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A C# Implementation of Douglas-Peucker Line Approximation Algorithm

, 6 Jun 2007 CPOL 67.9K 1.9K 53
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DP Line approximation algorithm is a well-known method to approximate 2D lines. It is quite fast, O(nlog_2(n)) for a n-points line and can drastically compress a data curve. Here, a fully OOP implementation is given.


I have found multiple implementations of the Douglas-Peucker algorithm but not in any .NET language, so I decided to port it over. Jonathan de Halleux has a wonderful explanation here.


I needed to reduce polygons size to display on a map based on zoom levels.

Using the Code

The code included is complete and should run out of the box in Visual Studio 2005.
If it does not, please let me know.

/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// Uses the Douglas Peucker algorithm to reduce the number of points.
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="Points">The points.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="Tolerance">The tolerance.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><returns></returns></span>
public static List<Point> DouglasPeuckerReduction
    (List<Point> Points, Double Tolerance)
    if (Points == null || Points.Count < 3)
    return Points;

    Int32 firstPoint = 0;
    Int32 lastPoint = Points.Count - 1;
    List<Int32> pointIndexsToKeep = new List<Int32>();

    //Add the first and last index to the keepers

    //The first and the last point cannot be the same
    while (Points[firstPoint].Equals(Points[lastPoint]))

    DouglasPeuckerReduction(Points, firstPoint, lastPoint, 
    Tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);

    List<Point> returnPoints = new List<Point>();
    foreach (Int32 index in pointIndexsToKeep)

    return returnPoints;
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// Douglases the peucker reduction.
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="points">The points.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="firstPoint">The first point.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="lastPoint">The last point.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="tolerance">The tolerance.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="pointIndexsToKeep">The point index to keep.</param></span>
private static void DouglasPeuckerReduction(List<Point> 
    points, Int32 firstPoint, Int32 lastPoint, Double tolerance, 
    ref List<Int32> pointIndexsToKeep)
    Double maxDistance = 0;
    Int32 indexFarthest = 0;
    for (Int32 index = firstPoint; index < lastPoint; index++)
        Double distance = PerpendicularDistance
            (points[firstPoint], points[lastPoint], points[index]);
        if (distance > maxDistance)
            maxDistance = distance;
            indexFarthest = index;

    if (maxDistance > tolerance && indexFarthest != 0)
        //Add the largest point that exceeds the tolerance
        DouglasPeuckerReduction(points, firstPoint, 
        indexFarthest, tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);
        DouglasPeuckerReduction(points, indexFarthest, 
        lastPoint, tolerance, ref pointIndexsToKeep);

/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><summary></span>
/// The distance of a point from a line made from point1 and point2.
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"></summary></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="pt1">The PT1.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="pt2">The PT2.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><param name="p">The p.</param></span>
/// <span class="code-SummaryComment"><returns></returns></span>
public static Double PerpendicularDistance
    (Point Point1, Point Point2, Point Point)
    //Area = |(1/2)(x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y1 - x2y1 - x3y2 - x1y3)|   *Area of triangle
    //Base = v((x1-x2)²+(x1-x2)²)                               *Base of Triangle*
    //Area = .5*Base*H                                          *Solve for height
    //Height = Area/.5/Base

    Double area = Math.Abs(.5 * (Point1.X * Point2.Y + Point2.X * 
    Point.Y + Point.X * Point1.Y - Point2.X * Point1.Y - Point.X * 
    Point2.Y - Point1.X * Point.Y));
    Double bottom = Math.Sqrt(Math.Pow(Point1.X - Point2.X, 2) + 
    Math.Pow(Point1.Y - Point2.Y, 2));
    Double height = area / bottom * 2;

    return height;
    //Another option
    //Double A = Point.X - Point1.X;
    //Double B = Point.Y - Point1.Y;
    //Double C = Point2.X - Point1.X;
    //Double D = Point2.Y - Point1.Y;
    //Double dot = A * C + B * D;
    //Double len_sq = C * C + D * D;
    //Double param = dot / len_sq;
    //Double xx, yy;
    //if (param < 0)
    //    xx = Point1.X;
    //    yy = Point1.Y;
    //else if (param > 1)
    //    xx = Point2.X;
    //    yy = Point2.Y;
    //    xx = Point1.X + param * C;
    //    yy = Point1.Y + param * D;
    //Double d = DistanceBetweenOn2DPlane(Point, new Point(xx, yy));

Points of Interest

The code is not overly complicated. It was fun to port this algorithm, since all I feel I do now a days is hold business' hands to help them try and solve business problems that there is no consensus on.


  • Beta 1


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


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Comments and Discussions

GeneralUseful Pin
Dineshkumar_MCA22-Apr-15 1:18
professionalDineshkumar_MCA22-Apr-15 1:18 
QuestionBUG tolerance Pin
Member 1017584518-Feb-15 1:08
memberMember 1017584518-Feb-15 1:08 
QuestionThanks + pruned code Pin
Stoyan Haralampiev23-Oct-14 2:30
memberStoyan Haralampiev23-Oct-14 2:30 
QuestionUsing this algorithm on data from database Pin
Saket Surya2-Jun-14 2:38
memberSaket Surya2-Jun-14 2:38 
QuestionPoint projected on the line but behind the segment? Bug? Pin
Sergiy Tkachuk25-Mar-14 13:31
memberSergiy Tkachuk25-Mar-14 13:31 
QuestionAbout Tolerance Pin
kamlesh Prajapati8-Jan-14 22:55
groupkamlesh Prajapati8-Jan-14 22:55 
QuestionWhy do you create your own Point? Pin
leiyangge3-Jan-14 21:37
memberleiyangge3-Jan-14 21:37 
QuestionLicense Pin
Diego Catalano14-Dec-13 1:42
memberDiego Catalano14-Dec-13 1:42 
Question1 bug, + 1 potential bug Pin
gyuri1023-Apr-12 22:45
membergyuri1023-Apr-12 22:45 
AnswerRe: 1 bug, + 1 potential bug Pin
tplokas26-Mar-13 13:46
membertplokas26-Mar-13 13:46 
I think you are mistaken on both counts.

1) The loop was eliminating identical points. The fact that your modification adds them into the list of indexes to keep is working against the very purpose of reducing the number of points. Nothing is lost because the original value of lastIndex was already added to the list of indexes to keep, before this loop.

2) I don't see where System.Drawing.Point is being used at all. This code is using a custom class named Point whose X and Y are of type Double.
QuestionUseful,Thanks! Pin
masy19112-Mar-12 22:43
membermasy19112-Mar-12 22:43 
QuestionGreat Job! Pin
cdrake19-Dec-11 7:32
membercdrake19-Dec-11 7:32 
Generalhow calculate an epsilon value Pin
unravel-the-sky23-May-11 5:52
memberunravel-the-sky23-May-11 5:52 
GeneralSome Issues with your implementation Pin
matthew minke15-Jul-10 10:57
membermatthew minke15-Jul-10 10:57 
GeneralVery useful thanks - Point number reduction (Max Distance relevant tolerance) [modified] Pin
kamyk3-Mar-10 22:05
memberkamyk3-Mar-10 22:05 
GeneralVery useful thanks Pin
dylanhayes17-Nov-09 1:35
memberdylanhayes17-Nov-09 1:35 
GeneralThanks! Pin
Member 337866727-Mar-09 9:28
memberMember 337866727-Mar-09 9:28 
QuestionAnd other functions from Plot Graphic Library? Pin
agorby28-Apr-08 2:28
memberagorby28-Apr-08 2:28 
Generalperpendicular Pin
Alex Bespalov22-Dec-07 20:23
memberAlex Bespalov22-Dec-07 20:23 
Generalperpendicular Pin
Alex Bespalov22-Dec-07 20:21
memberAlex Bespalov22-Dec-07 20:21 
GeneralDo you know offhand if the result of this algorithm is the same/different.... Pin
sherifffruitfly6-Jun-07 11:28
membersherifffruitfly6-Jun-07 11:28 
GeneralRe: Do you know offhand if the result of this algorithm is the same/different.... Pin
CraigSelbert6-Jun-07 15:27
memberCraigSelbert6-Jun-07 15:27 
GeneralCode question Pin
DocJim4-Jun-07 8:46
memberDocJim4-Jun-07 8:46 
GeneralRe: Code question Pin
CraigSelbert6-Jun-07 8:30
memberCraigSelbert6-Jun-07 8:30 
GeneralNeat...Yeah...New algorithm Pin
jconwell25-May-07 4:50
memberjconwell25-May-07 4:50 
GeneralRe: Neat...Yeah...New algorithm Pin
CraigSelbert25-May-07 15:40
memberCraigSelbert25-May-07 15:40 
GeneralTake a look here Pin
D_Guidi25-May-07 3:32
memberD_Guidi25-May-07 3:32 
GeneralRe: Take a look here Pin
CraigSelbert25-May-07 15:49
memberCraigSelbert25-May-07 15:49 

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