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Using encryption in your server and embedded applications

, 24 Feb 2002 68.2K 42
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Explains the encryption algorithm selection process.

Introduction

I have been involved in many projects and product developments in last 12 years. Most of the applications use some form of encryption. Even though it is such important thing to choose right kind of algorithm, in most cases single developer( whoever is responsible for that part of the project) makes all the decisions. The selection of right encryption algorithm is over looked in most of the projects( We may end of selecting the right one, but we won't know WHY ).

Since the computing power has increased so much in last few years, it is vital for many applications to revisit the encryption algorithms. Using this computing power, hackers can easily find the key combination in no time. It is possible to search through all the possible DES keys in less then 24 hrs. Just recently I read an article where they talk about increasing the integration of transistors/PSI by 4-5 times the existing numbers. That means we will have, even more computing power, that means DES keys can broken even faster.

Algorithm Selection Process

Many factors drive the selection of your encryption algorithm.

International laws

Make sure that, the country where this software will be used doesn't have any restrictions.

CPU cycles

In some applications, we don't want the encryption/decryption to take up lot of cycles. Good example would be 'embedded' applications. Such applications will have limited computing power and less memory. Even in the server application, we don't want CPU usage to be above some threshold ( say 75%) for longer period of times. Consider a UDP packet forwarding application which has a steady stream of UDP packets coming on one port, if encryption algorithm takes up lot of CPU cycles, during the peak times, we might see some weird problems. The following table compares the CPU cycles used by some popular encryption algorithms.

Ciper Encrypt Schedule
RC6 105981 78808
Rijndael 9464 0
TwoFish 26500 1750
DES 17458 12320
SHA 67244 478

Memory requirements

This factor is critical for all the embedded applications. Make sure that your encryption algorithm does not need lot of RAM ( and ROM ). If you ever coded for those tiny boxes, you will understand the acuteness of this problem. I remember my old days when I worked for VeriFone developing software for their 390 terminals running QNX. Just to make the stack as small as possible, we ended up having lot global variables ( and of course code looked ugly). And I know of one more company( I do not want to mention the name), just because they can not encrypt the data due to lack of memory, they transmit some sensitive information via plain text. Those are all very typical problems faced my embedded developers.

Cost and Licensing

Most of the algorithms are 'royalty free'. But you have to clearly understand the licensing agreements before you put them to use.

Code compactness

This factor too( like memory requirements) is critical for embedded applications.

Code Samples

For my illustration purposes, I am going to use Rijndael. You can find lot of information about this on internet. I am going to point some valid reasons why I chose Rijndael for this illustration purposes.

  1. It is one of the smallest and fastest cipher.
  2. It can be implemented in 64 bytes of RAM
  3. Rijndael, which would come in three different levels of cryptographic strength, is expected to provide strong security for 20 to 30 years or longer.
  4. Even a machine capable of breaking the old DES standard in a second would take some 149 trillion years to crack the proposed AES's lowest level of security( According to - Mr. Jim Foti, a mathematician)

Okay. It is for some code. Well, there are many implementations which are available with source code. For those considering to use this algorithm in an embedded application running OSs like VxWorks, ThreadX, pSOS, embedded Linux should look into ANSI C implementations.

I am going to use Crypto++ 4.2 implementation in my example code. It is very easy to build this library( I am using VS6 and VS7). There quite a bit of information on this topic online. Let us consider a small example in which UDP server multicasts its system time. All the multicast clients read this time and set their time accordingly. Source can be obtained from my article:

http://www.codeproject.com/useritems/IOCP-MULTICAST-UDP.asp

I am going to modify those server and client applications so that the server encrypt the information using Rijndael and Client decrypts it before displaying that time.

// Add this portion of the code both CPP files 
//Make sure you have your include path points to the 
// crypto++ 4.2 install files 
#include <rijndael.h>

static const BYTE *const key = (BYTE *)"0123456....000000"; //looonggg


//MODIFICATIONS FOR THE SERVER CODE 
//Add this method in your source. Note that, input and 
//output buffer is one and the same 

void EncryptData(SYSTEMTIME& xSysTime) 
{  
    // CryptoPP is the name space used by that 
    //Crypto library. It avoids the name collisions 
    CryptoPP::RijndaelEncryption rTest(key); 
    rTest.ProcessBlock((byte *)&xSysTime); 
} 

//Just before sending the data , call this  function 
//as follows in your server code 

//...

EncryptData(stSysTime); 
/* Send the time to our multicast group! */ 
nRet = sendto(hSocket,(char *)&stSysTime,
              sizeof(stSysTime),0, (struct sockaddr*)&stDstAddr, 
              sizeof(stDstAddr)); 

//...

//MODIFICATIONS FOR THE CLIENT CODE 
//Modify the function  HandleIncomingData as follows. 

BOOL HandleIncomingData( UCHAR* pBuf) 
{ 
    InterlockedIncrement(&nCount); 
             SYSTEMTIME *lpstSysTime; 
                      lpstSysTime = (SYSTEMTIME *)(pBuf); 
                       CryptoPP::RijndaelDecryption rTest(key); 
                       rTest.ProcessBlock((BYTE *)lpstSysTime); 
                       printf(
                           "[%d]UTC Time %02d:%02d:%02d:%03d on %02d-%02d-%d \n",
                           nCount, lpstSysTime->wHour,     
                           lpstSysTime->wMinute, lpstSysTime->wSecond, 
                           lpstSysTime->wMilliseconds, lpstSysTime->wMonth, 
                           lpstSysTime->wDay, lpstSysTime->wYear); 

                       //just making sure that I am not showing stale data 
                       memset(&pBuf,0,BUFSIZE); 
                       return TRUE; 
} 

Conclusion

I did not discuss the key management in this article. Without safeguarding your keys, encryption will be useless. SSL/TLS provides a good starting point for you to to read about key management. It makes use of public-private keys to establish the symmetric key. If you any have any comments or questions you can email me at shapall@hotmail.com

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

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About the Author

shanthu
Web Developer
United States United States
BS in Electrical engineering
MS in Computer science
Working since 12 Years.
Server side architecture/design/development is my favorite work.
-------------------------------------------
All ideas are worthless unless they are implemented.

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Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionApp will not link using Crypto++, MSVC++ 6.0 Pin
zwickerr13-Mar-12 13:41
memberzwickerr13-Mar-12 13:41 
General[SOLVED] Can't compile cryptopp in Visual Studio 2010 Pin
hjkhjghjk18-May-10 9:54
memberhjkhjghjk18-May-10 9:54 
GeneralRe: [SOLVED] Can't compile cryptopp in Visual Studio 2010 Pin
karthikakarthika8-Feb-12 23:38
memberkarthikakarthika8-Feb-12 23:38 
GeneralHELPPPPPPPPPPPPP!!!!!!!!! Pin
Ravindercms21-Aug-07 17:01
memberRavindercms21-Aug-07 17:01 
GeneralHelp IN PGP Pin
ThatsAlok11-Nov-04 2:11
memberThatsAlok11-Nov-04 2:11 
Questioncrypto++ Help?? Pin
xxhimanshu12-Nov-03 20:31
memberxxhimanshu12-Nov-03 20:31 
GeneralWARNING! Improper Usage Pin
Meghani9-Apr-03 3:57
memberMeghani9-Apr-03 3:57 
GeneralCool Pin
Matt Newman25-Feb-02 15:01
memberMatt Newman25-Feb-02 15:01 

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