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Intercepting WinAPI calls

, 31 May 2006 109.5K 3K 79
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An article about intercepting WinAPI calls.

Introduction

API calls interception is the task that allows to get access to some parts of other's programs. Lots of programmers spend time on developing and describing various methods which allow that access. Such methods are used in many anti-viruses and anti-spyware. Besides, sometimes, intercepting can help you to find errors in your application. However, it is not a secret that some viruses use it too. I spent much time to find and understand the technique of interception. I would like to describe here the results of my research.

Method description

First of all, you need to read the following article to understand the basics of the interception mechanism: HookSys (written by Ivo Ivanov). It was very helpful for me, and I used the sample code from it. However, it does not solve all my problems because Ivo's samples sometimes miss very important API calls. It happens when the application starts up too fast and the intercepting service has no time to inject the DLL. After some research, I found the actual problem, and it was related to using the kernel mode function, SetCreateProcessNotificationRoutine. This function is used to receive notification events about any new process creation. Such a notification is often fired when the process has already been started. Therefore, I needed to find a way to improve Ivo's code.

As far as I know, the execution of all Windows processes consists of the following steps:

  • initial process loading;
  • creating the main thread for the process in the suspended state;
  • mapping of the NT.DLL into the address space of the process;
  • mapping all needed DLLs, and calling their DllMain with the DLL_PROCESS_ATTACH reason;
  • resuming the main process' thread.

The step right before the main thread resuming looks like the most comfortable for injection because the process is in suspended state and none of its instructions have been executed yet.

Most of the work on the process creation is done in the kernel mode, so to change this algorithm, you need to intercept the kernel mode functions NtCreateProcess() and NtCreateThread(). The CONTEXT structure, the pointer to which is passed to the function NtCreateThread(), contains a member called EAX. I found that it equals to the process' start address in user mode, so if you can change it, then you can get the control right after process creation and before starting. To solve this task, I wrote a kernel mode driver. It starts while the system starts up.

There are some initialization steps:

  1. starting;
  2. receiving configuration from the user mode;
  3. intercepting kernel mode functions such as: NtCreateProcess(), NtCreateThread(), NtTerminateProcess(), NewNtCreateProcessEx() - for Windows 2003 Server.

A handler to the NtCreateThread() function contains code that will do most of the interesting jobs. Here is a brief description of its algorithm:

  1. allow access to the creating process by calling ObReferenceObjectByHandle();
  2. remember the main thread start address (ThreadContext->EAX);
  3. "jump" to the context of the creating process by calling KeAttachProcess();
  4. allocate memory for my code by calling ZwAllocateVirtualMemory(), similar to the well known technique for CreateRemoteThread() in user mode;
  5. copy the small code to the allocated memory that will load my DLL. This code looks like:
    push pszDllName
    mov  ebx, LoadLibraryAddr
    call [ebx]
    mov  eax, Win32StartAddr
    push eax
    ret
    pszDllName: db 'example.dll';
  6. "jump" to the initial process;
  7. change the thread start address (ThreadContext->EAX) so it will point to the allocated memory.

That is all. You can download and compile the complete source code for this article. Note: the sample is fully functional and quite enough for basic understanding, but for real usage, it might be rewritten.

Compiling the code

You need the NTDDK to be installed on your computer. I'm using MSVS 6.0 for compiling NtProcDrv, and MSVS 7.1 for the rest of the projects.

History

  • 2006-03-06 - Submitted.
  • 2006-05-31 - Source codes and binaries are updated.

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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About the Author

Andriy Oriekhov
Chief Technology Officer
Ukraine Ukraine
No Biography provided

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionProblem in Release Build Pin
noumantariq28-Oct-09 23:49
membernoumantariq28-Oct-09 23:49 
GeneralCorrection in assembly code [modified] Pin
MattsUserName27-Jul-09 15:04
memberMattsUserName27-Jul-09 15:04 
QuestionVista compatibility? Pin
Amit Vilas Shinde7-Mar-08 1:36
memberAmit Vilas Shinde7-Mar-08 1:36 
GeneralHi, tezm. I ran into the same question as yours. Pin
mybayern19742-Aug-07 22:02
membermybayern19742-Aug-07 22:02 
GeneralRe: Hi, tezm. I ran into the same question as yours. Pin
tezm4-Aug-07 6:55
membertezm4-Aug-07 6:55 
GeneralRe: Hi, tezm. I ran into the same question as yours. Pin
mjmim10-Oct-08 12:34
membermjmim10-Oct-08 12:34 
QuestionError installing service, how to solve it? Pin
tezm27-Jul-07 8:29
membertezm27-Jul-07 8:29 
AnswerRe: Error installing service, how to solve it? Pin
tezm28-Jul-07 1:28
membertezm28-Jul-07 1:28 
GeneralI want to support vista O.S., please help me Pin
Hsiao, Tsu Tair25-Jul-07 16:46
memberHsiao, Tsu Tair25-Jul-07 16:46 
GeneralInjection works fine, but impossible to subclass using this method? [modified] Pin
ehaerim5-Jan-07 11:05
memberehaerim5-Jan-07 11:05 
QuestionHow to inject dll into specific processes, not all the processes? [modified] Pin
ehaerim30-Dec-06 21:28
memberehaerim30-Dec-06 21:28 
AnswerRe: How to inject dll into specific processes, not all the processes? Pin
ehaerim5-Jan-07 10:35
memberehaerim5-Jan-07 10:35 
QuestionNewNtTerminateProcess called with NULL as the value of ProcessHandle. Why? Pin
ehaerim30-Dec-06 20:59
memberehaerim30-Dec-06 20:59 
GeneralSecond MessageBox does not show up when process termination but only sound. Pin
ehaerim2-Dec-06 14:56
memberehaerim2-Dec-06 14:56 
GeneralRe: Second MessageBox does not show up when process termination but only sound. Pin
tezm28-Jul-07 1:25
membertezm28-Jul-07 1:25 
QuestionVC++ 6.0 Version available? Pin
ehaerim2-Dec-06 10:52
memberehaerim2-Dec-06 10:52 
QuestionHow to hook multiple instances of Notepad? [modified] Pin
ehaerim30-Nov-06 15:10
memberehaerim30-Nov-06 15:10 
GeneralWhere can I get info about SetCreateProcessNotificationRoutine? [modified] Pin
ehaerim30-Nov-06 13:42
memberehaerim30-Nov-06 13:42 
Generalstarting programs by clicking on document icons Pin
richardmoss15-Nov-06 5:43
memberrichardmoss15-Nov-06 5:43 
GeneralRe: starting programs by clicking on document icons Pin
Andriy Oriekhov23-Nov-06 0:25
memberAndriy Oriekhov23-Nov-06 0:25 
QuestionHow to get the executable name from the created process?? Pin
girm13-Sep-06 1:41
membergirm13-Sep-06 1:41 
AnswerRe: How to get the executable name from the created process?? Pin
Andriy Oriekhov14-Sep-06 2:53
memberAndriy Oriekhov14-Sep-06 2:53 
GeneralRe: How to get the executable name from the created process?? Pin
girm24-Oct-06 20:40
membergirm24-Oct-06 20:40 
GeneralRe: How to get the executable name from the created process?? Pin
Andriy Oriekhov25-Oct-06 11:32
memberAndriy Oriekhov25-Oct-06 11:32 
GeneralRe: How to get the executable name from the created process?? Pin
ehaerim5-Jan-07 10:32
memberehaerim5-Jan-07 10:32 
GeneralDoesn`t work Pin
Cold-Fire16-Aug-06 10:16
memberCold-Fire16-Aug-06 10:16 
GeneralRe: Doesn`t work Pin
Andriy Oriekhov22-Aug-06 3:44
memberAndriy Oriekhov22-Aug-06 3:44 
QuestionNow it works but... Pin
Cold-Fire23-Aug-06 3:40
memberCold-Fire23-Aug-06 3:40 
AnswerRe: Now it works but... Pin
Andriy Oriekhov23-Aug-06 12:01
memberAndriy Oriekhov23-Aug-06 12:01 
GeneralRe: Now it works but... Pin
Cold-Fire24-Aug-06 1:49
memberCold-Fire24-Aug-06 1:49 
QuestionWhy the "ParentProcess" is 0xFFFFFFFF? Pin
Fu Hao5-Jul-06 20:33
memberFu Hao5-Jul-06 20:33 
QuestionHow about non x86 ? Pin
leandrobecker5-Jun-06 12:31
memberleandrobecker5-Jun-06 12:31 
AnswerRe: How about non x86 ? Pin
Andriy Oriekhov7-Jun-06 0:05
memberAndriy Oriekhov7-Jun-06 0:05 
GeneralReboot computer Pin
nhthiemsvt4-May-06 21:58
membernhthiemsvt4-May-06 21:58 
GeneralRe: Reboot computer Pin
Andriy Oriekhov25-May-06 23:55
memberAndriy Oriekhov25-May-06 23:55 
Generalnon-admin Pin
ep19-Mar-06 21:21
memberep19-Mar-06 21:21 
GeneralRe: non-admin Pin
Andriy Oriekhov20-Mar-06 6:36
memberAndriy Oriekhov20-Mar-06 6:36 
GeneralRe: non-admin Pin
ricardo fernandes11-May-06 13:28
memberricardo fernandes11-May-06 13:28 
GeneralRe: non-admin Pin
Andriy Oriekhov26-May-06 0:01
memberAndriy Oriekhov26-May-06 0:01 
GeneralRe: non-admin Pin
girm28-Jun-06 7:46
membergirm28-Jun-06 7:46 
GeneralThumbs up Pin
Ivo Ivanov15-Mar-06 8:38
memberIvo Ivanov15-Mar-06 8:38 
GeneralAwesome! Pin
yafan6-Mar-06 14:44
memberyafan6-Mar-06 14:44 

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