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Windows Forms Programming with C# - Chapter 3: Menus

, 15 Jun 2002
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This chapter covers menu creation and handling in C#
Sample Image - 1930110286.gif
Author Erik Brown
Title Windows Forms Programming with C#
PublisherManning Publications
PublishedApril 2002
ISBN 1930110286
Price US 49.95
Pages 752

Chapter 3 Menus

Menu bars provide a good starting point for our discussion in this part of the book. Menus provide a convenient way to group similar or related commands in one place. Most users are familiar with the menu bar concept and expect standard menus such as File, Edit, and Help to appear in their applications. Even novice computer users quickly learn that clicking a menu on the menu bar displays a dropdown list of commands.

Menus became popular on Windows applications in the late 1980s, following their success on the Apple Macintosh. Prior to menus, users had to cope with a wide array of interfaces offered by desktop applications. The function keys still found at the top of computer keyboards were developed in part as a standard way to access common functions in an application, and some programs even went so far as to provide a plastic template that sat on top of these function keys to help users remember the available commands.

Perhaps because of this history, many developers take the usefulness and popularity of menus for granted and do not spend sufficient time laying out a consistent, usable interface for their application. While graphical elements like menus, toolbars, and other constructs make applications much more friendly, this is not an excuse to ignore good user design and rely on customers to become “experienced” to make effective use of your interface.

Well, if that little lecture doesn’t get your creative juices flowing, then nothing will. Back in .NET land, Visual Studio .NET provides a rather intuitive interface for the construction of menus that does away with some of the clunkiness found in earlier Windows development environments from Microsoft. No more dealing with menus in one place, the application in another place, and the menu handlers in a third place.

This chapter will cover the following aspects of menu creation and handling:

  • Defining different types of menus.
  • Creating and modifying menus and menu items.
  • Handling menu events.
  • Handling multiple menus from a single event handler.
  • Cloning (as in copying) menu items from one menu to another.

The examples in this chapter assume you have the code for MyPhotos version 2.4 available, as developed with Visual Studio .NET in the previous chapter. You can use this code with or without Visual Studio as a starting point for the tasks covered here. If you did not work through chapter 2, download the project from the book’s web site at http://www.manning.com/eebrown. Follow the links and instructions on the page to retrieve version 2.4 of the application.

3.1 The nature of menus

Before we add some menus to our application, we should talk about the different kinds of menu structures and the classes that support them in the .NET Framework. The traditional menu bar,sometimes called the main menu or an anchored menu, is a set of menus shown horizontally across the top of most applications. The menus in a typical menu bar display a dropdown list of commands when they are activated with the mouse or by a keyboard accelerator. Figure 3.1 shows an example of a menu bar containing a File, View, and Help menu. The View menu is exposed, and a submenu of the Image menu item is displayed as well.

Figure 3.1 A traditional menu bar provides a set of menus across the top of an application

Another type of menu is a context menu, also called a popup menu or shortcut menu. A context menu is a menu that appears in a particular situation, or context. Typically, a context menu contains a set of commands or menus related to a specific graphical element of the application. Such menus appear throughout the Windows environment at the right-click of the mouse. For example, right-click the Windows desktop, any program icon on your screen, or even the Windows start menu, and a context menu will pop up with a set of commands related to the desktop display, the program, or the start menu, respectively. Newer keyboards contain an accelerator key designed to simulate this behavior at the cursor’s current location.

Context menus in .NET are typically associated with a specific control, the contents of which may change to reflect the condition of the control or type of item selected within the control. Note that context menu items can also contain submenus similar to those appearing in the menu bar. Figure 3.2 shows an example of a context menu associated with the main window of the application.

Figure 3.2 A context menu provides a set of commands or menus related to a specific portion of an application.

3.1.1 The Menu class

All menus in .NET derive from the Menu class. This class provides the core capabilities required by all menus, such as the parent menu, if any, and the collection of submenu items for the menu. The Menu class, summarized in .NET Table 3.1, is abstract, meaning you cannot create an instance of it.

.NET Table 3.1 Menu class

The Menu class is the base class for all menus in the .NET Framework. This abstract class is part of the System.Windows.Forms namespace, and inherits from the System.ComponentModel.Component class.

Public Properties

Handle

Gets the window handle for the menu. Used as a back door to special operations not supported by the framework.

IsParent

Gets whether this menu contains any MenuItem objects.

MdiListItem

Gets the MenuItem, if any, that will display the list of MDI child forms currently open in the application.

MenuItems

Gets the MenuItemCollection object that holds the list of MenuItem objects attached to this menu, or null if no items are attached.

Public Methods

GetContextMenu

Returns the ContextMenu object that contains this menu, or null.

GetMainMenu

Returns the MainMenu object that contains this menu, or null.

MergeMenu

Merges a given Menu object into the current menu.

Public Events

Disposed (inherited from Component)

Occurs when the component is disposed, such as when the Dispose method is called for the component.

You will note in .NET Table 3.1 that the Menu.MenuItems property contains a collection of MenuItem objects. This is an odd notion for object-oriented environments, since Menu is the base class of MenuItem, yet it uses this derived class as part of its definition. Such an arrangement is not disallowed, and is useful in situations like this when an object should contain instances of its own type.

3.1.2 The Menu class hierarchy

Before we plunge into specific types and examples of menus, it is useful to step back and consider the class hierarchy for the Menu class. A class hierarchy is the set of classes from which a particular class is derived, and gives some indication of the purpose and capabilities behind the specific class. The class hierarchy for the Menu class is also interesting because it is all or part of the class hierarchy for most Windows Forms controls. As you can see from figure 3.3, there are three classes besides Menu in this hierarchy.

Figure 3.3 The Menu class hierarchy includes the three classes behind all Windows Forms controls

The Menu class derives from the Component class, which derives from the MarshalByRefObject class, which derives from the Object class. All classes in C#, even internal types such as int and char, implicitly derive from the object class.[1] In the .NET Framework, this class is equivalent to the Object class. We will discuss this class in more detail in chapter 5.

The MarshalByRefObject class is an object that must be marshaled by reference. Marshalling is a method of passing an item from one context so that it can be understood in another context. A typical use for marshalling is in remote procedure calls between two different machines, where each parameter of a function call must be converted into a common format (that is, marshaled) on the sending machine so that it may be interpreted on the receiving machine. In the .NET world, Windows controls are MarshalByRefObject objects since they are only valid in the process that creates them, and can be used outside this process only by reference.[2]

The Componentclass is the base implementation of the IComponent interface. A component is an object that can exist within a container, and allows cleanup of non-memory resources via the Dispose method. This class supports the IDisposable interface as well the IComponent interface. We’ll cover interfaces in chapter 5 as well, so don’t get caught up in the terminology here. Since graphical controls exist within a Form window or other container control, all Windows Forms controls ultimately derive from this class.

3.1.3 Derived classes

The .NET Framework derives three menu classes from the abstract Menu to support menu bars, context menus, and the menu items they contain.

  • The MainMenuclass represents a main menu for an application. MainMenu objects contain a collection of MenuItem objects to display in the menu bar.
  • The ContextMenu class represents a context menu associated with a specific control. ContextMenu objects also contain a collection of MenuItem objects to display when this menu pops up.
  • The MenuItem class represents a menu item that appears within another menu. An instance of a MenuItem can contain a collection of MenuItem objects to appear as the submenu of this item. While an unrestricted number of submenus are permitted, it is a good idea to keep such menu hierarchies limited to no more than two or three levels. Too many submenu levels can be confusing for users and are best avoided when possible.

We will discuss each class separately, beginning with the MainMenu class.

3.2 Menu bars

So, let’s do it. Looking at our MyPhotos application, it would be nice to replace the Load button with a menu option. This will allow more space in our window for the displayed image, and permit additional commands to be added in the future related to loading images. As an added benefit, it provides a nice example for this book, which is, of course, our ultimate goal.

Our new application using a menu bar is shown in figure 3.4. A Load and Exit menu have been added to a File menu on the main menu bar. The Load menu item will replace our Load button from the previous chapter. Notice how these menu items are separated by a small line. Such a line is called a menu separator. A View menu is also shown, which will be discussed later in this section.

As you may expect, the menu bar will appear in our code as a MainMenu object. Menus such as the File menu are represented as MenuItem objects contained within the MainMenu object. The dropdown menus underneath the File menu are also MenuItem objects. This includes the menu separator as well as the Load and Exit menu items.

Figure 3.4 Notice in this File menu how the Load item displays Ctrl+L as its keyboard shortcut.

3.2.1 Adding the Main menu

The steps to add the MainMenu object to our application are shown below. As already mentioned, this book uses Visual Studio .NET in the examples. If you are writing the code by hand and using the C# compiler on the command-line, read through the steps and use the code inside or following the task description as a model for your own program. Note that this and most other tables at the beginning of a section change the version number in the program as a way to track our progress throughout the book and as a link to the online code at the book’s web site. If you recall, the version number is modified in the AssemblyInfo.cs file of the project.

Before we add the menu, we need to remove the existing Load button from the form.

Remove the Load button

Set the MyPhotos application version to 3.2.

 

Action

Result

1      

Remove the Load button from the form.

How-to

a. Display the MainForm.cs file in the Windows Form Designer.

b. Right-click the Load button.

c. Select the Delete option.

Alternately, simply select the button and hit the Delete key.

Visual Studio automatically removes all generated code related to the button from the InitializeComponent method of the MainForm.cs file.

Note

When a control is deleted, the declaration of any event handlers are removed, but the actual event handling code, in this case our btnLoad_Click method, must be removed manually.

We will remove this code later in the chapter.

2      

Display the properties for the PictureBox control.

How-to

a. Right-click the control.

b. Select Properties.

Alternatively, click the control and use the keyboard shortcut Alt+Enter.

The property values for this control are displayed.

3      

Set the value of the Dock property to Fill.

How-to

a. Locate the Dock property.

b. Display the dropdown window for this property.

c. Click the center button.

Clicking the center button as shown in the graphic sets the value of the Dock property to Fill, so that the PictureBox control takes up the entire display window of the form.

Note

When the Dock property is set to a value other than None, the Anchor property is automatically set to its default value of Top and Left.

With the Load button gone, our way is now clear to move this functionality into a menu bar. We continue the above steps and add a menu bar to our form.

Create the main menu bar

 

Action

Result

4      

Display the Toolbox window.

How-to

a. Click the View menu.

b. Select the Toolbox option.

Alternately, click the wrench and hammer icon on the left side of Visual Studio.

A list of available controls is displayed.

5      

Drag a MainMenu object from the Toolbox onto your form.

A MainMenu object called mainMenu1is added to your form. This object is displayed in a new area called the component tray below the form where objects that may not have a physical presence in the window appear. Such objects include timers, database connections, and main menus.

Note

An example of the component tray showing the mainMenu1 object appears later in this chapter in figure 3.9 on page 99.

Let’s take a look at the source code generated by these actions in the MainForm.cs window. If this window is not shown, right-click the mainMenu1 object and select View Code. You will note that the Windows Forms Designer has added the mainMenu1 variable to the MainForm class.

    private System.Windows.Forms.MainMenu mainMenu1;

The InitializeComponent method we discussed in chapter 2 initializes this variable and attaches it to the form. An object for this variable is created using the new keyword. As we mentioned in Part I, the this keyword refers to the current class instance, just as it does in C++.

      this.mainMenu1 = new System.Windows.Forms.MainMenu();

At the end of the method, the MainMenu object is attached to the form using the Form.Menu property. This property sets or retrieves a MainMenu object to appear as the main menu bar for the application, and can be used to swap in and out different menu bars to customize how the menu looks for specific situations. We will only use a single MainMenu object in this chapter. See .NET Table 3.2 for additional details on the MainMenu class.

      this.Menu = this.mainMenu1;

Also notice in the code how the Anchor property setting for the PictureBox control has been replaced by the Dock property.

      this.pbxPhoto.Dock = System.Windows.Forms.DockStyle.Fill;

.NET Table 3.2 MainMenu class

The MainMenu class is a container class that holds a collection of MenuItem objects to appear as a menu bar on a windows form. This class is part of the System.Windows.Forms namespace, and inherits from the Menu class. A main menu is assigned to a specific window using the Menu property in the Form class. See the .NET Table 3.1on page 72 for a list of members inherited from Menu.

Public Properties

RightToLeft

Gets or sets whether text displayed by the menu should use a right-to-left alignment. This is useful when displaying a language such as Hebrew or Arabic which reads from right to left.

Public Methods

CloneMenu

Returns a new MainMenu as a duplicate of the current menu.

GetForm

Returns the Form object that contains this menu, or null if this menu is not contained by a Form.

3.2.2 Adding the File menu

With a MainMenu on our form to act as the menu bar, we can now add the menus that should appear. Each menu is created using the MenuItem class. In this section we will create the top-level File menu only. In the next section we will create the dropdown menu that appears when the user clicks on this menu.

Create the File menu

 

Action

Result

1   

Edit the menu bar in the MainMenu.cs [Design] window.

How-to

Click the mainMenu1variable in the component tray of the window.

An empty menu bar appears at the top of the form. The space for the first top-level menu contains the words “Type Here.”

2   

Type in a top-level File menu as “&File.

A File menu appears on the form.

Note

The ampersand (&) specifies the character, in this case F, to use as the access key for this menu. Such access keys are used with the Alt key. In our application, the File menu can be displayed by clicking it or with the access key Alt+F.

3   

Modify the (Name) property for this menu to be “menuFile.”

How-to

a. Display the Properties window for the new File menu item.

b. Click the (Name) entry.

c. Enter the text “menuFile.”

The (Name) setting represents the variable name used for the object in the MainForm.cs source code. Changing this value automatically changes all generated instances of the variable in the source code to the new name.

Note

The string “&File” we entered for the menu appears in the Text property.

Your application now contains a File menu on the menu bar. In the source code, the menuFile variable is created as a private MenuItem object within the class.

    private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuFile;

The InitializeComponent method now contains additional lines to initialize this menu and add it to our MainMenu object. The relevant lines are extracted here.

    private void InitializeComponent()
    {
      . . .
      this.menuFile = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem ();
      . . .
      //
      // mainMenu1
      //
      this.mainMenu1.MenuItems.AddRange(new
              System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem[] { this.menuFile } );
      //
      // menuFile
      //
      this.menuFile.Index = 0;
      this.menuFile.Text = "&File";
      . . .
    }

Note in particular how the File menu is added to our mainMenu1 object by creating an array of MenuItem objects with menuFile as the only entry. This code also sets an Index property, which we will discuss in the next section.

3.2.3 Adding the dropdown menu

So far, we have added the main menu and inserted a File menu in it. Next we will create the dropdown menu that appears when this menu is clicked.

Create the File dropdown menu

 

Action

Result

1   

Enter a Load menu item within the File menu. Use the text “&Load.”

How-to

a. Make sure the designer window is displayed.

b. Click the File menu.

c. Type in “&Load” below the File menu where it says Type Here.

A Load menu appears as the first item in the dropdown list for the File menu.

2   

Display the Properties window for the Load menu item and set the following property values:

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuLoad

Shortcut

CtrlL

Text

&Load

The modified properties are displayed in the Properties window.

Note

The Shortcut property defines a keyboard shortcut, in this case Ctrl+L, that immediately invokes the menu as if it were clicked, without actually displaying the menu.

 

The access key Alt+L for this menu can be used to select this menu from the keyboard after the File menu has been displayed

3   

Add a menu separator after the Load menu.

How-to

Enter a dash character ‘-‘ as the next menu item.

A menu separator is added to the dropdown menu.

Note

By definition, menu separator in .NET is a MenuItem with its Text property set to a single dash.

We will leave the (Name) of the separator as the default value.

4   

Finally, add the Exit menu item.

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuExit

Text

E&xit

The File menu is now complete.

Note

Of course, the Windows keyboard shortcut Alt+F4 can always be used to close the application. There is no need to add this keystroke to our menu as it is imposed by the operating system.

As you might expect, the code generated for the MainForm.cs file uses MenuItem objects to add this dropdown list to the File menu, with the objects initialized in the InitializeComponent method. The relevant code from the source file is shown here.

    private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuLoad;
    private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuItem1;
    private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuExit;
    . . .
    private void InitializeComponent()
    {
      . . .
      this.menuLoad = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem();
      this.menuItem1 = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem();
      this.menuExit = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem();
      . . .
      //
      // menuFile
      //
      this.menuFile.Index = 0;
      this.menuFile.MenuItems.AddRange(new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem[] {
                                           this.menuLoad,        
                                           this.menuItem1,       
                                           this.menuExit});      
      this.menuFile.Text = "&File";
      //
      // menuLoad
      //
      this.menuLoad.Index = 0;
      this.menuLoad.Shortcut = System.Windows.Forms.Shortcut.CtrlL;  
      this.menuLoad.Text = "&Load";
      //
      // menuItem1
      //
      this.menuItem1.Index = 1;
      this.menuItem1.Text = "-";                                     
      //
      // menuExit
      //
      this.menuExit.Index = 2;                    
      this.menuExit.Text = "E&xit";
      . . .
    }

Some aspects of this code worth highlighting:

1. Create File dropdown menu. As we saw for our main menu, the items to appear under the File menu are added by constructing an array of the desired MenuItem objects and assigning them to the menuFile.MenuItems property. Note that this array does not establish the order in which these items will appear. The display order is established by the menu index assigned to each object.

2. Define keyboard shortcut. The Ctrl+L shortcut for the Load menu is defined using the System.Windows.Forms.Shortcut enumeration.

3. Create menu separator. This line creates our separator menuItem1 by setting its Text property to a dash (-).

4. Set menu index. The Index property defines the zero-based position of the menu item within its parent menu. This position establishes the order in which menu items are displayed. In our code, the dropdown list for the File menu should display the Load menu, then a separator, and then the Exit menu. This is done by setting Index property for these objects to 0, 1, and 2, respectively.

Our code uses a few of the properties provided by the MenuItem class. Other properties will be used as we progress through this and subsequent chapters. An overview of the MenuItem class appears in .NET Table 3.3.

.NET Table 3.3 MenuItem class

The MenuItem class represents a menu within a MainMenu or ContextMenu object, or a submenu of another MenuItem object. MenuItem objects are displayed to the user, while MainMenu and ContextMenu objects simply establish a container in which MenuItem objects can appear. The MenuItem class is part of the System.Windows.Forms namespace, and inherits from the Menu class. See .NET Table 3.1 on page 72 for a list of members inherited from this base class.

Public Properties

Checked

Gets or sets whether a checkmark appears next to the text of the menu item.

Enabled

Gets or sets whether the menu item is enabled. A disabled menu is displayed in a gray color, cannot be selected, and does not display and child menu items.

Index

Gets or sets the position of the menu item within its parent menu.

MergeOrder

Gets or sets the value of the relative position for the menu when it is merged with another.

OwnerDraw

Gets or sets whether Windows draws the menu (false) or the application will draw the item (true). Used to create custom menus.

Parent

Gets the Menu object that is the parent of this menu.

RadioCheck

If Checked is true, gets or sets whether to display a radio button next to the menu instead of a checkmark.

Shortcut

Gets or sets the shortcut key for this menu item.

ShowShortcut

Gets or sets whether to display the Shortcut setting when displaying the menu.

Text

Gets or sets the text to display for the menu. The character following an ampersand (&) is used as an accelerator key.

Visible

Gets or sets whether to display the menu item.

Public Methods

CloneMenu

Creates a copy of the MenuItem.

MergeMenu

Merges this menu with another MenuItem.

PerformClick

Generates a Click event for this item.

PerformSelect

Generates a Select event for this item.

Public Events

Click

Occurs when the user clicks the menu or accesses it via an accelerator or shortcut key.

DrawItem

Occurs when the OwnerDraw property is true and a request is made to draw the menu item.

MeasureItem

Occurs when the size of the menu item is required before drawing it.

Popup

Occurs before the menu item displays its list of child menus.

Select

Occurs when the menu is highlighted using the mouse or keyboard.

If you wish to see the application so far, compile and run the code to view the File menu. You will notice that the menu bar contains only a single item, which is perhaps a bit boring. We do not want a boring application, so we will double the number of menus in our next section.

3.2.4 Adding a View menu

We have seen how to add simple menu items and menu separators, so here we will do something different. Let’s add a menu with a submenu to set how the displayed image should appear in the window. This will give us an opportunity to cover checked menus as well. Figure 3.5 shows the View menu we will create as it appears in Visual Studio.

Figure 3.5 Menus in Windows Forms Designer are similar to their appearance in an application, with the addition of a “Type Here” wherever a new menu item can be added.

The View menu and its single menu item Image are created similarly to how the File menu was previously created.

Create the View menu

 

Action

Result

1   

Add a top-level View menu to the right of our existing File menu.

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuView

Text

&View

A new MenuItem object called menuView is created in the MainForm.cs source code

private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem menuView;

This object is initialized in the InitializeComponent method as well.

private void InitializeComponent()
    {
      this.menuView
          = new System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem ();
      . . .
      menuView.Index = 1;
      menuView.Text = "&View";
      . . .
    }

2   

Underneath the View menu, add an Image menu item.

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuImage

Text

&Image

A new MenuItem called menuImage is created and initialized in the source code.

So far this is similar to our File menu. We continue by creating the submenu to appear when the user clicks the Image menu.

Create the Image submenu

 

Action

Result

3   

Add the “Stretch to Fit” submenu item and assign its properties.

How-to

Enter this menu to the right of the Image item (not underneath it).

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuStretch

Text

S&tretch to Fit

The new menu appears in Visual Studio .NET as in figure 3.5. A new MenuItem is created in the MainForm.cs source file as well.

private System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem

menuStretch;

. . .

4   

Add the “Actual Size” submenu item.

Settings

Property

Value

(Name)

menuActual

Text

&Actual Size

These changes are reflected in the MainForm.cs source code. In particular, the collection of menus in the menuImage submenu is initialized to contain our two new values:

  this.menuImage.MenuItems.AddRange(new
            System.Windows.Forms.MenuItem[] {
                    this.menuStretch,
                    this.menuActual});  

The code generated in MainForm.cs for the View menu is very similar to the code we looked at previously, so we will not discuss it in more detail. Realize that all of our visible menus are MenuItem objects regardless of what level they appear on. The View menu, the Image menu item, and the Stretch to Fit submenu item are all objects of type MenuItem.

TRY IT!

Compile and run the application to see the menus in action. Notice how the shortcut for the Load menu is displayed within the menu. Try setting the ShowShortcut property for this menu to false in order to prevent this shortcut from appearing on the menu. Note that the keyboard shortcut still works, the user is just not told about it in the menu bar.

Sit back for a moment and think about what we have done here. If you have used Visual C++ with MFC, you should realize that the secret macros and magic interface files required by this environment are gone. In their place are well-designed objects that can quickly and easily be used to create arbitrarily complex menu structures.

If you have been following the examples with Visual Studio .NET, also realize that you have not written any code thus far. This will change when we add event handlers for our menus in the next section.

3.3 Click events

Of course, a menu is not very useful if you can’t make it do something. In this section we’ll define some event handlers for our menus and examine how these handlers work in more detail than we covered in chapter 2. This section builds on the MyPhotos version 3.2 project constructed in section 3.2, or available on the book’s web site.

Events for Windows Forms controls can be added from the Windows Forms Designer window, or in the Properties window. We will discuss each method separately.

3.3.1 Adding handlers via the designer window

As you might guess, Visual Studio adds a Click event handler whenever you double-click a menu control in the Windows Forms Designer. We already saw this behavior for buttons in chapter 2. Let’s use this feature to add a handler to the Load menu here.

Add Click handler for the Load menu

Set the application version number to 3.3.

 

Action

Result

1        

Display the MainForm.cs [Design] window.

 

2        

Add a Click handler for the Load menu

How-to

a. Click the File menu.

b. Double-click the Load menu.

Note

This double-click method only works for the Click event. We will see how to add events more generally in the next section.

A new event handler for the Load menu is added and the cursor is placed in the MainForm.cs code window within the newly added handler.

  protected void menuLoad_Click(object sender,
      System.EventArgs e)
  {
  }

The new handler is also registered as a Click handler for the Load button in the InitializeComponent method.

  menuLoad.Click += new System.EventHandler
        (this.menuLoad_Click);  

3        

Copy the code from the now defunct btnLoad_Click into our new method and delete the old method.

Note

Unless you removed it, the code for btnLoad_Click should still be present in your code. After copying this code, remove the method.

This code is identical to the code used with our Load button in chapter 2; it is just invoked via a menu rather than a button.

 protected void menuLoad_Click
      (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {
    OpenFileDialog dlg = new OpenFileDialog();

    dlg.Title = "Open Photo";
    dlg.Filter = "jpg files (*.jpg)"
        + "|*.jpg|All files (*.*)|*.*";

    if (dlg.ShowDialog() == DialogResult.OK)
    {
      try
      {
        pbxPhoto.Image = new
            Bitmap(dlg.OpenFile());
      }
      catch (Exception ex)
      {
        MessageBox.Show(
            "Unable to load file: "
                + ex.Message);
      }
    }

    dlg.Dispose();
  }

Since this code matches the handler we discussed in chapter 2 for the Load button, we will not discuss it again.

Compile the application to verify that the Load menu now works as expected. You should be able to load a new image using the menu bar via the mouse, using the accelerator keys Alt+F and then Alt+L, or using the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+L.

3.3.2 Adding handlers via the properties window

Double-clicking our controls in Visual Studio is fine when we wish to add a Click event handler for a menu item. What about other types of events? The .NET classes provide a rich set of events for everything from keyboard presses and mouse clicks to redrawing a control. To support these and other events, Visual Studio provides a more generic way to add an event handler than the double-click we have used thus far.

This is done using the Properties window. We have seen how this window provides the list of properties associated with a specific control. It also provides the list of events for each control and allows new event handlers to be added. Figure 3.6 shows the relevant elements of the Properties window. Note the small toolbar buttons between the object dropdown and the list of object members. The Properties button is the default and displays a list of properties for the current object. If you click the Events button, this windows displays a list of events. The events for the menuExit object are shown in the figure.

Figure 3.6 The Properties window displays both the properties and events for the controls on the form.

As you can see in the figure, our menuExit object supports six different events. These correspond to the events for the MenuItem class shown in .NET Table 3.3 on page 82. To the right of these events, the registered event handlers are displayed, with a menuExit_Click method shown as the handler for the Click event.. To add a specific type of event, you simply need to double-click the entry in this window. We will illustrate this by defining a Click event handler for the Exit menu.

Add Click handler for the Exit menu

 

Action

Result

1        

Display the Properties window for the Exit menu.

The available properties for the menuExit object are shown.

2        

Click the Events button in the Properties toolbar.

The events for the menuExit object are displayed.

3        

Double-click the Click item listed in the window.

A menuExit_Click handler is added to the menuExit object. The new method is registered and defined in the InitializeComponent method, and the cursor is located within this new method.

protected void menuExit_Click
        (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {

4        

Call the Form.Close method within this handler.

 this.Close();
  }

 

Note

Note how the code for this event handler is split across steps 3 and 4 of this table. We will do this throughout the book as a convenient way to discuss different sections of code for a single member of a class.

The Form.Close method is used to exit the application. This method closes the associated form, or the entire application if the form was the startup form for the application.

As you may have noticed in chapter 1, the Application class provides an Exit method that we could use instead here. This call forces all message loops started by Application.Run methods to exit, and closes any forms associated with them. Usually, this will cause the application itself to exit as well.

Usually, but not always. Programmers familiar with threading will realize that other threads may be created that do not use the Application.Run method. Such threads are unaffected by the Application.Exit call, so that even though no windows may remain open after a call to Application.Exit, the application itself can still be working away. As a result, the application will not, in fact, exit.

Because of this behavior, the use of the Forms.Close method is your best bet when trying to exit the application. As a result, we use this method in the Click handler for our Exit menu.

TRY IT!

Once again, compile and run the code to verify that the Load and Exit menus now work. If you feel like experimenting, modify the Enabled and Visible properties for the Exit menu to see how they change the behavior of this menu.

Our handling of the File menu is now complete. Next we will handle the items in the View menu.

3.4 Popup events and shared handlers

The File menu is fairly straightforward as menus go. There is a Load item, a separator, and an Exit item. Each menu item raises a Click event when pressed, and the associated event handler performs the appropriate operations. Our View menu will handle things a little differently. This menu contains a single Image menu, which in turn points to a submenu with two entries. When a MenuItem object contains a non-empty collection in its MenuItems property, the Click event for that menu is not raised. This makes sense, as the submenu automatically pops up when the parent menu is clicked, making a Click event a bit extraneous.

This is the case for the File and View menus on the menu bar. These menus never raise a Click event. The same applies to the Image menu, since it is the parent of the MenuItem objects menuStretch and menuActual. Rather than Click events, menus such as the Image menu raise a Popup event just before their submenu is displayed. This permits an event handler to modify the contents or appearance of the submenu as dictated by the application. An example of this type of handler can be found in the Windows operating system. Display the My Computer window and look at the File menu. The contents of the File menu changes depending on what type of file is currently selected.

In .NET, Popup events can be associated with any MenuItem or ContextMenu object that contains a collection of MenuItem objects in their MenuItems property.

In this section we will use a Popup event associated with the Image menu to control how our two submenu items appear when displayed. Before we do this, we will need a Click event handler for our submenu items.

3.4.1 Defining a shared handler

The submenu for the Image menu item pops up whenever the Image menu is clicked. Our submenu items are selected by the user to control how the image should appear in the window. To implement this behavior, we will alter the SizeMode property of our PictureBox control depending on which menu was selected. The SizeMode values for these menus are as follows:

The SizeMode settings for the Image submenu items

MenuItem

SizeMode Setting

Description

Stretch to Window

StretchImage

As we have already seen, this value causes the image to be stretched or shrunk to exactly fit the display area.

Actual Size

Normal

This displays the actual image data in the display area with the upper left corner of the image in the upper left corner of the display area.

One way to implement this behavior would be to handle the Click event for each MenuItem in the above table, and modify the SizeMode setting appropriately in each handler. A fine idea, but not our approach. Instead, this is a great opportunity to see the power of event handlers in .NET, not to mention lay the groundwork for some features we will explore later in this chapter and in other chapters.

For our implementation, we will use a single event handler for both MenuItem objects. This handler will also be employed when we discuss context menus later in the chapter, and will ensure consistency between our menu bar and context menu as we add more features in future chapters. To facilitate this amazing behavior, we will define a new structure to hold the SizeMode value depending on the Index setting of the menu.

Define array for SizeMode settings

Set the application version to 3.4.

 

Action

Result

1      

Locate the MainForm constructor in the MainForm.cs window.

 

2      

Add a private array of PictureBoxSizeMode values called modeMenuArray just before the constructor.

/// <summary>
  /// Mode settings for the View->Image submenu.
  /// The order here must correspond to the order
  /// of menus in the submenu.
  /// </summary>
  private PictureBoxSizeMode[] modeMenuArray =
  {
    PictureBoxSizeMode.StretchImage,
    PictureBoxSizeMode.Normal
  }; 

Note

To enter the comment preceding the array definition, type in three slashes (///)in Visual Studio and it will automatically expand to a <summary> comment block.

3      

Add a private integer nSelectedImageMode after the array.

private int nSelectedImageMode = 0;

Note

This variable will hold the currently selected display mode for the image.

With these variables available, a Click handler for both the menuStretch and menuActual menu items can now be implemented. One possible implementation for this handler would is shown below:

  // An example (not our approach) of a shared event handler
  protected void menuImage_ChildClick (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {
    if (sender == (object)menuStretch)
    {
      // Code for Stretch to Window click
    }
    else
    {
      // Code for Actual Size click
    }
  }

This implementation uses the sender parameter provided to the handler to identify which menu was selected. This is an excellent idea and would work just fine. Because all classes ultimately derive from object, you can compare the sender parameter to your window control variables in order to identify which control raised the event. This is a common tactic used to handle a set of menus with a shared implementation.

In order to provide even more flexibility, we will favor an implementation that is not based on a comparison such as that shown above. This will allow us to modify our menus without the need to modify the code for this handler.

If you recall, the order of the menus within the parent menu menuImage is set using the Index property. The value of this property can be used as an index into the modeMenuArray variable to locate the proper SizeMode value.

Since our handler is not specific to any one item, we will call the handler menuImage_ChildClick. Let’s create the code required before we discuss this further. This code continues the previous steps that created the variables used by this handler.

Add shared Click handler for Image submenu

 

Action

Result

4      

In the MainForm.cs [Design] window, add a Click event handler for the Stretch to Fit menu called menuImage_ChildClick.

How-to

a. Display the Properties window for the Stretch to Fit menu.

b. Click the Events button to show the list of events.

c. Click in the space to the right of the Click item.

d. Enter the handler “menuImage_ChildClick” by hand.

e. Press the Enter key.

The new method is registered with the menuStretch object in the InitializeComponent method of the MainForm.cs source file:

    menuStretch.Click +=
        new System.EventHandler (
              this.menuImage_ChildClick);

The MainForm.cs code window is shown with the cursor at the beginning of this new method.

 protected void menuImage_ChildClick
      (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {
  }

5      

Add this method as the Click handler for the Actual Size menu as well.

How-to

a. Display the events for the Actual Size menu.

b. Click to the right of the Click item.

c. Click the down arrow.

d. Select the menuImage_ChildClick event handler from the list.

Note

This down arrow is shown in the graphic for the prior step., Clicking this arrow displays a list of possible event handlers from your code.

The selected handler is registered with the Actual Size menu in the InitializeComponent method of the MainForm.cs source file.

   menuActual.Click +=
        new System.EventHandler (
              this.menuImage_ChildClick);

We now have one event handler that receives the Click event for two different menus. Note how the handler is registered for each menu in the same way as our previous Click handlers.

Continuing with our previous steps, we can now implement this handler.

Implement the menuImage_ChildClick event handler.

 

Action

Result

6      

First, make sure sender is a MenuItem object.

protected void menuImage_ChildClick
      (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {
    if (sender is MenuItem)
    {

Note

Readers familiar with C# will recognize that this implementation requires two casts, one to perform the is statement, another to cast the sender parameter to a MenuItem object. This can be avoided using the as keyword, which we will discuss later in the book.

7      

Create a local MenuItem instance from sender.

      MenuItem mi = (MenuItem)sender;

 

8      

Set the SizeMode property to the appropriate array value based on the selected menu.

      nSelectedImageMode = mi.Index;
      pbxPhoto.SizeMode = modeMenuArray[mi.Index];

 

9      

Invalidate the PictureBox control to re-display the image.

    pbxPhoto.Invalidate(); 
    }
  }

The code for the menuImage_ChildClick handler introduces a few new concepts. We duplicate it here so we can discuss it in more detail.

  protected void menuImage_ChildClick (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {
    if (sender is MenuItem)          |#1
    {
      MenuItem mi = (MenuItem)sender;      |#2

      nSelectedImageMode = mi.Index;      |#3
      pbxPhoto.SizeMode = modeMenuArray[mi.Index];  |#3

      pbxPhoto.Invalidate();          |#4
    }
  }

Let’s look at the new concepts introduced here:

1. Verify sender is MenuItem object. In C++, there is no built-in mechanism for knowing if a variable is a certain type, making it difficult to safely downcast a variable from a base class (such as object) to a derived class (such as MenuItem). In C#, the is keyword provides a way to check that an object (such as the sender parameter) is in fact a specific type (in this case, a MenuItem instance).

2. Downcast sender to MenuItem instance. The key to this code is the ability to treat sender as a MenuItem object. The Index property is not available in the object class, so we need to convert our variable of type object into a variable of type MenuItem. Since the conversion is “down” the class hierarchy, such a conversion is called a downcast. In C++ such operations are dangerous since object might be something other than the target class type. In C#, downcasting is much safer. In fact, an illegal cast of an object throws an exception of type InvalidCastException. We verify that sender is a MenuItem object to ensure that an exception will not be thrown here.

3. Assign new display settings. The Index parameter is used to set the currently selected mode as well as an index into the modeMenuArray variable for determining the new value for the SizeMode property.

4. Invalidate PictureBox control. Windows Forms controls support the Invalidate method. This method invalidates the contents of the control so that the system will redraw, or paint, any changes onto the screen. In this case, we want the control to redraw the image with our new SizeMode setting.

Look carefully at what we have done here. This code is based solely on the index of the menu within its parent. We can add new menu items to our View menu or even use an alternate menu with a similar list of items. As long as we keep our modeMenuArray up to date, this method will reset the SizeMode property appropriately.

TRY IT!

Compile your code and verify that the PictureBox.SizeMode property is altered when you select a different submenu item. The PictureBox.SizeMode property contains more than just the two settings we use here. Add a menu item to the Image menu called menuCenter with text Center Image to handle the CenterImage value for this property. You will need to add a new MenuItem to the menuImage menu and modify the modeMenuArray definition to include this new value.

We now have a Click handler that will modify the way an image is displayed based on the user’s selection. Unfortunately, our interface does not indicate the current display mode in the Image submenu. We will address this problem in the next section by adding a check mark to the current value.

3.4.2 Handling Popup events

Users appreciate feedback on the current settings for an application. Our current interface does not yet do this. The user has to understand the possible displays modes in order to know what is currently selected and to choose a different setting. A nicer interface would somehow highlight the current selection in the menuImage submenu. This would immediately indicate what mode is currently displayed, and help our user make a more informed selection.

If you look at the MenuItem class, there is a Checked property that, when true, will display a check mark next to the menu. This property could be set whenever the selection is modified, and our user would see the appropriate feedback. Of course, as our program changes, there might be other commands or user interactions that alter the display mode of the image. A better approach would ensure that the display modes are checked or unchecked as they are displayed to the user. This approach is more robust in the face of future changes, creating an application that users, documenters, and testers will appreciate for years to come.

The Popup event is designed for just this purpose. This event occurs just before a submenu is displayed, so that its appearance or contents can be modified and then immediately displayed to the user. In Visual Studio, a Popup event handler is added from the Properties window much like we added a Click event in the previous section.

Implement a Popup handler for Image menu

 

Action

Result

1

Add a Popup event handler for the Image menu.

 

How-to

a. Display the events for the Image menu in the Properties window.

b. Double-click the Popup entry

A Popup event handler is added for the menuImage object. The beginning of this code is shown here:

 protected void menuImage_Popup
      (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
  {

2

Verify that the sender is a MenuItem object.

  if (sender is MenuItem)
   {

3

Determine if an image has been loaded into the application.

      bool bImageLoaded
          = (pbxPhoto.Image != null);

 

4

Set the Enabled and Checked properties for each submenu item.

      foreach (MenuItem mi in
                   ((MenuItem)sender).MenuItems)
      {
        mi.Enabled = bImageLoaded;
        mi.Checked
          = (this.nSelectedImageMode == mi.Index);
      }
    }
  }

 

Our new handler downcasts the sender object to a MenuItem instance similar to the menuImage_ChildClick handler we already discussed. The handler is repeated below so we can note a few points in the code.

 protected void menuImage_Popup (object sender, System.EventArgs e)
    {
      if (sender is Menu)
      {
        bool bImageLoaded = (pbxPhoto.Image != null);    |#1

        Menu parentMenu = (Menu)sender;
        foreach (MenuItem mi in parentMenu.MenuItems)        |#2
        {
          mi.Enabled = bImageLoaded;
          mi.Checked = (this.nSelectedImageMode == mi.Index);
        }
      }
    }

Note that the parentMenu variable here could be defined as a MenuItem object. The Menu type is a base class and allows our handler to accommodate other Menu types in the future. In addition, a couple C# keywords we have not seen before are worth a special mention.

1. Determine if an image is loaded. Unlike C and C++, C# has a built-in boolean type called bool. As a result, boolean expressions such as the one here evaluate to true or false, rather than 0 or 1 as in C. In this case, the bImageLoaded variable will be set to true only after an image has been assigned to the Image property of the pbxPhoto object.

2. Iterate over each submenu item. In addition to the for loop used in C and other languages, C# also defines a foreach loop. A foreach loop iterates over the objects in an array or other container object, with the advantage that you don’t have to worry about the starting or ending index, or whether the container is empty. The language ensures that each entry in the given container is passed to the loop code. In this case, the loop executes for each MenuItem contained in the given menuImage menu. Within the loop, each MenuItem is enabled only if an image has been loaded, and a check mark is set using the Checked property based on whether the index of the menu item matches the selected image mode.

You may also notice that there is nothing in this handler to indicate that these menu items are part of a specific menu structure. This will be useful in our upcoming discussion on context menus.

Compile and run the application to verify that the menus work correctly, and the display mode of the image changes depending on the menu selection. Figure 3.7 shows the application with an image displayed in Actual Size mode.

Figure 3.7 Our Actual Size display mode only shows a portion of the image. The window must be resized to view more.

Unfortunately, this figure reveals another problem with our PictureBox control. In the figure, the image is larger than the display area, but there is no way to see the rest of the image without resizing the window. While this is possible when the image is small enough, a high-resolution image may contain more pixels than our screen. Ideally, the application should display scroll bars here. Since the PictureBox control does not support scroll bars, this is not possible.

You may be wondering about a book that teaches you how to build an application that doesn’t quite work, and you should. Be patient until chapter 7, where we will get rid of our not-quite-right PictureBox control in order to fix this problem.

TRY IT!

Okay, I admit this has nothing to do with our application. Still, if you want to have fun with a Popup event, add a new menu menuCounter at the bottom of the View menu called “Counter” and insert a single menu called “Popup” in its submenu. Define a Popup event for the menuCounter menu (which Visual Studio will call menuCounter_Popup). In this handler, dynamically create a new MenuItem object and add it to the end of the menuCounter submenu. Set the Text property to your new menu to “Count #,” where # is the number of pop-ups that have occurred on your new menu. To do this, add a static integer popupCount to the MainForm class to track the number of pop-ups. The lines to create the new menu in your Popup handler will look something like the following.

        MenuItem mi = new MenuItem();
        mi.Text = "Count " + popupCount.ToString();
        menuCounter.MenuItems.Add(mi);

This example illustrates how easy it is to create controls on the fly with the .NET Framework, and how a parent menu can change the contents of its submenu using the Popup event handler. This might be used, for example, to display a list of files most recently opened by an application.

If all this makes no sense to you, download the code for this TRY IT! from the book’s web site. Have a look at the menuCounter_Popup handler to see the code required.

This concludes our discussion of the main menu in our application. Some of you may be disappointed that we did not look at owner-drawn menus, such as menus that display an icon or other image in addition to or instead of a text string. If this applies to you, skip ahead and go read chapter 4. There we discuss owner-drawn status bar panels, which use a similar mechanism to that required for owner-drawn menus. In the meantime, the rest of us will move on to context menus.

3.5 Context menus

While the creation of context menus requires a little extra effort by a programmer, they also improve the usability of an application greatly and should be seriously considered for any application. The ability of a user to right-click a control and instantly see a list of commands is a powerful mechanism that experienced users especially appreciate. Context menus are typically associated with a specific graphical control, but can also be brought up programmatically. As a result, context menus provide quick access to commands immediately relevant to what the user is currently trying to accomplish or understand.

Most controls in the System.Windows.Forms namespace have a ContextMenu property that specifies a ContextMenu object to associate with the control. Like the Menu property on Form objects, this setting can be changed dynamically to allow different context menus to display depending on the state of the control.

In this section we will add a context menu to our PictureBox control that will match the contents of the View menu. The contents and behavior of our context menu will be inherited from the View menu items. As you will see, our careful handling of these menus earlier in the chapter will make processing events for our context menu a snap. Figure 3.8 shows this context menu both before and after an image has been loaded by the user.

Figure 3.8 In both the main View menu and the context menu, the display options are disabled before an image is loaded.

3.5.1 Creating a context menu

We will begin by simply adding a new context menu to our application and associating it with the pbxPhoto control. The next section will discuss how to populate this menu with our existing menu items.

Add a context menu

Set the application version to 3.5.

 

Action

Result

1   

Add a ContextMenu object to the form in the MainForm.cs [Design] window.

How-to

a. Open the Toolbox window.

b. Drag a ContextMenu object onto the form.

The new object appears below the form next to the existing MainMenu object.

Note

The Visual Studio window for this step is a bit too big for this space, but is shown in figure 3.9.

2   

Rename the new context menu to “ctxtMenuImage.”

How-to

Use the Properties window to modify the (Name) setting for the object.

The new name is displayed both below the form and in the Properties window.

All instances of the ContextMenu object in the source code MainForm.cs are renamed as well.

private System.Windows.Forms.ContextMenu

ctxtMenuImage;

3   

Associate this new context menu with our PictureBox control.

How-to

a. Display the properties for the pbxPhoto object.

b. Locate the ContextMenu property.

c. Click to the right of this entry.

d. Click the down arrow.

e. Select the ctxtMenuImage item from the list.

The down arrow for the ContextMenu property displays the list of available ContextMenu objects available in the form. In our case, only the ctxtMenuImage is shown.

 

In the InitializeComponent method of our MainForm class, the selected context menu is assigned to the property.

  private void InitializeComponent()
  {
    . . .
    pbxPhoto.ContextMenu = this.ctxtMenuImage;

When you are finished, your Visual Studio .NET window should look something like figure 3.9. Visual Studio generates all the necessary source code for these changes, excerpts of which appear in the steps shown in the previous table.

Figure 3.9 The component tray below the designer window is used for objects that do not have a representation on the form itself.

The .NET ContextMenu class is essentially a container for the MenuItem objects that appear within the menu. An overview of this class is shown in the .NET Table 3.4.

.NET Table 3.4 ContextMenu class

The ContextMenu class is a popup menu that appears at the current cursor location when a user right-clicks an associated object. This class is part of the System.Windows.Forms namespace, and inherits from the Menu class. Context menus are typically associated with a graphical control, and are displayed automatically at a right-click of the mouse within the control. The Control class contains a ContextMenu property inherited by most controls that establishes a context menu to automatically display for the control. See the Menu class description in .NET Table 3.1 on page 72 for a list of inherited members.

Public Properties

RightToLeft

Indicates whether text in the control should be displayed right to left.

SourceControl

Gets the last Control object that displayed this context menu.

Public Methods

Show

Displays the menu at a specified position within a given control.

Public Events

Popup

Occurs before a context menu displays its list of child menus.

3.5.2 Adding menu items

We are now ready to add menu items to our context menu. Within Visual Studio, you can click the ctxtMenuImage object in the designer window to display a “Type Here” message on your form much like it did for the MainMenu object. You can enter the items to include on this menu and create submenus and handlers as we discussed earlier in the chapter.

We could use this feature to manually enter the contents of the main View menu into our context menu. The behavior and events would have to be set manually for each menu, and the menu would require updating every time the View menu changes. While this could be done, it would be ideal if we could simply copy the contents of the existing View menu into our new context menu, and inherit the behavior and event handlers already established.

Fortunately, the MenuItem class provides a CloneMenu method to create a duplicate copy of a menu item. This permits us to very quickly create our context menu with the identical behavior as the existing View menu in the menu bar.

Clone the View menu items into the context menu

 

Action

Result

1   

Create a private DefineContextMenu method at the end of the MainForm.cs source file.

  private void DefineContextMenu()
  {

 

2   

For each MenuItem in the View menu, clone the menu and add it to our context menu.

   // Copy the View menu into ctxtMenuImage
    foreach (MenuItem mi in menuView.MenuItems)
    {
      ctxtMenuImage.MenuItems.Add
          (mi.Index, mi.CloneMenu());
    }
  }

3   

Call the new DefineContextMenu method from the end of the MainForm constructor.

  public MainForm()
  {
    . . .
    DefineContextMenu();
  }

Note

Unlike C++, C# does not require forward declarations of functions. The method may be used at the beginning of the file even though it is not defined until the end of the file.

In the implementation of DefineContextMenu, note how a foreach loop is used to iterate over the items in the View menu. Each item is added to the ctxtMenuImage context menu using the MenuItems property of the class. The identical menu index is used for the new menu so that the order of menus in the context menu will match the order used in the View menu. This feature is important, since the foreach loop does not provide any guarantees on the order in which MenuItem objects are presented to the loop.

Compile and run this application to see our new context menu in action. The CloneMenu method provides a deep copy, in that it duplicates not only the Image menu item, but its child menu items and all event handlers associated with each menu. Because of our careful construction of the Popup and Click event handlers earlier in the chapter, these handlers work without any changes.

It is important to realize that the MenuItem objects within our context menu are not the same as those under the View menu. In particular, if you manually modify an item (such as the menuStretch menu), it will have no effect on the context menu. This may seem a bit strange to programmers used to managing memory in their application, since there are no pointers or other mechanisms required to track these new MenuItem objects. The references to these objects from the context menu are tracked internally as part of the garbage collection system, leaving us to concentrate on our next subject instead of worrying about memory management.

3.6 Recap

That’s it for menus in .NET. In this chapter we showed how both menu bars and context menus can be created, modified, and handled within the .NET Framework by adding these controls to our MyPhotos application. We looked at submenus, and showed how a single event handler can be used by multiple menu objects.

The shared event handlers we created supported both our menu bar as well as our context menu. The contents of our context menu were cloned, or copied, based on the contents of the top-level View menu so that the behavior and processing of both constructs were identical.

We also examined some C# keywords such as the is, in, and foreach keywords, as well as the bool type. We looked at the Properties window in Visual Studio .NET in more detail, and used this window to add various events to our program.

Future chapters will rely on our knowledge of menus and the C# and Visual Studio items we have learned here. The next chapter will take us to the bottom of the application window, where the status bar normally resides.

More .NET

Throughout the book, short notes like this will discuss concepts and examples beyond the scope of the text. This includes additional classes worth investigating as well as sources for additional information related to the topic at hand. One resource for menus specifically and .NET in general is the GotDotNet web site at www.gotdotnet.com. This site is currently managed by Microsoft, and bills itself as the “.NET Framework Community Website.”

General information about the .NET Framework can also be found on the Microsoft Developer Network at msdn.microsoft.com. These and other Internet sites with information on .NET are listed in Appendix C.


[1] It is worth noting that object, as a class, is a reference type, whereas types such as int and char are value types. When a value type is used as an object instance, the value type is converted to a reference type via a process called boxing. This process is totally hidden from the programmer, but does have performance implications. See Appendix A for a discussion of this concept in more detail.

[2] The details of marshalling is totally hidden for most Windows Forms applications, so you do not really need to know any of this. I hope you find it somewhat interesting if not useful.

Copyright 2002 Manning Publications Company. Reprinted with permission

License

This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

About the Author

Erik Brown
Web Developer
United States United States
Erik Brown is the author of "Windows Forms in Action" and a veteran of three startup companies, all successful. He holds a B.S. and M.S. in Mathematics from Carnegie-Mellon University and currently works as an architect and project manager at Unisys Corporation.
 
When not in front of his computer, Erik can be found on and around the soccer fields of Northern Virginia, where he lives with his wife and two daughters.

Comments and Discussions

 
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QuestionHaving Menuitems not compatible with Click event?? Pinmemberpchiwan12-Dec-05 0:46 
AnswerRe: Having Menuitems not compatible with Click event?? PinmemberErik Brown12-Dec-05 14:58 
GeneralRe: Having Menuitems not compatible with Click event?? Pinmemberpchiwan12-Dec-05 21:27 
GeneralPlacing menus at out own location PinmemberMurthy Pydikondala24-Nov-05 1:32 
GeneralRe: Placing menus at out own location PinmemberErik Brown24-Nov-05 8:52 
GeneralPlacing menus at out own location PinmemberMurthy Pydikondala24-Nov-05 1:30 
GeneralRe: Placing menus at out own location PinmemberErik Brown24-Nov-05 8:57 
GeneralQuestion PinmemberRadgar2-Mar-05 13:32 
GeneralRe: Question PinmemberErik Brown2-Mar-05 14:58 
GeneralRe: Question PinmemberRadgar3-Mar-05 1:26 
GeneralGreat Examples. PinsussAnonymous11-Feb-05 6:37 
GeneralRe: Great Examples. PinmemberErik Brown11-Feb-05 10:52 
GeneralSuggestion for a cool example PinmemberSoliant15-May-04 18:58 
GeneralRe: Suggestion for a cool example PinmemberErik Brown16-May-04 16:09 

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