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Simple Ray Tracing in C# Part II (Triangles Intersection)

, 9 Apr 2013
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Ray tracing and mapping in spheres

Screenshot - raytracingXIIIa.png
Cube (8 vertices, 12 triangles)

Screenshot - raytracingXIVa.png
Ambient, diffuse and specular lights

Introduction

Previously, we have seen ray tracing and mapping in spheres. Now, I am extending the algorithm to perform ray x triangles intersection calculation. This first approach is very basic, where the face normals are not interpolated and there is no texture mapping which will be shown in next articles.

Background

The ray tracing technique consists in calculating each ray (rn) from the observer to the projection plane (screen) and from the light to the nearest intersection (if found) of rn to the objects within the viewer. After finding the intersection point, the ray can be reflected and/or refracted by the object depending on its material, generating another path to be computated.

Assuming the projection plane as the screen we have a rectangular area in integer bounding coordinates (x0, y0,x1,y1). A point (x,y) inside this area must be mapped to a real virtual screen with global bounding coordinates in floating point (rx0,rx1,ry0,ry1) obtaining (rx, ry) the point which will be used to define the ray in R3 assuming the screen iz Z=0 we have (rx, ry, 0).

The Mapping Function

public static double GetCoord(double i1, double i2, double w1, double w2, 
    double p)
{
    return ((p - i1) / (i2 - i1)) * (w2 - w1) + w1;
}

Since now we have two R3 points (Eye position and Screen pixel represented in virtual coordinates) we can obtain the ray representation:

3D lines equations can be represented in the form:

  • x = px + t*vx
  • y = py + t*vy
  • z = pz + t*vz

Where (px,py,pz) are all the points lying in the 3D line, t is a scalar parameter, and (vx,vy,vz) is a direction vector. The above equation can be obtained by the definition where a line can be defined by 2 points, so given P1(x1,y1,z1) and P2(x2,y2,z2) we have:

  • v = (x2-x1,y2-y1,z2-z1)

Replacing the found v and p, we have:

  • x = x1 + t*(x2-x1)
  • y = y1 + t*(y2-y1)
  • z = z1 + t*(z2-z1)

So we can be sure that all (x,y,z) which satisfies the above equation belongs to the line defined by P1P2.

Line x Sphere Intersection

Spheres can be represented in the form:

  • r2 = (x-cx)2+(y-cy)2+(z-cz)2

...where:

  • r is the sphere radius
  • (cx,cy,cz) is the center of the sphere

So we can be sure that all x,y,x points lies on the sphere surface. Our objective now is to determine the intersection equation between a given line and a sphere it must be a set of (x,y,z) points which satisfies both equations. It is simple to imagine that a line intersecting a sphere can result 0 intersections, 1 intersection (if tangent) or at most 2 intersections.

The Equations

  • r2 = (x-cx)2+(y-cy)2+(z-cz)2
  • x = x1 + t*(x2-x1)
  • y = y1 + t*(y2-y1)
  • z = z1 + t*(z2-z1)

Replacing x, y and z, we have:

  • r2 = (x1 + t*(x2-x1)-cx)2 + (y1 + t*(y2-y1) -cy)2 + (z1+ t*(z2-z1)-cz)2

Let's create a variable for the vector:

  • vx = x2 - x1
  • vy = y2 - y1
  • vz = z2 - z1

So now we have:

  • r2 = (x1-cx+t*vx)2 + (y1-cy+t*vy)2 + (z1-cz+t*vz)2
  • (x1-cx+t*vx)2 + (y1-cy+t*vy)2 + (z1-cz+t*vz)2 - r2 = 0

Let's replace (x1,y1,z1) with (px,py,pz) just to simplify... Now we have a perfect 2nd degree equation which can give us 0, 1 or 2 different solutions for 't' :

double A = (vx * vx + vy * vy + vz * vz);
double B = 2.0 * (px * vx + py * vy + pz * vz - vx * cx - vy * cy - vz * cz);
double C = px * px - 2 * px * cx + cx * cx + py * py - 2 * py * cy + cy * cy +
           pz * pz - 2 * pz * cz    + cz * cz - radius * radius;
double D = B * B - 4 * A * C;
double t = -1.0;
if (D >= 0)
{
    double t1 = (-B - System.Math.Sqrt(D)) / (2.0 * A);
    double t2 = (-B + System.Math.Sqrt(D)) / (2.0 * A);
    if (t1 > t2) 
         t = t1; 
    else 
         t = t2;  // we choose the nearest t from the first point
}

Line x Triangle Intersection

Plane Equation

  • N dot (P - P3) = 0 (Eq1)

Where Line (P1-P2) Equation:

  • P and P3 are on the plane
  • N is the plane Normal vector
  • P = P1 + v (P2 - P1) (Eq2)

So the intersection is given by:

  • Eq1 = Eq2 or
  • N dot (P1 + v (P2 - P1)) = N dot P3

Now the intersection between line and plane is found, so we need to verify if the given intersection lies inside the triangle:

public bool InternalSide(double p1x, double p1y, double p1z,
                         double p2x, double p2y, double p2z,
                         double ax, double ay, double az,
                         double bx, double by, double bz)
{
    double cp1x = 0, cp1y = 0, cp1z = 0, cp2x = 0, cp2y = 0, 
        cp2z = 0;
    tAlgebra.Cross3(bx - ax, by - ay, bz - az, p1x - ax, 
        p1y - ay, p1z - az, ref cp1x, 
        ref cp1y, ref cp1z);
    tAlgebra.Cross3(bx - ax, by - ay, bz - az, p2x - ax, p2y - ay, 
        p2z - az, ref cp2x, ref cp2y, ref cp2z);

    if (tAlgebra.Dot3(cp1x, cp1y, cp1z, cp2x, cp2y, cp2z) >= 0)
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}

public bool PointInTriangle(double px, double py, double pz)
{
    if (InternalSide(px, py, pz, 
        tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, 
        tp2x, tp2y, tp2z, 
        tp3x, tp3y, tp3z) &&
    InternalSide(px, py, pz, 
        tp2x, tp2y, tp2z, 
        tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, 
        tp3x, tp3y, tp3z) &&
    InternalSide(px, py, pz, 
        tp3x, tp3y, tp3z, 
        tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, 
        tp2x, tp2y, tp2z))
        return true;
    else
        return false;
}

The Code

Cube.obj file

  • v = vertex
  • f = face
#
# cube.obj
#
  
v -1.000000 -1.000000  1.000000
v -1.000000  1.000000  1.000000
v  1.000000  1.000000  1.000000
v  1.000000 -1.000000  1.000000
v -1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
v -1.000000  1.000000 -1.000000
v  1.000000  1.000000 -1.000000
v  1.000000 -1.000000 -1.000000
 
f 5 8 7
f 7 6 5
f 1 4 3
f 3 2 1
f 5 1 2
f 2 6 5
f 8 4 3
f 3 7 8
f 8 4 1
f 1 5 8
f 7 3 2
f 2 6 7

Algebra Class

public class tAlgebra
{
    public tAlgebra()
    {
    }

    //i' = i - (2 * n * dot(i, n))
    public static void Reflect(double ix, double iy, double iz, 
        double nx, double ny, double nz,
        ref double iix, ref double iiy, ref double iiz)
    {
        iix = ix - (2.0 * nx * Dot3(nx, ny, nz, ix, iy, iz));
        iiy = iy - (2.0 * ny * Dot3(nx, ny, nz, ix, iy, iz));
        iiz = iz - (2.0 * nz * Dot3(nx, ny, nz, ix, iy, iz));
        Normalize(ref iix, ref iiy, ref iiz);
    }
    public static void Cross3(double ux, double uy, double uz, 
        double wx, 
        double wy, double wz,
        ref double vx, ref double vy, 
        ref double vz)
    {
        // u x w
        vx = wz * uy - wy * uz;
        vy = wx * uz - wz * ux;
        vz = wy * ux - wx * uy;
    }
    public static double Dot3(double x1, double y1, double z1, 
        double x2, double y2, double z2)
    {
        return (x1 * x2) + (y1 * y2) + (z1 * z2);
    }
    public static double GetCosAngleV1V2(double v1x, double v1y, 
        double v1z, double v2x, double v2y, double v2z)
    {
        /* incident angle
        // inters pt (i)
        double ix, iy, iz;
        ix = px+t*vx;
        iy = py+t*vy;
        iz = pz+t*vz;

        // normal at i
        double nx, ny, nz;
        nx = ix - cx;
        ny = iy - cy;
        nz = iz - cz;
        */
        double x, y, z;
        x = v1x; y = v1y; z = v1z;
        Normalize(ref x, ref y, ref z);
        v1x = x; v1y = y; v1z = z;

        x = v2x; y = v2y; z = v2z;
        Normalize(ref x, ref y, ref z);
        v2x = x; v2y = y; v2z = z;

        // cos(t) = (v.w) / (|v|.|w|)
        double n = (v1x * v2x + v1y * v2y + v1z * v2z) ;
        double d = (modv(v1x, v1y, v1z) * modv(v2x, v2y, v2z));

        if(Math.Abs(d)<1.0E-10) return 0;
        return n/d ;
    }
    public static double modv(double vx, double vy, double vz)
    {
        return System.Math.Sqrt(vx * vx + vy * vy + vz * vz);
    }
    public static double GetCoord(double i1, double i2, double w1, 
        double w2, double p)
    {
        return ((p - i1) / (i2 - i1)) * (w2 - w1) + w1;
    }

    public static void Normalize(ref double vx, ref double vy, 
        ref double vz)
    {
        double mod_v = tAlgebra.modv(vx, vy, vz);
        if (Math.Abs(mod_v) < 1.0E-10) return;
        vx = vx / mod_v;
        vy = vy / mod_v;
        vz = vz / mod_v;
    }
}

Object Classes

public class tObject
{
    public tObject()
    {
    }
    public double ambientR, ambientG, ambientB;
    public double diffuseR, diffuseG, diffuseB;
    public double specularR, specularG, specularB;
    public double shininess;
}
    public class tTriangle : tObject
    {
        public tTriangle()
        {
        }

        public void Init()
        {
            getNormal(ref tnormalX, ref tnormalY, ref tnormalZ);
        }
        public bool SameSide(double p1x, double p1y, double p1z,
            double p2x, double p2y, double p2z,
            double ax, double ay, double az,
            double bx, double by, double bz)
        {
            double cp1x = 0, cp1y = 0, cp1z = 0, cp2x = 0, cp2y = 0, 
                cp2z = 0;
            tAlgebra.Cross3(bx - ax, by - ay, bz - az, p1x - ax, 
                p1y - ay, p1z - az, ref cp1x, ref cp1y, ref cp1z);
            tAlgebra.Cross3(bx - ax, by - ay, bz - az, p2x - ax, 
                p2y - ay, p2z - az, ref cp2x, ref cp2y, ref cp2z);
            if (tAlgebra.Dot3(cp1x, cp1y, cp1z, cp2x, cp2y, cp2z) >= 0)
                return true;
            else
                return false;
        }
        public bool PointInTriangle(double px, double py, double pz)
        {
            if (SameSide(px, py, pz, tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, 
                tp2x, tp2y, tp2z, tp3x, tp3y, tp3z) &&
            SameSide(px, py, pz, tp2x, tp2y, tp2z, 
                tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, tp3x, tp3y, tp3z) &&
            SameSide(px, py, pz, tp3x, tp3y, tp3z, 
                tp1x, tp1y, tp1z, tp2x, tp2y, tp2z))
                return true;
            else
                return false;
        }

        // ray p1, ray p2
        public double GetInterSect(double p1x, double p1y, double p1z, 
            double p2x, double p2y, double p2z)
        {
            double v1x = tp3x - p1x; double v1y = tp3y - p1y; 
            double v1z = tp3z - p1z;
            double v2x = p2x - p1x;  double v2y = p2y - p1y;  
            double v2z = p2z - p1z;
            double dot1 = tAlgebra.Dot3(tnormalX, tnormalY, tnormalZ, 
                v1x, v1y, v1z);
            double dot2 = tAlgebra.Dot3(tnormalX, tnormalY, tnormalZ, 
                v2x, v2y, v2z);
            if (Math.Abs(dot2) < 1.0E-6) 
                return -1; // division by 0 means parallel
            double u = dot1 / dot2;
            // point in triangle?
            if(!PointInTriangle(p1x+u*(p2x-p1x), 
                p1y+u*(p2y-p1y), p1z+u*(p2z-p1z)))
                return -1;
            return u;
        }
        public void getNormal(ref double vx, ref double vy, ref double vz)
        {
            double ux = tp3x - tp1x, uy = tp3y - tp1y, uz = tp3z - tp1z;
            double wx = tp2x - tp1x, wy = tp2y - tp1y, wz = tp2z - tp1z;

            // u x w
            vx = wz * uy - wy * uz;
            vy = wx * uz - wz * ux;
            vz = wy * ux - wx * uy;
        }


        public double tp1x, tp1y, tp1z;
        public double tp2x, tp2y, tp2z;
        public double tp3x, tp3y, tp3z;
        public double tnormalX, tnormalY, tnormalZ;
    }

The Program

int scz = 200;

System.IO.FileStream file = new System.IO.FileStream(
    Server.MapPath("./data/cube.obj"), 
    System.IO.FileMode.Open, 
    System.IO.FileAccess.Read);
System.IO.StreamReader reader = new System.IO.StreamReader(file);
string filebody = reader.ReadToEnd();
file.Close();

string[] lines = filebody.Split('\n');
ArrayList pointArrayX = new ArrayList();
ArrayList pointArrayY = new ArrayList();
ArrayList pointArrayZ = new ArrayList();

System.Collections.ArrayList obj3dArrayList;
obj3dArrayList = new System.Collections.ArrayList();

double rx = 0.5000;
double ry = 0.5000;
double rz = 0.0000;

foreach (string line in lines)
{
    if (line.Length < 1) continue;
    string auxline = line;
    if (auxline.IndexOf("mtllib") >= 0)
    {
        auxline = auxline.Replace("mtllib", "");
        GetMaterial(auxline);
    }
    else
        if (auxline[0] == 'v')
        {
            auxline = auxline.Replace("v ", "");
            string[] points = auxline.Split(' ');
            double x = double.Parse(points[0]);
            double y = double.Parse(points[1]);
            double z = double.Parse(points[2]);
            pointArrayX.Add(x);
            pointArrayY.Add(y);
            pointArrayZ.Add(z);
        }
        else
            if (auxline[0] == 'f')
            {
                auxline = auxline.Replace("f ", "");
                string[] vertices = auxline.Split(' ');
                int a = int.Parse(vertices[0])-1;
                int b = int.Parse(vertices[1])-1;
                int c = int.Parse(vertices[2])-1;

                tTriangle tri1 = new tTriangle();
                tri1.tp1x = (double) pointArrayX[a]; 
                tri1.tp1y = (double) pointArrayY[a]; 
                tri1.tp1z = (double) pointArrayZ[a];

                tri1.tp2x = (double) pointArrayX; 
                tri1.tp2y = (double) pointArrayY; 
                tri1.tp2z = (double) pointArrayZ;
                tri1.tp3x = (double) pointArrayX[c]; 
                tri1.tp3y = (double) pointArrayY[c]; 
                tri1.tp3z = (double) pointArrayZ[c];

                Algebra.RotX(rx, ref tri1.tp1y, ref tri1.tp1z);
                Algebra.RotX(rx, ref tri1.tp2y, ref tri1.tp2z);
                Algebra.RotX(rx, ref tri1.tp3y, ref tri1.tp3z);
                Algebra.RotY(ry, ref tri1.tp1x, ref tri1.tp1z);
                Algebra.RotY(ry, ref tri1.tp2x, ref tri1.tp2z);
                Algebra.RotY(ry, ref tri1.tp3x, ref tri1.tp3z);
                Algebra.RotZ(rz, ref tri1.tp1x, ref tri1.tp1y);
                Algebra.RotZ(rz, ref tri1.tp2x, ref tri1.tp2y);
                Algebra.RotZ(rz, ref tri1.tp3x, ref tri1.tp3y);

                // ambient properties for the material   
                tri1.ambientR = 0.3;
                tri1.ambientG = 0.4;
                tri1.ambientB = 0.5;
                // specular properties for the material   
                tri1.specularR = 0.911;
                tri1.specularG = 0.911;
                tri1.specularB = 0.911;
                tri1.shininess = 10.6;
                tri1.diffuseR = 0.3775;
                tri1.diffuseG = 0.3775;
                tri1.diffuseB = 0.5775;
                obj3dArrayList.Add(tri1);
                tri1.Init();
            }
}

Bitmap newBitmap = new Bitmap(scz, scz, 
                              PixelFormat.Format32bppArgb);
Graphics g = Graphics.FromImage(newBitmap);

Color clrBackground = Color.Black;

Rectangle rect = new Rectangle(0, 0, scz, scz);
g.FillRectangle(new SolidBrush(clrBackground), 
                rect);

Graphics graphics = g;

double px = 0.0;
double py = 0.0;
double pz = 600.0;

double lpx = 1.5;
double lpy = 1.7;
double lpz = 500.0;

double lp2x = lpx;
double lp2y = lpy;
double lp2z = lpz-0.1;

double lvx = lp2x - lpx;
double lvy = lp2y - lpy;
double lvz = lp2z - lpz;

tAlgebra.Normalize(ref lvx, ref lvy, ref lvz);

// virtual mapping size
double fMax = 2.5;

for (int i = rect.Left; i <= rect.Right; i++)
{
    double x = tAlgebra.GetCoord(rect.Left, 
        rect.Right, -fMax, fMax, i);

    for (int j = rect.Top; j <= rect.Bottom; j++)
    {
        double y = tAlgebra.GetCoord(rect.Top, 
            rect.Bottom, fMax, -fMax, j);

        double t = 1.0E10;

        double vx = x - px, vy = y - py, vz = -pz;

        double mod_v = tAlgebra.modv(vx, vy, vz);
        vx = vx / mod_v;
        vy = vy / mod_v;
        vz = vz / mod_v;

        bool bShadow = false;

        tTriangle triangleHit = null;

        for (int k = 0; k < (int)obj3dArrayList.Count; k++)
        {
            tTriangle triN = (tTriangle)obj3dArrayList[k];
            double taux = triN.GetInterSect(px, py, pz, x, y, 0.0);
            if (taux < 0) continue;

            if (taux > 0 && taux < t)
            {
                t = taux;
                triangleHit = triN;
            }
        }

        Color color = Color.FromArgb(10, 20, 10);

        if (triangleHit != null)
        {
            double intersx = px + t * vx, 
                intersy = py + t * vy, intersz = pz + t * vz;
            double l2px = intersx - lpx, 
                l2py = intersy - lpy, l2pz = intersz - lpz;
            tAlgebra.Normalize(ref l2px, ref l2py, ref l2pz);

            double vNormalX = triangleHit.tnormalX, 
                vNormalY = triangleHit.tnormalY, 
                vNormalZ = triangleHit.tnormalZ;
            tAlgebra.Normalize(ref vNormalX, ref vNormalY, 
                ref vNormalZ);

            double cost = tAlgebra.GetCosAngleV1V2(l2px, l2py, l2pz, 
                vNormalX, vNormalY, vNormalZ);
            if (cost < 0) cost = 0;

            double vReflX = 0, vReflY = 0, vReflZ = 0;
            double vEye2IntersX = intersx - px, 
                vEye2IntersY = intersy - py, 
                vEye2IntersZ = intersz - pz;
            tAlgebra.Reflect(l2px, l2py, l2pz, vNormalX, vNormalY, 
                vNormalZ, ref vReflX, ref vReflY, ref vReflZ);

            tAlgebra.Normalize(ref vReflX, ref  vReflY, ref vReflZ);
            tAlgebra.Normalize(ref vEye2IntersX, ref vEye2IntersY, 
                ref vEye2IntersZ);
            double cosf = tAlgebra.GetCosAngleV1V2(vReflX, vReflY, 
                vReflZ, vEye2IntersX, vEye2IntersY, 
                vEye2IntersZ);

            if (cosf < 0) 
                cosf = 0;

            double result1 = cost * 255.0;
            double result2 = Math.Pow(cosf, triangleHit.shininess) *
                255.0;

            double rgbR = (triangleHit.ambientR * 255.0) + 
                (triangleHit.diffuseR * result1) +
                (triangleHit.specularR * result2);
            double rgbG = (triangleHit.ambientG * 255.0) + 
                (triangleHit.diffuseG * result1) +
                (triangleHit.specularG * result2);
            double rgbB = (triangleHit.ambientB * 255.0) + 
                (triangleHit.diffuseB * result1) +
                (triangleHit.specularB * result2);

            rgbR = Math.Min(rgbR, 255);
            rgbG = Math.Min(rgbG, 255);
            rgbB = Math.Min(rgbB, 255);
            rgbR = Math.Max(rgbR, 0);
            rgbG = Math.Max(rgbG, 0);
            rgbB = Math.Max(rgbB, 0);

            color = Color.FromArgb((int)rgbR, (int)rgbG, (int)rgbB);
        }

        Brush brs = new SolidBrush(color);
        graphics.FillRectangle(brs, i, j, 1, 1);
        brs.Dispose();

    }// for pixels lines
}// for pixels columns
///////////////////////////////////////

MemoryStream tempStream = new MemoryStream();
newBitmap.Save(tempStream, ImageFormat.Png);
Response.ClearContent();
Response.ContentType = "image/png";
Response.BinaryWrite(tempStream.ToArray());
Response.Flush();

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The GNU General Public License (GPLv3)

About the Author

andalmeida
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Comments and Discussions

 
Questiongood Pinmembershiftwik11-Jun-14 19:03 
QuestionLinks to other parts PinmemberPawel Gielmuda9-Apr-13 2:22 
QuestionLatest source code and library Pinmemberandalmeida6-Jan-12 5:14 
GeneralMy vote of 4 PinmemberAbinash Bishoyi28-Jul-11 0:06 
QuestionBlack region Pinmemberelafali26-Jul-11 0:08 
AnswerRe: Black region Pinmemberandalmeida26-Jul-11 2:03 
AnswerRe: Black region Pinmemberandalmeida26-Jul-11 10:05 
GeneralRe: Black region Pinmemberelafali28-Jul-11 7:46 
GeneralRe: Black region Pinmemberandalmeida28-Jul-11 21:25 
GeneralRe: Black region Pinmemberelafali29-Jul-11 2:07 
Thanks for your attention and interesting with my problem
your talk is right, but..
I can't send the result image of my data, so please, if you can, if apply the following changes, you will see the problem clearly:
When I change the initial value of color in GetMapColor function from:
rtPoint color = new rtPoint(0, 0, 0);
To:
rtPoint color = new rtPoint(255, 0, 0); //to change the color of black regions
And change the following parameters in default file:
VirtualSize=8.0
Eye=0,0,18
Rotation=0.3,2.9,1
Light=19.0,19.0,5.5
Object=Cube,cube.obj,beach.bmp,WhiteDull,3,-2.3,-4,-4,false
Of course after delete the spheres objects from default file
and the cube.obj as I sent before

I don't know why the red regions is appear in triangles, and how can I remove it. Please if you have any idea to fix this problem?!!your answer will help me a lot Thank you very much.
GeneralRe: Black region Pinmemberelafali9-Aug-11 15:58 
GeneralRe: Black region Pinmemberandalmeida9-Aug-11 21:19 
RantIt is simple to imagine that a line intersecting a sphere can result 0 intersections, 1 intersection (if tangent) or at most 2 intersections PinmemberBooGhost10-Feb-10 5:15 
GeneralRe: It is simple to imagine that a line intersecting a sphere can result 0 intersections, 1 intersection (if tangent) or at most 2 intersections Pinmemberandalmeida10-Feb-10 5:20 
Questionhow to compile this code using Visual C# express PinmemberRoozbeh Rock24-Sep-09 5:51 
QuestionHow to generate images as your sample? PinmemberPDU Cuong10-Mar-09 19:00 
GeneralOne Question Pinmemberpipocadr10-Aug-07 2:42 
GeneralRe: One Question Pinmemberandalmeida10-Aug-07 2:51 
GeneralRe: One Question..are you interested in some software developments? PinmemberNevi6-Feb-08 3:56 
GeneralGreat series, but.... PinstaffChristian Graus3-Aug-07 13:17 
GeneralRe: Great series, but.... [modified] Pinmemberandalmeida4-Aug-07 11:18 
GeneralRe: Great series, but.... Pinmemberandalmeida5-Aug-07 14:45 
GeneralRe: Great series, but.... PinmemberSander van Driel6-Aug-07 13:48 
GeneralRe: Great series, but.... PinmemberLukasz Swiatkowski8-Aug-07 11:10 
GeneralRe: Great series, but.... PinmemberSander van Driel10-Aug-07 6:31 

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