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SQL - Pivot with Grand Total Column and Row

, 27 Jul 2011
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SQL Dynamic Pivots

Introduction

Microsoft SQL Server has introduced the PIVOT and UNPIVOT commands as enhancements to T-SQL with the release of Microsoft SQL Server 2005. Pivot Table in SQL has the ability to display data in custom aggregation. PIVOT rotates a table-valued expression by turning the unique values from one column in the expression into multiple columns in the output, and performs aggregations where they are required on any remaining column values that are wanted in the final output. UNPIVOT performs the opposite operation to PIVOT by rotating columns of a table-valued expression into column values.

More information on Pivot.

In this article, I’m concentrating on how to display Grand Total row and column for the pivot table as shown in the below grid view:

Here in the grid, I’m showing the number of matches played by a team in each month. At last, I need to show the grand total for each team (Last column) - this total gives the year count for the teams. In the same way, I need a grand total row as last row in grid, which will give the number of matches played by all the teams for that particular month.

Background

Usually as a .NET developer, first I will get the pivot table from the stored procedure to dataset and grand total row and column. I will manipulate in the C#/ VB code using Datatable (Datatable compute method for better performance). But in this article, I want to show how to get the grand total row and column from the stored procedure, so that we can directly display data in the grid without any manipulation in the C#/VB.

How It Works

Here I’m using pivot with dynamic columns, most questions were about the column list in the PIVOT statement. This list is fixed, but many times the new columns are determined by the report at a later stage. This problem is easily solved when we mix pivots with dynamic SQL, so here is a very simple script about how to dynamically generate the pivot statement:

DECLARE @cols NVARCHAR (MAX)
SELECT @cols = COALESCE (@cols + ',[' + colName + ']', '[' + colName + ']')
FROM    Table1
WHERE	Conditions
ORDER BY colName

PRINT @cols

The above script gives you the list of columns in string format with commas. Example: [Jan], [Feb], [Mar], [Apr], [May], [Jun], [Jul], [Aug], [Sept], [Oct], [Nov], [Dec]. If you pass this dynamic query to your pivot, then your pivot columns will display dynamically.
The below SQL script creates the stored procedure which returns pivot table as output.

CREATE PROCEDURE pivot_TeamVsMatches
AS

/*First get the dynamic columns query*/

DECLARE @columnHeaders NVARCHAR (MAX)
SELECT @columnHeaders  = _
	COALESCE (@columnHeaders  + ',[' + month + ']', '[' + month + ']')
FROM    tbl_Matches
ORDER BY month

DECLARE @FinalQuery NVARCHAR(MAX)

SET @FinalQuery = 	‘SELECT *
			FROM
				(SELECT Team,
					   Month
				FROM tbl_Matches
				) A
			PIVOT
				(
				 COUNT(*)
				 FOR ColName
				 IN (‘+@columnHeaders +’)
				) B
ORDER BY Team’
PRINT ‘Pivot Queuery :’+ @FinalQuery
EXECUTE (@FinalQuery)
GO

This stored procedure returns pivot table as below:

Now to get the grand total and row, we need to form the COALESCE query. As shown below…

/* GRAND TOTAL COLUMN */
DECLARE @GrandTotalCol	NVARCHAR (MAX)
SELECT @GrandTotalCol = COALESCE (@GrandTotalCol + ‘ISNULL _
([' + CAST (Month AS VARCHAR) +'],0) + ', 'ISNULL([' + CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+ '],0) + ')
FROM	tbl_Matches ORDER BY  Month
SET @GrandTotalCol = LEFT (@GrandTotalCol, LEN (@GrandTotalCol)-1)

The above query returns as below…

@GrandTotalCol = ISNULL ([' + CAST (Jan AS VARCHAR) +'],0) + ISNULL _
([' + CAST (Feb AS VARCHAR) +'],0) + ISNULL ([' + CAST (March AS VARCHAR) +'],0) + _
…………. + ISNULL ([' + CAST (Dec AS VARCHAR) +'],0).
/* GRAND TOTAL ROW */
DECLARE @GrandTotalRow	NVARCHAR(MAX)
SELECT @GrandTotalRow = COALESCE(@GrandTotalRow + ',ISNULL(SUM([' + _
CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+']),0)', 'ISNULL(SUM([' + CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+']),0)')
FROM	tbl_Matches ORDER BY  Month

The above query returns as below…

@GrandTotalRow = ISNULL(SUM([' + CAST(Jan AS VARCHAR)+']),0) + _
ISNULL(SUM([' + CAST(Feb AS VARCHAR)+']),0) + ……… + _
ISNULL(SUM([' + CAST(Dec AS VARCHAR)+']),0).

The above COALESCE strings need to be used in dynamic pivot query…

Below is the stored procedure which will give the total output of our requirement.

CREATE PROCEDURE pivot_TeamVsMatches
AS
/* COLUMNS HEADERS */
DECLARE @columnHeaders NVARCHAR (MAX)
SELECT @columnHeaders  = COALESCE (@columnHeaders  _
+ ',[' + month + ']', '[' + month + ']')
FROM    tbl_Matches
ORDER BY month

/* GRAND TOTAL COLUMN */
DECLARE @GrandTotalCol	NVARCHAR (MAX)
SELECT @GrandTotalCol = COALESCE (@GrandTotalCol + ‘ISNULL ([' + _
CAST (Month AS VARCHAR) +'],0) + ', 'ISNULL([' + CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+ '],0) + ')
FROM	tbl_Matches ORDER BY Month
SET @GrandTotalCol = LEFT (@GrandTotalCol, LEN (@GrandTotalCol)-1)

/* GRAND TOTAL ROW */
DECLARE @GrandTotalRow	NVARCHAR(MAX)
SELECT @GrandTotalRow = COALESCE(@GrandTotalRow + ',ISNULL(SUM([' + _
CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+']),0)', 'ISNULL(SUM([' + CAST(Month AS VARCHAR)+']),0)')
FROM	tbl_Matches ORDER BY  Month

/* MAIN QUERY */
DECLARE @FinalQuery NVARCHAR (MAX)
SET @FinalQuery = 	‘SELECT *, ('+ @GrandTotalCol + ') _
AS [Grand Total] INTO #temp_MatchesTotal
			FROM
				(SELECT Team,
					   Month
				FROM tbl_Matches
				) A
			PIVOT
				(
				 COUNT (*)
				 FOR ColName
				 IN (‘+@columnHeaders +’)
				) B
ORDER BY Team
SELECT * FROM #temp_MatchesTotal UNION ALL
SELECT ''Grand Total'','''','+@GrandTotalRow +', _
ISNULL (SUM([Grand Total]),0) FROM #temp_MatchesTotal
DROP TABLE #temp_MatchesTotal'
-- PRINT 'Pivot Query '+@FinalQuery
EXECUTE(@PivotQuery)
GO

Result as below…

Here in this stored procedure, I have used temporary table to get the grand total row. I did the UNION ALL with temporary table; don’t forget to drop the temporary table.

For any queries & suggestions, mail me @ narapareddy.shyam@gmail.com. By using some third party controls also we can achieve this, but here I concentrated only on typical/ normal SQL query. If anybody has any efficient and different ways, kindly share with me.

Thanks again. Bye.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

About the Author

nshyamp
Software Developer (Senior) Firstsource Sol Ltd.,
India India
ABCDEFG

Comments and Discussions

 
Generalnice work my +5v Pinprofessionalgeorge498626-Jun-14 19:12 
QuestionCan i get sample code and table structure Pinmembervishal_h26-Apr-14 5:14 
QuestionPlease help me. Pinmembertestowy4325-Oct-12 7:23 
QuestionQuery Hang PinmemberMember 943933218-Sep-12 6:11 
Questionerror in sql server 2005 Pinmemberwinchnet200516-Sep-12 23:59 
What's mean of ‘ _ ?
 
I can not create a sp in sqlserver2005
QuestionCan some one Please help... What seems to be wrong with my cross tab query??? PinmemberJatelo_MVP25-Jun-12 21:56 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberShahan Ayyub6-May-12 11:28 
GeneralMy vote of 3 PinmemberChamila Ranasinghe2-May-12 21:30 
GeneralRe: My vote of 3 Pinmemberlosmac8-May-12 10:30 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmembersundar_m18-Apr-12 5:30 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmembermanoj kumar choubey7-Feb-12 0:05 
QuestionWorks great. Pinmemberryanb316-Jan-12 8:41 
GeneralMy vote of 4 Pinmembermandar13057-Aug-11 21:18 
Questioncan have example code? Pinmemberyaser-m30-Jul-11 3:33 
AnswerRe: can have example code? Pinmembernshyamp30-Jul-11 10:36 
GeneralRe: can have example code? Pinmemberantonache_radu@yahoo.com3-Feb-13 22:48 

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