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Set Focus to First Input on Web Page

, 9 Sep 2005 133.3K 22
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Sets focus to the first input that is not disabled and not hidden.

Introduction

I was developing a web application that had some pretty complex authorization logic, and would enable and disable certain inputs on many different web forms. For example, user A would have the first 5 text boxes disabled and user B would have text boxes 5 through 10 disabled. That made it difficult to set the focus to the proper input. Difficult in terms of the amount of code required to accomplish such a simple task.

Options

  1. At each step of the authorization stage, write hard-coded code to set the focus to an input (i.e. duplicate logic dozens of times on dozens of pages).
  2. Write client-side JavaScript to dynamically handle it.

A Few Tries

Since duplicating logic is generally agreed to be a bad practice, I went for the dynamic option.

My first idea was to simply set the focus to the first element of the first form, which would work in some instances and not in others. For example, in a .NET application the first element of the first form is a hidden element which cannot accept the focus. Also, my application has many disabled fields which also cannot accept the focus. The code below doesn't work in all situations:

document.forms[0][0].focus();

My next idea was to loop through the items of the first form and find the first non-hidden, non-disabled element. The code below still doesn't fulfill my ultimate requirement because sometimes I have multiple forms on a page:

var bFound = false;
for(i=0; i < document.forms[0].length; i++)
{
  if (document.forms[0][i].type != "hidden")
  {
    if (document.forms[0][i].disabled != true)
    {
        document.forms[0][i].focus();
        var bFound = true;
    }
  }
  if (bFound == true)
    break;
}

Solution

The problem with the code above is that it has a hard coded reference to forms[0], so it will not work when the input you want to set the focus to is not within the first form. For example, a complex page might contain several forms for various purposes. My final solution was to use a nested loop that loops through all forms until it finds an input that is not hidden and not disabled. The code below has been tested in Internet Explorer 6.0 and Mozilla Firefox 1.0.4:

  var bFound = false;

  // for each form
  for (f=0; f < document.forms.length; f++)
  {
    // for each element in each form
    for(i=0; i < document.forms[f].length; i++)
    {
      // if it's not a hidden element
      if (document.forms[f][i].type != "hidden")
      {
        // and it's not disabled
        if (document.forms[f][i].disabled != true)
        {
            // set the focus to it
            document.forms[f][i].focus();
            var bFound = true;
        }
      }
      // if found in this element, stop looking
      if (bFound == true)
        break;
    }
    // if found in this form, stop looking
    if (bFound == true)
      break;
  }

I copied the code above into a .js file and included a reference on all pages of my application. Now, no matter what inputs are disabled on a form, the focus finds its way to the first one that is enabled.

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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About the Author

JohnStanfield
Web Developer
United States United States
John Stanfield, MBA, has been an application architect and developer for eight years, currently using C#, VB.Net, Microsoft Visual Studio.NET, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005.

Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralThere is a ready to use solution for ASP.NET 2.0 Pin
WereWolf00719-Aug-08 1:55
memberWereWolf00719-Aug-08 1:55 
GeneralImproved Pin
Warazen19-Mar-08 6:14
memberWarazen19-Mar-08 6:14 
This is a slight improvement to the above code.   It checks for undefined elements like <label> or <fieldset>. This works in both Internet Explorer and Firefox.   I tested IE Version 7.0.5730.11 and Firefox Version 2.0.0.12.

An if/or construct could have been used rather than switch; but switch/case makes the code easier to read. There may be a few element types I missed in the switch statement, but that's easy to extend.

<script language="javascript" type="text/javascript">
function FocusFirst() {
      // Based on http://www.codeproject.com/KB/scripting/FocusFirstInput.aspx
      var bFound = false;
      //for each form
      for (f=0; f < document.forms.length; f++) {
            //for each form element
            for (i=0; i < document.forms[f].length; i++) {
                  el = document.forms[f][i]
                  if (el.disabled != true) {
                        if (el.type != undefined) {
                              switch (el.type.toLowerCase()) {
                                    case "text" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "textarea" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "checkbox" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "radio" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "file" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "password" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "select-one" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                                    case "select-multiple" : el.focus(); bFound = true; break;
                              } // switch el.type
                        } //if (el.type != undefined)
                  } //if (el.disabled != true)
                  if (bFound == true) break;
            } //for each form element
            if (bFound == true) break;
      } //for each form
}
</script>
QuestionQuestion? Pin
chimchim9-Nov-06 4:58
memberchimchim9-Nov-06 4:58 
GeneralBetter Implementation Pin
Joel P14-Sep-05 4:57
sussJoel P14-Sep-05 4:57 
Questionhidden parent element? Pin
jcluggish14-Sep-05 4:33
memberjcluggish14-Sep-05 4:33 
QuestionNo forms ? Pin
zefrit13-Sep-05 10:21
memberzefrit13-Sep-05 10:21 
AnswerRe: No forms ? Pin
JohnStanfield13-Sep-05 15:10
memberJohnStanfield13-Sep-05 15:10 
GeneralYou need one more conditional test Pin
Didier Frund13-Sep-05 7:29
memberDidier Frund13-Sep-05 7:29 
GeneralRe: You need one more conditional test Pin
JohnStanfield13-Sep-05 14:58
memberJohnStanfield13-Sep-05 14:58 
GeneralDrawback Pin
Anonymous12-Sep-05 21:05
sussAnonymous12-Sep-05 21:05 
GeneralRe: Drawback Pin
JohnStanfield13-Sep-05 14:56
memberJohnStanfield13-Sep-05 14:56 
GeneralRe: Drawback Pin
Code Deamon5-Sep-07 2:31
memberCode Deamon5-Sep-07 2:31 

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