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Windows Services Can Install Themselves

, 22 Nov 2007 CPOL 145.1K 194
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Never use the InstallUtil.exe utility that ships with the .NET SDK again.

Introduction

Using the InstallUtil.exe utility that ships with the .NET SDK can be a real pain. It's rarely in the PATH so you probably have to hunt down the utility when you are working on QA and production servers as I do. Installing a Windows Service should be easier. In this short article, I'll show you a way to make your Windows Services install themselves without needing InstallUtil.exe at all.

Assumptions

Let's assume that your service project has a service installer, a service process installer and a class derived from System.Configuration.Install.Installer already. If not, check out Mahmoud Nasr's excellent article on Windows Service development, then come back here.

Key Information

Thanks to Reflector for .NET by Lutz Roeder, it's easy to discover how the InstallUtil.exe utility does its job. After some setup, the InstallUtil.exe tool jumps to a method called InstallHelper in the ManagedInstallerClass in the System.Configuration.Install namespace. And what's really interesting is that the command line arguments passed to InstallUtil.exe as an array of strings are then passed directly to this helper method.

Well, this made me think, "If all InstallUtil.exe does is call the ManagedInstallerClass' InstallHelper method, why can't my service executable do the same thing to install itself on command?" The little class below makes it simple to do just that.

Using the Code

Create a new CS file in your service executable project containing the following code. You may also need to add a reference to the System.Configuration.Install.dll from the Global Assembly Cache if you don't already have one.

using System.Reflection;
using System.Configuration.Install;

namespace gotnet.biz.Utilities.WindowsServices
{
    public static class SelfInstaller
    {
        private static readonly string _exePath =
            Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly().Location;
        public static bool InstallMe()
        {
            try
            {
                ManagedInstallerClass.InstallHelper(
                    new string[] { _exePath } );
            }
            catch
            {
                return false;
            }
            return true;
        }

        public static bool UninstallMe()
        {
            try
            {
                ManagedInstallerClass.InstallHelper(
                    new string[] { "/u", _exePath } );
            }
            catch
            {
                return false;
            }
            return true;
        }
    }
}

Now you need to come up with some sort of convention for knowing when to invoke the installer. Below is just an example of how you might handle this in your Main() method, the entry point to your service. I like the convention of using -i or -install parameters to install the service and -u or -uninstall to uninstall it. I also like to use -c or -console to mean starting the application in a console rather than as a service. However, that's a topic for a different article.

using gotnet.biz.Utilities.WindowsServices;

namespace MyService.WinHost
{
    static class Program
    {
        public static void Main( string[] args )
        {
            if (args != null && args.Length == 1 && args[0].Length > 1
                && (args[0][0] == '-' || args[0][0] == '/'))
            {
                switch (args[0].Substring( 1 ).ToLower())
                {
                    default:
                        break;
                    case "install":
                    case "i":
                        SelfInstaller.InstallMe();
                        break;
                    case "uninstall":
                    case "u":
                        SelfInstaller.UninstallMe();
                        break;
                    case "console":
                    case "c":
                        MyConsoleHost.Launch();
                        break;
                }
            }
            else
                MyWinServiceHost.Launch();
        }
    }
}

Now, assuming my executable is named MyWinSvcHost.exe, I can invoke the installer by running:

C:\> MyWinSvcHost.exe -install

Or to uninstall my service, I would use this:

C:\> MyWinSvcHost.exe -uninstall

Other Ideas

This little bit of code called the SelfInstaller is full of possibilities. You could pass parameters to the InstallMe method to pass on to the ServiceProcessInstaller in your program, for example. Perhaps the domain name, user name and password used to start your service could be passed all the way from your Main() method to the ServiceProcessInstaller. Cool, right? I thought you would like that.

History

  • 22 Nov, 2007 - Initial publication

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

W. Kevin Hazzard
Web Developer
United States United States
After 16 years as an ardent C++ aficionado, Kevin switched to C# in 2001. Recently, Kevin's been dabbling in dynamically typed languages. Kevin is the Software Architect for Snagajob.com, the #1 source for hourly and part-time employment on the web.

Kevin loves welding, riding motorcycles and spending time with his family. Kevin has also been an adjunct professor teaching software engineering topics at a college in his hometown of Richmond, Virginia since 2000. Check out Kevin's technical blog at www.gotnet.biz for more goodies.

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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralRe: Service Template Pin
Steven D. Foster15-Oct-10 5:05
memberSteven D. Foster15-Oct-10 5:05 
GeneralNice but Pin
Giorgi Dalakishvili6-Mar-10 10:18
mentorGiorgi Dalakishvili6-Mar-10 10:18 
Questionhow do i get the service name from another exe Pin
jbencic19-Dec-09 15:56
memberjbencic19-Dec-09 15:56 
QuestionError 1053: The service did not respond to the start or control request in a timely fashion. Pin
khayyam221-Sep-09 20:15
memberkhayyam221-Sep-09 20:15 
GeneralTwo lines are confusing me please help Pin
khayyam221-Sep-09 20:11
memberkhayyam221-Sep-09 20:11 
GeneralConfused Steps Pin
khayyam221-Sep-09 7:50
memberkhayyam221-Sep-09 7:50 
GeneralDifferent Solution Pin
David Hoyt13-Aug-09 6:56
memberDavid Hoyt13-Aug-09 6:56 
Generalno console output Pin
rapid2k211-Aug-09 15:52
memberrapid2k211-Aug-09 15:52 
GeneralRe: no console output Pin
Erik Burger29-Jul-10 1:50
memberErik Burger29-Jul-10 1:50 
GeneralAwesome! GUI and CLI! Pin
Bit-Smacker3-Aug-09 9:39
memberBit-Smacker3-Aug-09 9:39 
GeneralManagedInstallerClass doesn't work to me Pin
Bizancio Spirit9-Jun-09 4:10
memberBizancio Spirit9-Jun-09 4:10 
GeneralAwesome post, thanks. Always wanted to know how that was done. Pin
Buddy Stein1-Apr-09 7:11
memberBuddy Stein1-Apr-09 7:11 
GeneralInstallHelper Doesn't release Service1.exe file after uninstall Pin
surf uk22-Jan-09 2:55
membersurf uk22-Jan-09 2:55 
Hi,

Excellent article! I have found non-command ways to do all things service related, apart from uninstalling...

I have created a helper service (Service1Updater) for my main service (Service1). Service1Updater does two things
-Checks a network folder to see if there's any updates for Service1 and installs them
-Checks to see if Service1 is running, if not then it tries to start it

The reason I'm using a service to do the updating:
-I don't want Service1 to fail when updating, I don't want to manually fix things
-I don't want any user interaction during updates
-I have a large cluster of computers to roll out the updates, I can't do it manually would take ages
-I want Service1 to stay alive if something unforeseen happens, so I use a helper process

The problem:
I use Service1Updater to copy new files -> stop Service1 -> uninstall Service1 -> delete old Service1 files -> copy new files -> install Service1 -> set Service1 properties -> start Service1.

Between "uninstall Service1 -> delete old Service1 files" I always get Access denied or UnauthorizedAccessException as the InstallHelper seams to still have a handle open on the old Service1. If I use a Process command then I have no problem deleteing the old files:

Process myProcess = new Process();
string path = @"C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727";
myProcess.StartInfo.FileName = path + "\\InstallUtil.exe";
myProcess.StartInfo.Arguments = @"/u C:\Service1\Service1.exe";
myProcess.StartInfo.CreateNoWindow = true;
myProcess.Start();
 
myProcess.WaitForExit(60000);
if (!myProcess.HasExited)
    myProcess.Kill();
myProcess.Close();

Although this works it would be nice to have an InstallHelper solution especially as InstallUtil maybe in a different location. Does anyone have any ideas? Would I have to host the InstallHelper in a different thread/process and wait for it to exit?

Cheers

Ross

not suitable for idiots

GeneralRe: InstallHelper Doesn't release Service1.exe file after uninstall Pin
HJG0076-Feb-09 1:27
memberHJG0076-Feb-09 1:27 
GeneralRe: InstallHelper Doesn't release Service1.exe file after uninstall Pin
Veener29-Apr-09 13:56
memberVeener29-Apr-09 13:56 
General[Message Removed] Pin
Katekortez25-Oct-08 9:30
memberKatekortez25-Oct-08 9:30 
QuestionSetting ServiceProcessInstaller attributes Pin
Chris Newton28-May-08 2:45
memberChris Newton28-May-08 2:45 
GeneralFor the console lovers ;-) Pin
Aleksei Nickolayev3-Mar-08 4:06
memberAleksei Nickolayev3-Mar-08 4:06 
GeneralRe: For the console lovers ;-) Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard6-Mar-08 6:51
memberW. Kevin Hazzard6-Mar-08 6:51 
GeneralGreat article Pin
srinath g nath30-Dec-07 18:09
membersrinath g nath30-Dec-07 18:09 
GeneralInstall on first run [modified] Pin
Ashley van Gerven21-Dec-07 17:55
memberAshley van Gerven21-Dec-07 17:55 
GeneralRe: Install on first run Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard26-Dec-07 3:54
memberW. Kevin Hazzard26-Dec-07 3:54 
GeneralRe: Install on first run Pin
Ashley van Gerven26-Dec-07 4:13
memberAshley van Gerven26-Dec-07 4:13 
GeneralCan't start service. Pin
Ricky27-Nov-07 14:09
memberRicky27-Nov-07 14:09 
GeneralRe: Can't start service. Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard29-Nov-07 10:00
memberW. Kevin Hazzard29-Nov-07 10:00 
GeneralRe: Can't start service. Pin
Ricky30-Nov-07 12:44
memberRicky30-Nov-07 12:44 
GeneralRe: Can't start service. Pin
Ricky30-Nov-07 12:54
memberRicky30-Nov-07 12:54 
GeneralI took a different tack [modified] Pin
PIEBALDconsult26-Nov-07 16:12
memberPIEBALDconsult26-Nov-07 16:12 
GeneralRe: I took a different tack Pin
cplas14-Jan-09 14:04
membercplas14-Jan-09 14:04 
GeneralYou can go further (an alternative approach) Pin
Oleg Shilo26-Nov-07 15:18
memberOleg Shilo26-Nov-07 15:18 
GeneralRe: You can go further (an alternative approach) Pin
tag200126-Nov-07 18:24
membertag200126-Nov-07 18:24 
GeneralRe: You can go further (an alternative approach) Pin
Oleg Shilo26-Nov-07 18:41
memberOleg Shilo26-Nov-07 18:41 
GeneralRe: You can go further (an alternative approach) Pin
One Smart Motor Scooter27-Nov-07 6:46
memberOne Smart Motor Scooter27-Nov-07 6:46 
GeneralRe: You can go further (an alternative approach) Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard29-Nov-07 9:55
memberW. Kevin Hazzard29-Nov-07 9:55 
GeneralDoesn't seem to work for me Pin
smesser23-Nov-07 20:49
membersmesser23-Nov-07 20:49 
GeneralRe: Doesn't seem to work for me Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard24-Nov-07 4:21
memberW. Kevin Hazzard24-Nov-07 4:21 
GeneralRe: Doesn't seem to work for me [modified] Pin
smesser24-Nov-07 4:36
membersmesser24-Nov-07 4:36 
GeneralRe: Doesn't seem to work for me Pin
W. Kevin Hazzard24-Nov-07 5:24
memberW. Kevin Hazzard24-Nov-07 5:24 
GeneralRe: Doesn't seem to work for me Pin
smesser24-Nov-07 6:08
membersmesser24-Nov-07 6:08 
GeneralIndispensable Pin
munenedumunenedu23-Nov-07 5:17
membermunenedumunenedu23-Nov-07 5:17 
GeneralExcellent! Pin
T1TAN23-Nov-07 0:23
memberT1TAN23-Nov-07 0:23 
GeneralJust like Delphi does it. Pin
stensones22-Nov-07 23:33
memberstensones22-Nov-07 23:33 
GeneralExcellent article!!! Pin
ndinges22-Nov-07 22:52
memberndinges22-Nov-07 22:52 
GeneralGreat Article Pin
Cool Dirty Boy22-Nov-07 21:48
memberCool Dirty Boy22-Nov-07 21:48 
GeneralGreat article Pin
NikoTanghe22-Nov-07 21:43
memberNikoTanghe22-Nov-07 21:43 
GeneralExcellent! [modified] Pin
TheCardinal22-Nov-07 21:34
memberTheCardinal22-Nov-07 21:34 
GeneralGreat !!! Pin
Gismow22-Nov-07 20:57
memberGismow22-Nov-07 20:57 
Generalgood article Pin
margiex22-Nov-07 19:14
membermargiex22-Nov-07 19:14 
General5 Pin
Ri Qen-Sin22-Nov-07 19:37
memberRi Qen-Sin22-Nov-07 19:37 

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