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An STL Error Message Decryptor for visual C++

, 7 Nov 2002
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A set of tools to shorten the length of VC++ STL-related error messages so that the most vital information from a message fits within the status bar in VS.
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Sample Image - image.jpg

Purpose

The idea is to shorten the length of VC++ STL-related error messages so that the most vital information from a message fits within the visible portion of the status bar line at the bottom of the Visual Studio IDE (see item "4." at the top of this file for instructions on enabling the status bar).

Lots of things you don't usually need to see are deleted, e.g.:

  • The qualifiers "std::", "class", "struct", "__thiscall" and "__cdecl" disappear
  • Iterators are radically shortened to either just "IT", "iter", or, for a container "cont", "cont::iter" (you pick which form to use). You can then typically deduce the type details from the remaining context of error messages
  • Any functors of the form less<whatever> are deleted; others are left intact. Thus the default "less<...>" functors don't clutter the messages when dealing with associative containers
  • strings, istreams and ostreams of <char>, their traits, etc. reduce to just "string", "istream", "ostream", etc. Ahhh!
  • iostream iterators are recognized and abbreviated
  • Allocators in type names totally disappear, and allocators in function parameter lists reduce to just "alloc" (good riddance...)

Currently, all *standard* containers have been addressed, for the distribution version of the VC++6 library, version 3.08 of the Dinkumware library and 4.x of STLPort. Note: non-standard containers (such as Dinkumware's hash and slist) are not currently supported.

There are certainly cases I'll have overlooked, and some I just didn't know how to filter. Feedback is welcome, but here's the disclaimer:

The reason I wrote this was to make it possible to teach C++ using the Koenig/Moo approach without scaring away students due to outlandishly complicated STL error messages. Thus, the filter leaves enough information to isolate the *most common* errors (wrong number of arguments, wrong argument type, etc.) in standard container operations involving most everyday data types. STL power users are always free to disable filtering to track down errors where the deleted detail is needed, then re-enable filtering when such details may no longer be needed. Two methods are provided to enable/disable filtering:

  1. The STLFilt.BAT file is low-bandwidth
  2. the STLTask tray icon program is convenient to use and allows instantaneous installation/uninstallation/reinstallation of the Proxy CL at any time.

How it Works

1. Nuts and Bolts

When installed/active, the Proxy CL is found by the MSVC IDE and invoked as if it were the native CL.EXE program. The Proxy CL checks for the existence of the controlling toggle file (FILTERING.ON). If the toggle file is *not* detected, the Proxy CL simply invokes the native CL.EXE (usually renamed to CL2.EXE) with the same command arguments it was itself invoked with. This yields ordinary error message output.

If the toggle file *is* detected AND the file type being compiled qualifies for filtering (see the fourth item in the Bugs/Limitations section below for details on how the Proxy CL makes this determination), then the Proxy CL sets up an interprocess pipe between the native CL.EXE and an invocation of Perl. The native CL's output stream is then piped into the standard input of the Perl process (executing the STLFilt.pl script) to simplify STL-related  messages. The output of the Perl script is then captured by the MSVC IDE and displayed in its output area, while the process status code of the *native* CL process controls the subsequent behavior of the IDE's build sequence.

2. Rationale

While the command-line processing that the Proxy CL has to perform is a bit on the tricky side, it seems to now handle most MSVC-generated build scripts satisfactorily (the exception being third-party-based builds, such as when using tools such as TrueTime). The main benefit of the toggle file scheme I'm using for enabling/disabling filtering is that it does not require constant file renaming--my theory is that if major EXE files are constantly having to be renamed, that is asking for trouble.

In the early days of the filter there were several persistent bugs in the processing of MSVC-generated build scripts, so I did give STLTask (the taskbar utility) the power to install/uninstall the filter (see the description of Active/Inactive in GLOSSARY.txt) to make it easier to run native builds unencumbered by Proxy CL bugs. This installation/uninstallation copies either the Proxy CL (CL.STL) or the native CL (CL2.EXE) over CL.EXE. Because of the possibility of crashes etc. in the middle of such operations, STLTask tries *real hard* to make sure the files remain in a consistent state. If there is any doubt as to the current status of the filter (installed or not installed?) upon startup, STLTask resets everything to the native MSVC configuration (Proxy CL uninstalled) by default.

Release Details

STLFilt web page: www.bdsoft.com/tools/stlfilt.html
STLFilt.pl (the Perl script): Release 1.1 (9/2/2001)
CL.CPP (The Proxy CL): Release 2.12 (9/8/2001)
STLTask Taskbar Icon Controller: Release 2.02 (9/9/2001)

See QUICKSTART.txt for a brief overview and quick setup instructions.

Please do not redistribute any part of this package directly; rather,  to ensure folks get the latest version, please direct anyone interested to download the latest stlfilt.zip directly from its web page  www.bdsoft.com/tools/stlfilt.html 

The version of stlfilt.zip available on the CUJ website is *not* the  latest version. 

To be notified of updates and have the opportunity to participate in a forum with other filter users, send email to: majordomo@www.bdsoft.com  with the line "subscribe stlfilter" in the message body.

What's in this archive

README.txt

You're reading it: purpose, bugs/limitations, manifest, acknowledgments and shameless self-promotion are all to be found here.

GLOSSARY.txt   

Definition of terms used in this software and documentation.

QUICKSTART.txt

Fast track setup instructions, for the impatient. Contains just the essential instructions (compiled from the other documents in this distribution) necessary to get the Decryptor components up and running quickly.

STLTask-README.txt

Supplementary documentation on using the STLTask.EXE program.

CL.EXE   

 The CL-spoofing proxy compiler. Replaces the stock CL.EXE during Visual Studio compilations, and invokes it indirectly.

STLTask.EXE   

Taskbar-based Proxy CL control utility. STLTask controls Proxy CL installation/uninstallation, filter toggling, clipboard filtering and preparation for applying a Visual Studio Service Pack. STLTask provides an alternative to STLFilt.BAT to toggle the filter control file. The installation/uninstallation feature of STLTask is provided for situations where the Proxy CL does not work correctly, e.g., complex projects, projects built with third-party tools (such as TrueTime), projects having a mixture of C++ and non-C++ (idl/odl?) targets on the same command line, etc. The "Uninstall" feature makes it easy to just get the Proxy CL totally out of the picture for these types of builds, then bring it back for later work by selecting "Install".

PROXY-CL.INI   

ASCII configuration file for use with CL.EXE and STLTask.EXE. Edit this file as appropriate for your system, place it in the Windows directory (C:\Windows or C:\Winnt, etc.) and the will override the built-in settings of CL.EXE and STLTask.EXE.

STLFilt.pl

 The Perl script.

STLFilt.BAT

Low-bandwidth batch file utility to toggle the filtering control file. Say 

stlfilt on 

or 

stlfilt off 

to control filtering. Most useful when working from within Visual Studio (you can run STLFilt.BAT from a DOS window, or install options to invoke it directly into the VC++ "Tools" menu) or using makefiles. When compiling directly from the command line, just choose between running CL or CL2 (CL2.EXE is the recommended name for the copy of the native CL.EXE). 

Note: STLFilt.BAT and STLTask.EXE cooperate, and may be run interchangeably to enable/disable Proxy CL filtering.

CL.cpp

 Source to the Proxy CL program.

STLTask-src.zip   

 Source code to the STLTask utility. Installation of the wxWindows library is required to build STLTask.EXE.

CUSTOMIZE.txt

 Instructions for rebuilding CL.EXE and STLTask.EXE from their source code, and for using the STLFilt.bat batch file for enabling/disabling filtering.

Samples.zip

 A slew of CPP files that draw various STL-related errors. Try 'em with and without the filter!

CL-log.txt

 Revision log for CL.cpp and STLFilt.pl

STLTASK-log.txt

 Revision log for STLTask.cpp

README.STLport

 Some notes regarding STLPort-specific filtering issues in the Perl script

The CUJ Article

For background information on the origins and philosophy of this package, see my article in July, 2001 issue of The C/C++ Users Journal. The article was the Web Feature for July, 2001--that means it is now and forever available for viewing in its entirety on the CUJ web site, at the following URL: http://www.cuj.com/articles/2001/0107/0107b/0107b.htm?topic=articles

Several substantive changes made to the software since the CUJ article was frozen for publication render portions of the article out-of-date. They are:

  1. The iterator policy setting in STLFilt.pl was changed from a numeric value (1, 2 or 3) to a symbolic value (S, M or L). The original '1' setting corresponds to the new 'L' ("Long" or "Large" expansion), and the original '3' corresponds to the new 'S' ("Small" or "Short" expansion). The new 'M' means, of course, "Medium" expansion. (Thanks to Scott Meyers for suggesting the use of symbolic, rather than
    numeric, designations.)
  2. The STLTask taskbar-based utility was added as a GUI-based alternative to the STLFilt.BAT batch file
  3. STLPort library support has been added to STLFilt.pl. The same Perl script now works with all three libraries.
  4. The "fine-print status line" I mention in the article actually has a name, as I finally learned: the "status bar", and it is turned on and off within Visual Studio via the Tools...Options...Workspace checkbox labeled "Display status bar". I recommend you leave it turned on; most of the time, this will alleviate the need to scroll the output window.
  5. The installation instructions in the article say to place the Proxy CL.EXE "somewhere along your system PATH". Beginning with v2.1 of CL.CPP (and v2.0 of STLTask), the Proxy CL should be placed directly into MSVC's bin directory (...\VC98\bin). See QUICKSTART.txt for the current installation procedure.
  6. Precompiled versions of both CL.EXE and STLTask.EXE are now included in the distribution. Both programs read configuration information at startup from a config file (Proxy-CL.INI) placed into the Windows directory. If the config file is not present, then all options default to values configured in the source code and compiled into the programs.

Bugs/Limitations

  • Of the various Perl implementations out there, ActiveState seems to work best. I've had several reports of interprocess bugs when using the filter in conjunction with other Perls, such as MKS and Cygwin. Therefore, if you experience strange errors involving zombie Perl processes and such, first try installing and using ActiveState Perl for filtering. You should then still be able to use your *other* Perl(s) for whatever else you've been using them for.
  • There are some string-related STL errors I haven't yet figured out how to filter (see tstring.cpp in the samples.zip archive, for example). If someone can suggest an approach to these kinds of constructs, I'd be glad to try to handle them...
  • Support for indirect (@filename) command lines is limited to fairly typical cases; The proxy CL, when detecting @filename as the *only* argument on the command line, opens the indirect file and looks at only the *last* item on the *last* line of it. Filtering is performed only if this item has an acceptable C++ extension (one of the entries in the filterExt array of strings). That name may have quotation marks around it. Thus, indirect command files with more than one line's worth of source file names (or when the source file is not the last thing on the last line) may behave incorrectly if there is a mixture of filtering-enabled and non-filtering-enabled extensions. So far, no one has reported to me any VC-generated projects that my scheme fails to properly process, but that doesn't necessarily mean it isn't going to happen...
  • When the 1st command line arg to CL is not an indirect "@" filename, then it scans argv right-to-left looking for the first argument that is neither a filename with an "object file" extension (one of the strings in the objExt array) nor a string with no extension at all (assumes those are options). The decision whether to filter or not is made based on the first argument (working from right to left) that *isn't* one of those things.

  • Command lines containing escaped double-quotes, as in /D definitions, probably won't be handled correctly by CL. It now handles all '"' characters by prepending a backslash to them. Going further, so as to generally handle lines such as:

    ... /DHAIRY="Here's a double quote: \" and a backslash: \\"

    would require a full-blown state-driven parser here to handle *all* the permutations...for now, anyway, the only way to compile such lines is to uninstall the filter.

When any of the above issues arise and you wish to revert to standard error messages, the easiest thing to do is use STLTask to "uninstall" the proxy CL until you need filtering again. Then use STLTask to "install" again. 

If you have problems relating to the project file issues described above, you might try doing a "compile only" from Visual Studio, with filtering enabled, instead of building a project.

Debugging Features

CL.CPP and STLTask.EXE have debugging features built-in. CL.CPP supports runtime debug configuration: set the DEBUG configuration option to true to log status messages to a file named CL-dblog.txt in the directory configured by the DEBUG_DIR option. For project files, when debugging is enabled CL.EXE will also make a copy of the temporary @file named "atfile.txt".This may help determine why CL fails to properly handle a project build.

STLTask.CPP debugging must be configured at compile time. Set the DEBUG symbol to 1 and define the DEBUG_DIR symbol to the name of your desired log file directory, and STLTask will log various status info to a file named "debug.out" in the specified directory.

If you run into a situation where the Proxy CL fails, please let me know so I can fix it. If you understand the problem and can describe the circumstances, that's great...if not, I'd be glad to help figure out the problem and hopefully fix CL for the future; please reduce the project to the minimum possible configuration that results in CL failure, zip it up and email it to me (leor@bdsoft.com). I'll do my best to determine the 
problem and correct it. This program is as reliable as it is now only because folks like you informed me about the problems (and even fixed them for me on many occasions!)

Acknowledgments

Thanks to:

  • Dave Smallberg for the error filtering idea (wish I'd thought of it myself)
  • Scott Meyers for putting on his ESTL seminar - the event that inspired this project.
  • Thomas Becker for writing the win32 interprocess communication code in CL.CPP
  • The folks who took the time to email me with bugs and suggestions, and/or helped with debugging:
  • Thomas Becker
    Wilka
    Sam Saariste
    Scott Lewandowski
    Scott Meyers
    Tom Malcolmson
    Jan Stette
    Dominic Mathieu
    Michael Cook
    Andy Philpotts
    Rob Bishop
    John Hattan
    Derek Price
    Bill Torpey
    John Penney
    Jonathan Sambrook 
    Argos
    Matthew Douglass
    Dave Conrad
    Scott McCaskill
    Paul Suggs
    Karl Lean

History

7 Nov 2002 - updated download.

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

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About the Author

Leor Zolman

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Comments and Discussions

 
Generalwarning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberChristof Schardt3-Nov-02 9:33 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberChristian Graus3-Nov-02 9:45 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberLeor Zolman3-Nov-02 10:45 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberChristian Graus3-Nov-02 11:01 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberLeor Zolman3-Nov-02 10:42 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberChristof Schardt4-Nov-02 12:47 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberShanghaier1-May-04 20:37 
GeneralRe: warning 4786 not eliminated PinmemberShanghaier1-May-04 20:47 
:-Dhi how are you?
Generalproblems with installing the visual tool.. PinmemberBernhard22-Nov-01 23:44 

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