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System File Association

, 16 Mar 2007
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This article describes the use of several custom C# classes that can be used to create, view, edit and delete Windows file associations.

Introduction

Ever wanted to programmatically associate a file type on the system with your application, but didn't like the idea of digging through the registry yourself? If so, then this article and code are right for you.

Background

File associations in Windows have two parts, the extension itself and the ProgID (programmatic identifier). While an extension does not have to be associated with any ProgID, if it is, it can only be associated with a single one. On the other hand, a ProgID can have multiple extensions associated with it.

The attached code includes classes such as:

  • FileAssociationInfo: provides properties to determine (or set) what ProgID the extension is associated with (ProgID), what sort of file the system considers it to be (PerceivedType), the MIME type of the file (ContentType), and what programs will appear in the extensions (OpenWithList).
  • ProgramAssociationInfo: functions similarly to FileAssociationInfo and provides properties to set how the shell should handle the file type (EditFlags), the command verbs and programs the ProgID supports (Verbs), and the file types icon (DefaultIcon).
  • AssociationManager: provides a simplistic method to determine if certain extensions are associated with a given ProgID. It also provides the ability to associate those types or to create a brand new association between already specified extensions and a ProgID.

Examples

Our first step is to create an instance of the FileAssociationInfo class and specify the extension we wish to deal with into the constructor. Next we see if the extension already exists and if it doesn't, we create it with the specified ProgID (MyProgramName), and then set up the optional ContentType and OpenWithList properties.

FileAssociationInfo fai = new FileAssociationInfo(".bob");
    if (!fai.Exists)
      {
         fai.Create("MyProgramName");

         //Specify MIME type (optional)
         fai.ContentType = "application/myfile";

         //Programs automatically displayed in open with list
         fai.OpenWithList = new string[]
        { "notepad.exe", "wordpad.exe", "someotherapp.exe" };
       }

Finally, we create an instance of the ProgramAssociationInfo class and specify the ProgID we wish to deal with in its constructor. Should this ProgID not exist, we create it and specify both a description for the program type (shared between all files using this ProgID) and the command verb that is used in selecting different ways to load the file.

ProgramAssociationInfo pai = new ProgramAssociationInfo(fai.ProgID);
    if (!pai.Exists)
      {
         pai.Create
         (
         //Description of program/file type
         "My Program's File Type",

         new ProgramVerb
              (
              //Verb name
              "Open",
              //Path and arguments to use
              @"C:\SomePath\MyApp.exe %1"
              )
            );

         //optional
         pai.DefaultIcon = new ProgramIcon(@"C:\SomePath\SomeIcon.ico");
       }

Full sample

The link at the top of this article includes a simplistic GUI that demonstrates all the capabilities of the FileAssociationInfo and ProgramAssociationInfo classes.

Word of warning

This code requires administrative access (especially under Vista) when used to create or modify extensions, and on some systems, it also requires elevated permission to read.

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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About the Author

Brendan Grant
Web Developer
United States United States
No Biography provided

Comments and Discussions

 
Questionpdf, txt PinmemberPhilip Stuyck31-Jan-13 8:45 
QuestionHow to replace an existing extension? Pinmemberalexander200531-Dec-12 6:38 
QuestionCan't open multiple files PinmemberFabrizio Stellato2-Dec-12 23:39 
NewsNuGet Package PinmemberRob Vesse2-Nov-12 9:29 
QuestionDoesnt work with Win7 PinmemberHrizip5-Dec-11 2:50 
Doesn't work with windows 7, it creates registry entries in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT correctly but this is not where they should be placed, they must go under HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\EXPLORER\FILEEXTS\-name of your extension-
 
If one manually adds the appropriate entries under the above mentioned key, the association works well, and if one deletes it, its stops working, so I conclude that on my system this is the reg. key that has to be modified.
If I delete one of the other places with relevant entries, it has no effect.
Other locations that I have found (with the relevant entries) are:
 
A) HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\CLASSES\name-of-extension\OPENWITHLIST
B) HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT\-name of extension-
C) HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS\CURRENTVERSION\EXPLORER\FILEEXTS\-name of your extension-
D) HKEY_USERS\random-user-ID\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\WINDOWS
 
ONLY by changing C) the changes have any effect!
Question%1 argument PinmemberBence Sebők7-Jun-11 8:43 
AnswerRe: %1 argument PinmemberDimitris Vassiliades7-Jun-11 10:52 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberMario Majcica19-May-11 11:26 
GeneralGreat article Pinmemberjatinsehgal8618-May-11 2:51 
AnswerProgramIcon bug fix! PinmemberWaldo Bronchart1-Mar-11 2:27 
GeneralRe: ProgramIcon bug fix! Pinmemberikkentim31-Jan-12 10:35 
GeneralSome notes about file extensions on windows PinmemberTheToid12-May-10 13:47 
GeneralGreat post, one comment PinmemberLimitedAtonement3-Feb-10 10:02 
Generalthanks for the code Pinmemberwas830917-Sep-09 18:02 
GeneralAssociations not Working for currently associated files PinmemberPipSharp18-Aug-09 0:36 
GeneralRe: Associations not Working for currently associated files PinmemberLimitedAtonement3-Feb-10 10:03 
GeneralRe: Associations not Working for currently associated files PinmemberTheToid12-May-10 13:51 
QuestionI want to use your code in my app. Can I ? PinmemberIQ719-Jun-09 3:27 
QuestionHow to run this application PinmemberKapilDesai17-May-09 22:42 
QuestionHow to use it for an application PinmemberMichael Egan9-Apr-09 22:46 
Generaldoes not work under VISTA Pinmemberviewon013-Apr-08 10:59 
GeneralFilenames with spaces Pinmemberpucis8324-Feb-08 13:15 
QuestionHow to get icon from ProgramAssociationInfo.DefaultIcon Pinmemberhoanhtuan8-Jan-08 21:34 
AnswerRe: How to get icon from ProgramAssociationInfo.DefaultIcon PinmemberAschratt31-Jan-08 7:51 
GeneralDefaultIcon Bug [modified] PinmemberAschratt1-Dec-07 23:16 

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