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Convert between UTC (Universal Co-ordinated Time) and local time

, 8 Dec 2008 CPOL
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How to convert between UTC (Universal Co-ordinated Time) and local time.

Introduction

(If you can use .NET 3.5, then this code has been superceded, by a built-in class. Thanks to neilio for pointing this out.)

Elsewhere on this site is a long winded explanation about how Windows actually knows about more than UTC and your local timezone (and a class TimeZoneInformation that implements conversion to/from any timezone to UTC). My problem was that my server is in the central timezone, but the users can be anywhere in the world, and I wanted them to see the time of their transactions in their local time. I wrote this utility class that uses TimeZoneInformation but presents a simpler interface.

  • GetTZList(System.Collections.ArrayList Indexes, System.Collections.ArrayList Names)
  • This method returns a list of timezone names and timezone IDs in a sorted order, just like the Windows timezone picker when you are setting your clock.

    In a web application, I use this function to populate a dropdown list to allow the user to pick his/her local timezone.

  • System.DateTime MakeDateTime(int TimeZoneID, string s)
  • Use this function to convert a date in the format "2005/03/16 08:43am" (in the timezone specified by TimeZoneID) into the equivalent UTC.

    If the time string is already in UTC, set TimeZoneID to -1.

  • DisplayDateTime(int TimeZoneID, System.DateTime dt, bool IncludeDayName)
  • Convert a UTC to the specified timezone. Set TimeZoneID to -1 if you want the display in UTC. You can have the three letter abbreviation of the day name tacked on the end if IncludeDayName is true.

  • DisplayXmlDateTime(System.DateTime dt)
  • If you are creating XML documents, this function will return the datetime in the "approved" XML format.

  • DisplayLocalTimeByBrowser(System.DateTime dt, bool IncludeDayName)
  • In the discussions with "S Rijken", it is understood that there seems to be some merit in letting the browser figure out the local time. Use this method only if the target browser supports JavaScript (i.e., not your phone browser). The advantage is that you never have to ask the viewer in what time zone he/she resides in. Usage:

    <%=TXConvert.DisplayLocalTimeByBrowser(dt, true)%>
  • DisplayLocalTimeByBrowserHelper()
  • This function generates some JavaScript code which you need to inject into the <head> section of the page. Only insert this code once. Usage:

    <head>... <%=TZConvertDisplayLocalTimeByBrowserHelper()%>....</head>

The namespace below includes the code previously published on this site, so this is all you need to cut and paste to get up and running:

using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using Microsoft.Win32;

namespace PTimeZoneInformation
{
    class TimeZoneInformation
    {
        private TimeZoneInformation()
        {
        }

        private static TimeZoneInformation[] s_zones = null;
        private static readonly object s_lockZones = new object();

        /// <summary>
        /// Get the currently selected time zone
        /// </summary>

        public static TimeZoneInformation CurrentTimeZone
        {
            get
            {
                // The currently selected time zone information can
                // be retrieved using the Win32 GetTimeZoneInformation call,
                // but it only gives us names, offsets and dates - crucially,
                // not the Index.


                TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION tziNative;
                TimeZoneInformation[] zones = EnumZones();

                NativeMethods.GetTimeZoneInformation(out tziNative);

                // Getting the identity is tricky; the best we can do
                // is a match on the properties.


                for (int idx = 0; idx < zones.Length; ++idx)
                {
                    if (zones[idx].m_tzi.bias == tziNative.Bias &&
                         zones[idx].m_tzi.daylightBias == tziNative.DaylightBias &&
                         zones[idx].m_tzi.standardBias == tziNative.StandardBias &&
                         zones[idx].m_standardName == tziNative.StandardName &&
                         zones[idx].m_daylightName == tziNative.DaylightName)
                    {
                        return zones[idx];
                    }
                }

                return null;
            }
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Get a TimeZoneInformation for a supplied index.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="index">The time zone to find.</param>
        /// <returns>The corresponding TimeZoneInformation.</returns>
        /// <exception cref="System.ArgumentOutOfRangeException">Thrown
        ///      if the index is not found.</exception>

        public static TimeZoneInformation FromIndex(int index)
        {
            TimeZoneInformation[] zones = EnumZones();

            for (int i = 0; i < zones.Length; ++i)
            {
                if (zones[i].Index == index)
                    return zones[i];
            }

            throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("index", 
                         index, "Unknown time zone index");
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Enumerate the available time zones
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns>The list of known time zones</returns>

        public static TimeZoneInformation[] EnumZones()
        {
            if (s_zones == null)
            {
                lock (s_lockZones)
                {
                    if (s_zones == null)
                    {
                        ArrayList zones = new ArrayList();

                        using (RegistryKey key = 
                           Registry.LocalMachine.OpenSubKey(
                           @"SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT" + 
                           @"\CurrentVersion\Time Zones"))
                        {
                          string[] zoneNames = key.GetSubKeyNames();

                          foreach (string zoneName in zoneNames)
                          {
                            using (RegistryKey subKey = key.OpenSubKey(zoneName))
                            {
                              TimeZoneInformation tzi = new TimeZoneInformation();
                              tzi.m_name = zoneName;
                              tzi.m_displayName = (string)subKey.GetValue("Display");
                              tzi.m_standardName = (string)subKey.GetValue("Std");
                              tzi.m_daylightName = (string)subKey.GetValue("Dlt");
                              tzi.m_index = (int)(subKey.GetValue("Index"));

                              tzi.InitTzi((byte[])subKey.GetValue("Tzi"));

                              zones.Add(tzi);
                            }
                          }
                        }

                        s_zones = new TimeZoneInformation[zones.Count];

                        zones.CopyTo(s_zones);
                    }
                }
            }

            return s_zones;
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// The zone's name.
        /// </summary>

        public string Name
        {
            get { return m_name; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The zone's display name, e.g. '(GMT) Greenwich Mean
        ///            Time : Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London'.
        /// </summary>

        public string DisplayName
        {
            get { return m_displayName; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The zone's index. No obvious pattern.
        /// </summary>

        public int Index
        {
            get { return m_index; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The zone's name during 'standard' time (not daylight savings).
        /// </summary>

        public string StandardName
        {
            get { return m_standardName; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The zone's name during daylight savings time.
        /// </summary>

        public string DaylightName
        {
            get { return m_daylightName; }
        }

        public override string ToString()
        {
            return m_displayName;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The standard Windows SYSTEMTIME structure.
        /// </summary>

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct SYSTEMTIME
        {
            public UInt16 wYear;
            public UInt16 wMonth;
            public UInt16 wDayOfWeek;
            public UInt16 wDay;
            public UInt16 wHour;
            public UInt16 wMinute;
            public UInt16 wSecond;
            public UInt16 wMilliseconds;
        }

        // FILETIME is already declared in System.Runtime.InteropServices.

        /// <summary>
        /// The layout of the Tzi value in the registry.
        /// </summary>

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
        private struct TZI
        {
            public int bias;
            public int standardBias;
            public int daylightBias;
            public SYSTEMTIME standardDate;
            public SYSTEMTIME daylightDate;
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// The standard Win32 TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION structure.
        /// Thanks to www.pinvoke.net.
        /// </summary>

        [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Unicode)]
        private struct TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION
        {
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.I4)]
            public Int32 Bias;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 32)]
            public string StandardName;
            public SYSTEMTIME StandardDate;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.I4)]
            public Int32 StandardBias;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValTStr, SizeConst = 32)]
            public string DaylightName;
            public SYSTEMTIME DaylightDate;
            [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.I4)]
            public Int32 DaylightBias;
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// A container for P/Invoke declarations.
        /// </summary>

        private struct NativeMethods
        {
            private const string KERNEL32 = "kernel32.dll";

            [DllImport(KERNEL32)]
            public static extern uint 
                   GetTimeZoneInformation(out TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION
                   lpTimeZoneInformation);

            [DllImport(KERNEL32)]
            public static extern bool SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime(
                [In] ref TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION lpTimeZone,
                [In] ref SYSTEMTIME lpUniversalTime,
                out SYSTEMTIME lpLocalTime);

            [DllImport(KERNEL32)]
            public static extern bool SystemTimeToFileTime(
                [In] ref SYSTEMTIME lpSystemTime,
                out FILETIME lpFileTime);

            [DllImport(KERNEL32)]
            public static extern bool FileTimeToSystemTime(
                [In] ref FILETIME lpFileTime,
                out SYSTEMTIME lpSystemTime);

            /// <summary>
            /// Convert a local time to UTC, using
            /// the supplied time zone information.
            /// Windows XP and Server 2003 and later only.
            /// </summary>

            /// <param name="lpTimeZone">The time zone to use.</param>
            /// <param name="lpLocalTime">The local time to convert.</param>
            /// <param name="lpUniversalTime">The resultant time in UTC.</param>
            /// <returns>true if successful, false otherwise.</returns>

            [DllImport(KERNEL32)]
            public static extern bool TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime(
                [In] ref TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION lpTimeZone,
                [In] ref SYSTEMTIME lpLocalTime,
                out SYSTEMTIME lpUniversalTime);
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Initialise the m_tzi member.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="info">The Tzi data from the registry.</param>

        private void InitTzi(byte[] info)
        {
            if (info.Length != Marshal.SizeOf(m_tzi))
            {
                throw new ArgumentException("Information size is incorrect", 
                                                                     "info");
            }

            // Could have sworn there's a Marshal operation to pack bytes into
            // a structure, but I can't see it. Do it manually.

            GCHandle h = GCHandle.Alloc(info, GCHandleType.Pinned);

            try
            {
                m_tzi = (TZI)Marshal.PtrToStructure(h.AddrOfPinnedObject(), 
                                                              typeof(TZI));
            }
            finally
            {
                h.Free();
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The offset from UTC. Local = UTC + Bias.
        /// </summary>

        public int Bias
        {
            // Biases in the registry are defined as UTC = local + bias
            // We return as Local = UTC + bias

            get { return -m_tzi.bias; }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The offset from UTC during standard time.
        /// </summary>

        public int StandardBias
        {
            get { return -(m_tzi.bias + m_tzi.standardBias); }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// The offset from UTC during daylight time.
        /// </summary>

        public int DaylightBias
        {
            get { return -(m_tzi.bias + m_tzi.daylightBias); }
        }


        private TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION TziNative()
        {
            TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION tziNative = new TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION();

            tziNative.Bias = m_tzi.bias;
            tziNative.StandardDate = m_tzi.standardDate;
            tziNative.StandardBias = m_tzi.standardBias;
            tziNative.DaylightDate = m_tzi.daylightDate;
            tziNative.DaylightBias = m_tzi.daylightBias;

            return tziNative;
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Convert a time interpreted as UTC to a time in this time zone.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="utc">The UTC time to convert.</param>
        /// <returns>The corresponding local time in this zone.</returns>

        public DateTime FromUniversalTime(DateTime utc)
        {
            // Convert to SYSTEMTIME

            SYSTEMTIME stUTC = DateTimeToSystemTime(utc);

            // Set up the TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION


            TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION tziNative = TziNative();

            SYSTEMTIME stLocal;

            NativeMethods.SystemTimeToTzSpecificLocalTime(ref 
                          tziNative, ref stUTC, out stLocal);

            // Convert back to DateTime

            return SystemTimeToDateTime(ref stLocal);
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Convert a time from UTC to the time zone with the supplied index.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="index">The time zone index.</param>
        /// <param name="utc">The time to convert.</param>
        /// <returns>The converted time.</returns>
        /// <exception cref="ArgumentOutOfRangeException">Thrown if
        ///      the index is not found.</exception>

        public static DateTime FromUniversalTime(int index, DateTime utc)
        {
            TimeZoneInformation tzi = FromIndex(index);

            return tzi.FromUniversalTime(utc);
        }


        /// <summary>
        /// Convert a time interpreted as a local time in this zone to the equivalent UTC.
        /// Note that there may be different possible interpretations
        /// at the daylight time boundaries.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="local">The local time to convert.</param>
        /// <returns>The corresponding UTC.</returns>
        /// <exception cref="NotSupportedException">Thrown if
        ///     the method failed due to missing platform support.</exception>

        public DateTime ToUniversalTime(DateTime local)
        {
            SYSTEMTIME stLocal = DateTimeToSystemTime(local);

            TIME_ZONE_INFORMATION tziNative = TziNative();

            SYSTEMTIME stUTC;

            try
            {
                NativeMethods.TzSpecificLocalTimeToSystemTime(ref 
                                tziNative, ref stLocal, out stUTC);

                return SystemTimeToDateTime(ref stUTC);
            }
            catch (EntryPointNotFoundException e)
            {
                throw new NotSupportedException("This method" + 
                      " is not supported on this operating system", e);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Convert a time from the time zone with the supplied index to UTC.
        /// </summary>

        /// <param name="index">The time zone index.</param>
        /// <param name="utc">The time to convert.</param>
        /// <returns>The converted time.</returns>
        /// <exception cref="ArgumentOutOfRangeException">Thrown if 
        ///               the index is not found.</exception>
        /// <exception cref="NotSupportedException">Thrown if the
        ///     method failed due to missing platform support.</exception>

        public static DateTime ToUniversalTime(int index, DateTime local)
        {
            TimeZoneInformation tzi = FromIndex(index);

            return tzi.ToUniversalTime(local);
        }


        private static SYSTEMTIME DateTimeToSystemTime(DateTime dt)
        {
            SYSTEMTIME st;
            FILETIME ft = new FILETIME();

            ft.dwHighDateTime = (int)(dt.Ticks >> 32);
            ft.dwLowDateTime = (int)(dt.Ticks & 0xFFFFFFFFL);

            NativeMethods.FileTimeToSystemTime(ref ft, out st);

            return st;
        }


        private static DateTime SystemTimeToDateTime(ref SYSTEMTIME st)
        {
            FILETIME ft = new FILETIME();

            NativeMethods.SystemTimeToFileTime(ref st, out ft);

            DateTime dt = new DateTime((((long)ft.dwHighDateTime) 
                           << 32) | (uint)ft.dwLowDateTime);

            return dt;
        }

        private TZI m_tzi;
        private string m_name;
        private string m_displayName;
        private int m_index;
        private string m_standardName;
        private string m_daylightName;

    }

    public class TZConvert
    {
        static private float ExtractGMTOffset(string s)
        {
            // (GMT)
            // (GMT+10:30) xxx

            string tmp = s.Substring(4);
            int i = tmp.IndexOf(")");
            tmp = tmp.Substring(0, i);
            tmp = tmp.Replace(":", ".");
            if (tmp == "")
                return (0.0F);
            return (System.Single.Parse(tmp));
        }

        public static void GetTZList(System.Collections.ArrayList Indexes, 
                                       System.Collections.ArrayList Names)
        {
            TimeZoneInformation[] zones = TimeZoneInformation.EnumZones();
            float[] GMTOffsets = new float[zones.Length];
            for (int i = 0; i < zones.Length; i++)
                GMTOffsets[i] = ExtractGMTOffset(zones[i].DisplayName);
            Array.Sort(GMTOffsets, zones);
            for (int i = 0; i < zones.Length; i++)
            {
                Indexes.Add(zones[i].Index);
                Names.Add(zones[i].DisplayName);
            }
        }

        public static void GetSpecificTZList(string[] Indexes, string[] Names)
        {
            TimeZoneInformation[] zones = TimeZoneInformation.EnumZones();
            int[] iIndexes = new int[Indexes.Length];
            for (int i = 0; i < Indexes.Length; i++)
                iIndexes[i] = System.Int32.Parse(Indexes[i]);

            int j = 0;
            for (int i = 0; i < zones.Length; i++)
            {
                j = Array.IndexOf(iIndexes, zones[i].Index);
                if (j >= 0)
                    Names[j] = zones[i].DisplayName;
            }
        }

        private static System.DateTime MakeDateHelper(int Year, 
                         int Month, int Day, int Hour, int Min)
        {
            System.DateTime dt = new System.DateTime(Year, 
                             Month, Day, Hour, Min, 0, 0);
            return (dt);
        }

        public static System.DateTime MakeDateTime(int Index, string s)
        {
            // 012345678911234567
            // 2000/01/01 03:23pm

            if (!(s.Length == 16 || s.Length == 18))
                throw (new System.FormatException());
            if (s[4] != '/') throw (new System.FormatException());
            if (s[7] != '/') throw (new System.FormatException());
            if (s[10] != ' ') throw (new System.FormatException());
            if (s[13] != ':') throw (new System.FormatException());
            int Year = System.Int32.Parse(s.Substring(0, 4));
            int Month = System.Int32.Parse(s.Substring(5, 2));
            int Day = System.Int32.Parse(s.Substring(8, 2));
            int Hour = System.Int32.Parse(s.Substring(11, 2));
            int Minute = System.Int32.Parse(s.Substring(14, 2));
            bool IsPM = false;
            if (s.Length == 18)
                IsPM = (s.Substring(16).ToLower() == "pm") ? true : false;

            if (IsPM)
            {
                if (Hour != 12)
                    Hour += 12;
            }
            else
            {
                if (Hour == 12)
                    Hour -= 12;
            }
            System.DateTime dt = new System.DateTime(Year, 
                                     Month, Day, Hour, Minute, 0, 0);
            if (Index != -1)
                return (TimeZoneInformation.ToUniversalTime(Index, dt));
            return (dt);
        }

        public static string DisplayDateTime(int Index, 
                      System.DateTime dt, bool IncludeDayName)
        {
            if (Index != -1)
                dt = TimeZoneInformation.FromUniversalTime(Index, dt);
            string t = dt.ToString("yyyy/MM/dd\\ HH:mmtt\\ dddd", 
                       System.Globalization.DateTimeFormatInfo.InvariantInfo);
            System.Text.StringBuilder s = new 
                        System.Text.StringBuilder(t.Substring(0, 16));
            string DayName = t.Substring(17, 3);

            if (IncludeDayName)
            {
                s.Append(" ");
                s.Append(DayName);
            }
            return (s.ToString());
        }
        public static string DisplayDateTime(int Index, System.DateTime dt)
        {
            return (DisplayDateTime(Index, dt, false));
        }

        //--------------- updates start here ---------------

        public static string DisplayLocalTimeByBrowserHelper()
        {
            return (
                @"<script>
                function FormatLocalTime(dd, IncludeDayName)
                {
                    function TwoDigits(s)
                    {
                        var ss = s.toString();
                        if(ss.length == 1)
                            return('0'+ss);
                        return(ss);
                    }

                    var d=new Date(dd);
                    var Year = d.getFullYear().toString();
                    var Month = TwoDigits(d.getMonth());
                    var Day = TwoDigits(d.getDate());
                    var Hours = d.getHours();
                    var Minutes = TwoDigits(d.getMinutes());
                    var AmPm = 'am';
                    if(Hours == 12)
                    {
                        AmPm = 'pm';
                    }
                    if(Hours == 0)
                    {
                        Hours = 12;
                    }
                    if(Hours > 12)
                    {
                        Hours -= 12;
                        AmPm = 'pm';
                    }
                    return(Year+'/'+Month+'/'+Day+' '+ 
                           TwoDigits(Hours)+':'+Minutes+AmPm);
                }
                </script>
                ");
        }

        public static string DisplayLocalTimeByBrowser(System.DateTime dt, 
                                                       bool IncludeDayName)
        {
            return("<script>document.write(FormatLocalTime("
                    +"Date.UTC("
                    +dt.Year.ToString() + ","
                    + dt.Month.ToString() + ","
                    + dt.Day.ToString() + ","
                    + dt.Hour.ToString() + ","
                    + dt.Minute.ToString() + ",0)"
                    +", "
                    +(IncludeDayName==true?"true":"false")
                    +"));</script>"
            );
        }
        //--------------- updates end here ---------------


        public static string DisplayXmlDateTime(System.DateTime dt)
        {
            // 2004-01-17T12:46:40.837

            return (dt.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd\\Thh:mm:ss.fff", 
              System.Globalization.DateTimeFormatInfo.InvariantInfo));
        }

        public static void Main(string[] args)
        {
            ArrayList Indexes = new ArrayList();
            ArrayList Names = new ArrayList();
            GetTZList(Indexes, Names);
            for (int i = 0; i < Indexes.Count; i++)
            {
                System.Console.WriteLine(
                    Indexes[i] + " " +
                    Names[i]);
            }

            System.DateTime dt = MakeDateTime(35, "2003/03/02 03:43pm");
            System.Console.WriteLine(TZConvert.DisplayDateTime(35, dt));
            string s = DisplayLocalTimeByBrowserHelper()+ 
                       DisplayLocalTimeByBrowser(dt, true);
            System.Console.WriteLine(s);


        }
    }
}

I met my goal of getting this out of the door in 10 minutes.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Gary Dryden
Software Developer (Senior)
Canada Canada
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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralElegant way to do this in .Net 3.5 Pinmemberneilio2-Dec-08 10:07 
Generalasp.net 2.0 version Pinmembersameer_prolific1-Oct-08 2:55 
QuestionHow can I get indian standard time PinmemberAnil Pandya2-Mar-08 22:21 
GeneralWhy the client offset can be invalid PinmemberJonnystar24-Oct-07 10:49 
QuestionHow do i get EST/EDT Time? Pinmemberrahul-pawar28-Feb-07 9:38 
AnswerRe: How do i get EST/EDT Time? PinmemberAdusumalli19827-Aug-08 13:13 
QuestionWill the zone indexes stay consistent? Pinmemberangelo_a29-Nov-06 17:02 
QuestionIncorrect StandardDaylight name from API call? Pinmemberangelo_a29-Nov-06 16:59 
AnswerRe: Incorrect StandardDaylight name from API call? PinmemberClosey11-Dec-06 18:11 
QuestionASP.NET 2.0 version? Pinmemberneilio21-Sep-06 7:44 
AnswerRe: ASP.NET 2.0 version? PinmemberGary Dryden21-Sep-06 10:12 
GeneralRe: ASP.NET 2.0 version? Pinmemberneilio21-Sep-06 11:08 
QuestionBUG? PinmemberABOCuk28-Dec-05 22:09 
AnswerRe: BUG? PinmemberGary Dryden29-Dec-05 3:02 
GeneralSome additional functionality PinmemberGary Dryden17-Dec-05 10:02 
GeneralThis is can be invalid PinmemberJonnystar24-Oct-07 11:00 
GeneralGetting the clients time zone PinmemberGary Dryden16-Dec-05 16:08 
QuestionWhy this method? PinmemberS Rijken16-Dec-05 13:06 
AnswerRe: Why this method? Pinmemberscottctr16-Dec-05 13:36 
AnswerRe: Why this method? PinmemberS Rijken17-Dec-05 2:39 
GeneralRe: Why this method? PinmemberGary Dryden17-Dec-05 6:01 
AnswerRe: Why this method? PinmemberS Rijken17-Dec-05 6:44 
GeneralRe: Why this method? PinmemberGary Dryden17-Dec-05 8:05 
GeneralRe: Why this method? Pinmemberrehodge28-Dec-05 7:14 
GeneralRe: Why this method? PinmemberGary Dryden28-Dec-05 8:09 

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