickerText(S"This is very very ... long string.");
        ctrlTicker->set_ScrollSmoothness(1);
        ctrlTicker->StartTicker();
    
        // Add ticker to form controls collection.
        this->get_Controls()->Add(this->ctrlTicker);
    }

    // Members.
private:
    CTickerControl* ctrlTicker;        // Ticker control.
};

int main(void)
{
    try
    {
        // Create Form.
        Application::Run(new CTickerClientForm());
    }
    catch(Exception* e)
    {
        Console::Write("Error occured: ");
        Console::WriteLine(e->get_Message());
    }

    return 0;
}

History

Oct 19 2001 - updated source files for beta 2

License

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About the Author

Igor Chouvalov

United States United States
No Biography provided

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionDraw Line based on User click Pinmemberhbjs11-Feb-06 16:40 
AnswerRe: Draw Line based on User click Pinmemberbob1697218-Feb-06 12:25 
GeneralRe: Draw Line based on User click Pinmemberhbjs18-Feb-06 17:51 
GeneralRe: Draw Line based on User click Pinmemberbob1697219-Feb-06 17:31 
GeneralRe: Draw Line based on User click Pinmemberhbjs20-Feb-06 14:17 
GeneralScaling Drawing PinmemberAnish George18-Apr-04 21:25 
QuestionWhat is the need for MC++ Pinmemberharanath11-Apr-03 6:10 
AnswerRe: What is the need for MC++ PinmemberDaniel Turini11-Apr-03 6:15 
QuestionWhy MC++ ? PinmemberNemanja Trifunovic19-Oct-01 7:15 

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