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Win32 Window Minimal

, 14 Aug 2012
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Getting started with Win32 programming through creating a window with minimum code and complexity

Introduction  

minimalwinapiwindow/endresult.jpg

This article is about getting started with Win32 programming through creating a window with minimum code and complexity.

The problem of complexity

I believe that the default Win32 project in Visual Studio which autocreates 10 files*, 191+ lines of code**, and which utilizes what I consider advanced Win32 programming concepts like multiple callbacks, advanced UNICODE, resource files, precompiled headers, dialogs, etc. is not a good starting point for learning about the beauty and fun of programming for the Microsoft Windows operating system.

Solved with simplification

So I wrote the bare minimum required for a window to be created, and sustained into one file and about 50 lines of code in an attempt to open up the key concepts behind Win32 programming and what every window has in common, so the the user first learns the basics of what every window must have in order to exist.

Documentation was done through structured comments which assume that the user has almost or no experience at all in Win32 programming, and it was done for every line of code intentionally so in case the user has any doubts, they can just check the previous line for a comment describing whats happening.

If you follow the instructions presented below in this article, I think you can learn something valuable about the Win32 API and what all windows have in common, without all the extra trickery that's packed into the automatically generated win32 app template of Visual Studio. 

The minimum requirements of a sustained Win32 Window***

#include <windows.h>

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{

 MSG msg          = {0};
 WNDCLASS wc      = {0}; 
 wc.lpfnWndProc   = WndProc;
 wc.hInstance     = hInstance;
 wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_BACKGROUND);
 wc.lpszClassName = L"minwindowsapp";
 if( !RegisterClass(&wc) )
   return 1;

 if( !CreateWindow(wc.lpszClassName,
                   L"Minimal Windows Application",
                   WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW|WS_VISIBLE,
                   0,0,640,480,0,0,hInstance,NULL))
    return 2;

    while( GetMessage( &msg, NULL, 0, 0 ) > 0 )
        DispatchMessage( &msg );

    return 0;
}

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{

 switch(message)
 {
   case WM_CLOSE:
     PostQuitMessage(0);
     break;
   default:
     return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
 }
 return 0;

}  

All this will be explained below, its up here for slightly older programmers.

Using the code

Here is a visual guide to how to use the code, just start your Visual Studio and follow the steps in the following images to get the code working, or download the project.

Step 1: Create a New Project

minimalwinapiwindow/step1.jpg

Step 2: Select Project Template, Name and Location

minimalwinapiwindow/step2.jpg

Step 3: Press Next, don't press Finish

minimalwinapiwindow/step3.jpg

Step 4: Selection Application type, additional options, and press Finish

minimalwinapiwindow/step4.jpg

Step 5: Right click on the Source Files filter, choose Add, choose New Item

minimalwinapiwindow/step5.jpg

Step 6: Select C++ File as template, fill in name, press Add

minimalwinapiwindow/step6.jpg

Step 7: Open main.cpp, copy paste this code or and press F5 to try it out Smile | <img src= " />

minimalwinapiwindow/step7.jpg

Detailed explanation of this programs functionality

This section describes and provides extra information about the code of our program.

#include <windows.h>

This enables access to Microsoft Windows specific data types and functions that make life easy when programming with apps for Windows. (MSG, WNDCLASSEX, etc.)

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam);

This is a Forward Declaration of a Window Procedure. The Window Procedure is crudely simplified, an 'event handler' of sorts. It receives events, which in Windows, are called 'messages'. Every window in Windows has a Window Procedure. This will be covered in depth more when we reach the implementation of this declaration.

int WINAPI WinMain(HINSTANCE hInstance, HINSTANCE hPrevInstance, LPSTR lpCmdLine, int nCmdShow)
{

This is the 'entry' point of the program, specifically, a graphical Windows-based program. Console programs use the simpler main(...). The four parameters you see are automatically received from the Microsoft Windows operating system when your application is started. The first parameter(hInstance, meaning Instance Handle) being the most important. It functions as a unique 'identifier'(these are often called handles in Win32 programming) for this particular instance of your program you have started. Every program running on Windows has one and it allows you to create multiple instances of your programs window without having to worry it already existing since they both use their own unique instance 'handles'.
More information about WinMain: Click here
More information about hInstance: Click here

 MSG msg            = {0};

This is a data structure that contains message information for example when a user clicks a mouse button on top of your window etc. This is required for a normal Win32 application main loop which you will see later in the code. Its initialized here to conform to my favourite C89 coding standard which requires that all variables are declared at the start of the scope. Remember, C89 is your friend, because you can use all C89 in C++. More information about the MSG data structure by clicking here.

 WNDCLASS wc      = {0}; 
 wc.lpfnWndProc   = WndProc;
 wc.hInstance     = hInstance;
 wc.hbrBackground = (HBRUSH)(COLOR_BACKGROUND);
 wc.lpszClassName = L"minwindowsapp";

 if( !RegisterClass(&wc) )
   return 1;

The Window Class. This is an important concept to grasp in Windows programming.
A window class must be successfully registered to the Windows operating system before a window can be created. We will create our own custom window class and try to register it to the operating system. Trying to register a window class to the operating system is not something that always succeeds, because the operating system simply might not have enough memory available for any new window classes anymore. If this is the case it will return a zero and not a sensible unique identifier for our class, which is why the call should always be error checked.

The minimal member variables of the WNDCLASS struct that are required for a window are as follows:

lpfnWndProc

Contains a function pointer to which function this windows messages should go to for processing and handling.

hInstance

The unique instance handle we received from the operating system into our first entry point parameter when our program started, will be bound here into the window class data structure.

hbrBackground

Without defining this, we would have no background to our window meaning it the background of the window would become whatever was under the window when it was created, and when moved, it would cause all kinds of graphical errors to appear on your window.

lpszClassName

This is the human readable name of the window class we are about to create. This name works as a reference when telling windows what kind 'style' of a window we want to create and what function receives its window messages (WndProc in this case). We could then for example create multiple windows using a class named "myredwindowclass" which all had red backgrounds if the class was already registered to the operating system.
Important note: Why do you put an L infront of a normal string? Click here.

 if( !CreateWindow(wc.lpszClassName,
                        L"Minimal Windows Application",
                        WS_OVERLAPPEDWINDOW|WS_VISIBLE,
                        0,
                        0,
                        640,
                        480,
                        0,
                        0,
                        hInstance,
                        NULL) )
        return 2;

After the necessary 'raindancing' above the CreateWindow snippet is complete, we are finally ready to attempt the creation of a window. If this fails, our program will exit with the return code of 2. If the function succeeds, the return value is a handle of the type HWND, to your new window, which you can use for example, like this: ShowWindow(handle,SW_MINIMIZE);  which will minimize your window to the taskbar Smile | <img src= 

The parameter list is as follows:

lpClassName

Here we need to assign CreateWindow a valid, already registered window class name. A sweet example of already registered class names are common controls, like the edit controls etc. where you type your text in Windows. As those are usually always registered already, and everything visible in windows is a window, even buttons!, you can try replacing the wc.lpszClassName with this: L"EDIT" and you will see how changing the windows class affects the window. You can now select and deselect text and your whole window has turned into a text control! Smile | <img src= " /> Click the following hyperlink and scroll down to the part where EDIT is also presented, and feel free to try out more common controls! MSDN About Common Controls

lpWindowName

This is pretty self-explanatory, you can decide yourself what kind of a name you give to your window.(more details)

x

The initial X position of the window, or some would call it the initial horizontal position. CW_USEDEFAULT could be used here(more details)

y

The initial Y position of the window.(more details)

nWidth

The initial width of the window. (more details)

nHeight

The initial height of the window.(more details)

hWndParent

Here could be a 'handle' to the parent or owner window of this window, this is nearing advanced topics so lets leave this for now.(more details)

hMenu

This is a little bit more advanced tool for this tutorial, leave it to null for now. Its good for you to know that this has a deep and useful connection with those resource files that you might have seen when creating the default template win32 app with visual studio.

hInstance

Nothing new here.

lpParam

This parameter is used in advanced windows programming also, for example: abstracting functionality of WndProc etc.

Note: Generally there is a call to TranslateMessage before DispatchMessage, but it is intentionally left out for this tutorial to provide you with the distilled functions to learn and master instead of everything at once. TranslateMessage produces WM_CHAR messages only for keys that are mapped to ASCII characters by the keyboard driver. See the this msdn link for more information: TranslateMessage

    while( GetMessage( &msg, NULL, 0, 0 ) > 0 )
        DispatchMessage( &msg );

    return 0;
}

The Main Loop, also known as, the Message Loop

The programs in the Microsoft Windows operating system communicate with each other using messages, which in some systems are called 'events'. Something happens somewhere, like a mouse is clicked on a windows top right X icon, a message is sent throughout the operating system that 'hey, that window just died, hide it and start freeing up the memory it was eating, remove its classname from the registered class names list etc.'.

Here we check for any messages for our window, and we send them along until our window receives a posted message. DispatchMessage does the sending.

This is not the place for reacting to received messages, the WndProc WindowProcedure is the place where that should happen.

When all messages have been processed and we've received a posted message that is 0 or below 0 by its value (like the PostQuitMessage(0) command produces), we return 0 for a sign of successfull/natural program termination.

LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    switch(message)
    {
    case WM_CLOSE:
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        break;
    default:
        return DefWindowProc(hWnd, message, wParam, lParam);
 }

 return 0;
}         

The Window Procedure - also known as: Callback function.
This is the place where the messages from DispatchMessage end up in, if they were targeted for your window. For example: If the user clicks on your windows top right X, your window procedure would receive the WM_CLOSE message, which is actually a cleverly disguised number, but more on those later.

You can intercept many kinds of messages here and create functionality and reactions to those messages like key presses and mouse clicks and window resizing etc. All window messages are prefixed with WM_ like WM_CLOSE. WM_CLOSE is a default window message just like WM_KEYUP and WM_RBUTTONUP. You can have your own custom window messages aswell, which are most commonly used with making your own default GUI components or menus to produce results upon clicks, but that is a more advanced topic, although not really hard, so dont worry.

hWnd is the handle to your window

message is the WM_ window message received which you can choose to capture

wParam and lParam can change based on what the message was that was received and handled by you.See my WM_MOUSEMOVE example below about this.

The DefWindowProc gets called when we specified no actions for the received message (WM_KEYDOWN, WM_SIZE), it then passes the message along to others.
I hope you benefit, learn, or maybe even enjoy some of this code!

So, now I have a window, what next? - Extending

There are plenty of ways to extend the functionality of this basic window and
next I will present a few of my suggestions what you could do. If you would like more information on extending this example, let me know in the discussion section below.

Capturing Basic Keyboard Input

Navigate to this row of code:

switch(message)  
{ 

and add the following code:

case WM_KEYUP:
{
    switch(wParam)
    {
        case VK_ESCAPE:
        {
        PostQuitMessage(0);
        }
        break;
    }
    break;
}
break;

and when you recompile and run with F5, you can press Escape and you window will close automatically!

I really recommend using MSDN as a source for the Windows API and reading about the wonderful virtual keys that we can utilize and also about the WM_KEYDOWN to complement the WM_KEYUP that we've seen. Heres are example links to MSDN that describe more indepth what virtual keys are about and the keyup window message:

Click here for Virtual-Key Codes on MSDN

Click here for WM_KEYUP Window Message on MSDN

Capturing Basic Mouse Input

The mouse input functions a lot like the keyboard input, but I'll show you a useful trick I've learned along the way to get the useful information out of mouse movement a bit easier than every other tutorial on the block. We'll capture mouse coordinates and print the results into your Visual Studio 'Debug Output' window and show a message saying Hello World when the window is clicked with the left mouse button.

Just add this code where your WndProc function begins from:

WCHAR mouseCoordinates[4] = {0};
LRESULT CALLBACK WndProc(HWND hWnd, UINT message, WPARAM wParam, LPARAM lParam)
{
    
    switch(message)
    {
    case WM_MOUSEMOVE:
        wsprintf(mouseCoordinates, L"X:%d Y:%d\n", HIWORD(lParam), LOWORD(lParam));
        OutputDebugString(mouseCoordinates);
        break;
    case WM_LBUTTONUP:
        {
            MessageBox(0,L"Hello World!",0,0);
        }
        break;
This modification I leave for you to explore forwards, there is a wondrous amount of useful functionality within the Microsoft Windows operating system and I hope I have sparked an interest into delving deeper into it, successfully and without frustrations Smile | <img src=

Points of Interest

This was my first article for the Code Project and I learned alot about making articles. This stuff is fun! ...and hopefully I managed to create something useful too! Smile | <img src=

Writing this article also increased my knowledge about the Microsoft Windows API because I had to dig deep back into the 16 bit windows times to be able to more accurately understand the history and usage of HINSTANCE and its similarities with HMODULE to be able to describe and understand it better Smile | <img src= http://blogs.msdn.com/b/oldnewthing/archive/2004/06/14/155107.aspx

It seems like learning how to describe something technical to others really serves as a good learning experience to myself too and was well worth the work I put in this Smile | <img src=  

Further reading material

MSDN: Creating Win32-Based Applications
theForger's Win32 API Tutorial
FunctionX Win32 Programming lessons

References

* 6 .h/.cpp files, 2 .ico files, 1 .rc file, 1 .txt file.
** (in just the main.cpp)
*** Forward declaration and WM_CLOSE not required, but I believe every program should have a start and finish (WM_CLOSE). The forward declaration makes the program look more beginner friendly with an easily spottable main() function.

History

  • Version 0.95 + Updated Visual Studio and Mingw project files to match updated code in the article. 
  • Version 0.94 + Slight optimization to line count to reduce visual clutter for readers and users. 
  • Version 0.93 + Fixed a FAILED macro issue pointed out by Mr. David Nash of the Win32++ project 
  • Version 0.92 + Added Code::Blocks GnuGCC project for people who dont own Visual Studio. 
  • Version 0.91 + Added a note about TranslateMessage based on feedback from Alain Rist 
  • Version 0.90 + Added further reading material links to article.
  • Version 0.89 + Rearranged code & description based on feedback from Richard MacCutchan
  • Version 0.88 + Fixed some typos, cleaned up some wording, rephrased wndproc stuff.
  • Version 0.87 + Finished first draft of reformat. Resized images. Uploaded new project.
  • Version 0.86 + Deleted all comments in code. Will attempt feedback based reformat.
  • Version 0.85 + Fixed typos, condensed intro text, etc.
  • Version 0.84 + Moved the bare bone code snippet up, for advanced users to quickly grab.
  • Version 0.83 + Condensed problem and solution descriptions, removed stuff about me.
  • Version 0.82 + Indented also the endresult and intro sentence.
  • Version 0.81 + Added end result picture. Added project Visual Studio version number.
  • Version 0.80 + Added references, rewrote some of the intro, minor other fixes.
  • Version 0.70 + Added better descriptions to each step. Added link to code earlier.
  • Version 0.60 + Removed second sentence, sounded like I was bragging or something.
  • Version 0.50 + Added mouse input and movement extension instructions.
  • Version 0.40 + Added extension instructions for keyboard input.
  • Version 0.30 + Fixed code formatting, added an uncommented version, minor fixes to everything.
  • Version 0.20 + Improved article code formatting, the formatting is still WIP, for now, dl the project.
  • Version 0.10 + Uploaded to Code Project. Oh, btw, this was my first article Smile | <img src=  Hello world! Smile | <img src=

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

Jani Mäkinen
Software Developer Bugbear Entertainment
Finland Finland
I've programmed since the 90's QBasic times and love programming tight and slick code.
 
Here are some links for my 'off the clock' programming: http://www.gfx0.com
 
Specialties: C, C++, Game Programming
 
I was born in the middle of Finland into a small farming town. Moved to Helsinki, then to Germany and am now back in Helsinki programming as my dayjob in the Game Industry Smile | :)
Follow on   Twitter   LinkedIn

Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberAbdul Quader Mamun15-Aug-12 18:03 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberJani Mäkinen16-Aug-12 4:09 
Thanks a lot for your feedback Smile | :)
 
I will read your article and return the favor Java | [Coffee]
GeneralThe problem of complexity PinmemberEddy Vluggen14-Aug-12 23:07 
GeneralRe: The problem of complexity Pinmemberpasztorpisti15-Aug-12 6:08 
GeneralRe: The problem of complexity PinmemberDave Calkins1-Oct-12 10:07 
GeneralRe: The problem of complexity PinmemberJani Mäkinen2-Oct-12 22:11 
GeneralMy vote of 3 Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 6:01 
GeneralThanks for your feedback, I'm updating the articles outdated source files. [modified] PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:08 
GeneralRe: Thanks for your vote, your issue with the article has been fixed. Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:12 
Bugbuglist Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:13 
Generalfixlist response [modified] PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:19 
GeneralRe: fixlist Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:21 
SuggestionRe: fixlist Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:30 
GeneralFiles are updated in Version 0.94 of the article. PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:40 
GeneralRe: Thanks for your feedback, I'm updating the articles outdated source files. Pinmemberpasztorpisti18-Aug-12 9:11 
SuggestionToo simple message loop Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 5:34 
GeneralRe: The message loop is not too simple. It is exactly as planned. PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 6:57 
GeneralRe: The message loop is not too simple. It is exactly as planned. Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:01 
AnswerAgree to disagree :) PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:57 
GeneralRe: Agree to disagree :) Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 8:07 
Questionup its value from excellent to profoundly useful. PinmemberVernonM13-Aug-12 8:12 
AnswerRe: up its value from excellent to profoundly useful. PinmemberJani Mäkinen13-Aug-12 10:47 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberVernonM13-Aug-12 8:02 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberJani Mäkinen13-Aug-12 10:35 
BugU C? Pinmemberddbug13-Aug-12 5:56 
NewsRe: I D PinmemberJani Mäkinen13-Aug-12 7:57 
GeneralRe: U C? Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 5:30 
SuggestionWM_CLOSE vs WM_DESTROY and PostQuitMessage() Pinmemberpasztorpisti13-Aug-12 1:51 
GeneralRe: WM_CLOSE vs WM_DESTROY and PostQuitMessage() PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:02 
GeneralRe: WM_CLOSE vs WM_DESTROY and PostQuitMessage() Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:04 
GeneralRe: WM_CLOSE vs WM_DESTROY and PostQuitMessage() PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:13 
GeneralRe: WM_CLOSE vs WM_DESTROY and PostQuitMessage() Pinmemberpasztorpisti14-Aug-12 7:15 
QuestionHmm PinmemberxComaWhitex12-Aug-12 18:43 
AnswerRe: Hmm PinmemberNithin Sundar12-Aug-12 18:55 
SuggestionRe: Hmm +1 :) [modified] PinmemberJani Mäkinen12-Aug-12 22:14 
GeneralRe: Hmm PinmemberxComaWhitex13-Aug-12 16:01 
GeneralRe: Hmm PinmemberNithin Sundar13-Aug-12 18:01 
GeneralRe: Hmm PinmemberxComaWhitex13-Aug-12 18:13 
GeneralRe: Hmm PinmemberNithin Sundar13-Aug-12 18:26 
Question[My vote of 1] Wrong and misleading usage of FAILED macro Pinmembersteveb13-Jul-12 16:52 
Answer[Minor issue fixed] in version 0.93. Non-critical part of article subjects point. [modified] PinmemberJani Mäkinen12-Aug-12 7:02 
GeneralRe: [Minor issue fixed] in version 0.93. Non-critical part of article subjects point. Pinmembersteveb13-Aug-12 14:13 
GeneralThank you very much :) PinmemberJani Mäkinen14-Aug-12 7:06 
Questionhelpful PinmemberCIDev15-Jul-11 7:18 
GeneralMy vote of 4 Pinmemberzexspectrum12-Jul-11 0:49 
QuestionGetMessage pitfall PinmemberCristian Amarie11-Jul-11 3:51 
GeneralMy vote of 4 Pinmembermarl5-Jul-11 23:07 
QuestionHmm PinmemberxComaWhitex5-Jul-11 6:57 
AnswerRe: Hmm PinmvpRichard MacCutchan13-Jul-11 23:21 
GeneralRe: Hmm PinmemberxComaWhitex15-Aug-12 15:12 

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