Click here to Skip to main content
Click here to Skip to main content

MVVM PRISM: Modal Windows by using Interaction Request with Generics

, 19 Sep 2012 CPOL
Rate this:
Please Sign up or sign in to vote.
How generics can help us in achieving modal windows in WPF PRISM
Animal's Modal View Animal's Modal View


This article pretends to be the continuation of my other article MVVM PRISM: ProgressBar Interaction Request with Asynchronous Command. Here I will try to explain another interesting way to use modal windows in WPF by using PRISM and its way to do interactions. I am not going to enter to explain in detail every functionality of each component because so it is done in the related article above.

I assume you are familiar with WPF, PRISM and MVVM pattern.

How Does PRISM Try to Get Interactions?

If you have read PRISM’s official developer’s guide, you have probably seen the part of the document where it briefly explains the way to achieve modal interaction and you probably have had trouble to understand or get a custom way to extend IInteractionRequest in order to get more than a MessageBox.

Well, let’s focus on the subject. Basically, the main idea is to trigger a TriggerAction<T> on the UI’s thread from the view model by using property binding. Once the trigger has been launched, it will create the UserControl (the modal view) and it will be inserted to the element’s control collection which is holding the TriggerAction<T>.

For that view which the UI’s thread has just created, it will set a callback to a button in order to quit from the modal view and get back to the main view with any result.

Following the Line

The finality of my project is to find a way to show modal views presenting encapsulated data in a class by using the MVVM pattern, and of course trying to do it in the simplest way I can. Then, let’s try generics.

So following the specs, I’m raising the trigger by passing as argument a generic class (GenericInteractionRequestEventArgs<T>) containing a callback and an object with all data to be presented in the modal view. The callback accepts that generic type as parameter.

public class GenericInteractionRequestEventArgs<T> : EventArgs
    public GenericInteractionRequestEventArgs
    (T _entity, Action<T> _callback, Action _cancelCallback) 
        this.CancelCallback = _cancelCallback;
        this.Callback = _callback;
        this.Entity = _entity;

    public Action CancelCallback { get; private set; }
    public Action<T> Callback { get; private set; }
    public T Entity { get; private set; }

public class GenericInteractionAction<T> : TriggerAction<Grid>
    private Dictionary<UIElement, bool> currentState = new Dictionary<UIElement, bool>();

    public static readonly DependencyProperty DialogProperty =
		DependencyProperty.Register("Dialog", typeof(GenericInteractionDialogBase<T>), typeof(GenericInteractionAction<T>), new PropertyMetadata(null));

    public GenericInteractionDialogBase<T> Dialog
	get { return (GenericInteractionDialogBase<T>)GetValue(DialogProperty); }
	set { SetValue(DialogProperty, value); }

    protected override void Invoke(object parameter)
	var args = parameter as GenericInteractionRequestEventArgs<T>;
	this.SetDialog(args.Entity, args.Callback, args.CancelCallback, null);

    private void SetDialog(T entity, Action<T> callback, Action cancelCallback, UIElement element)
	if (this.Dialog is Views.IGenericInteractionView<T>)
		Views.IGenericInteractionView<T> view = this.Dialog as Views.IGenericInteractionView<T>;

		EventHandler handler = null;
		handler = (s, e) =>
			this.Dialog.ConfirmEventHandler -= handler;
			this.Dialog.CancelEventHandler -= handler;

			if (e.ToString() == InteractionType.OK.ToString())

		this.Dialog.ConfirmEventHandler += handler;
		this.Dialog.CancelEventHandler += handler;
		this.Dialog.SetValue(Grid.RowSpanProperty, this.AssociatedObject.RowDefinitions.Count == 0 ? 1 : this.AssociatedObject.RowDefinitions.Count);
		this.Dialog.SetValue(Grid.ColumnSpanProperty, this.AssociatedObject.ColumnDefinitions.Count == 0 ? 1 : this.AssociatedObject.ColumnDefinitions.Count);                

    private void SaveCurrentState()
	IEnumerator en = this.AssociatedObject.Children.GetEnumerator();
	while (en.MoveNext())
		if (en.Current != this.Dialog)
			UIElement element = (UIElement)en.Current;
			this.currentState.Add(element, element.IsEnabled);
			element.IsEnabled = false;

    private void RestorePreviousState()
	foreach (UIElement element in this.currentState.Keys)            
		element.IsEnabled = this.currentState[element];

Once the trigger has been invoked, it creates the modal view and by using its adapter, it sets the generic property of the view model in order to achieve property binding. Then if we modify some data and press on the modal view’s button, it gets back to the main view model by calling the callback and retrieving the object that has been modified. All of this is done thanks to the adapter, which is responsible to interact between the UI’s thread and the view models. In order to achieve all of this, we need to use a generic TriggerAction. That TriggerAction will contain a generic DependencyProperty that it will be the modal view that we want to show. This modal view must be typed like it is defined in the generic TriggerAction.

public interface IGenericAdapter<T>
    IGenericViewModel<T> ViewModel { get; }

public interface IGenericInteractionView<T>
    void SetEntity(T entity);
    T GetEntity();

public interface IGenericViewModel<T> : IGenericInteractionView<T>, INotifyPropertyChanged
    T Entity { get; set; }

On the other hand, we got GenericInteractionDialogBase<T> that extends UserControl, therefore, it is the code behind each modal view. It will be the handler for routing the callbacks to the view model.

public enum InteractionType

public class GenericInteractionDialogBase<T> : UserControl
    class InteractionEventArgs : EventArgs
        internal InteractionType Type { get; private set; }

        internal InteractionEventArgs(InteractionType _type)
            this.Type = _type;

        public override string ToString()
            return this.Type.ToString();

    public GenericInteractionDialogBase() { }

    public event EventHandler ConfirmEventHandler;
    public event EventHandler CancelEventHandler;

    public void Ok()
        this.OnClose(new InteractionEventArgs(InteractionType.OK));

    public void Cancel()
        this.OnClose(new InteractionEventArgs(InteractionType.Cancel));
    private void OnClose(InteractionEventArgs e)
        var handler = (e.Type == InteractionType.OK) ? 
        this.ConfirmEventHandler : this.CancelEventHandler;
        if (handler != null)
            handler(this, e);

Using the Code

From now on, if we want to get a custom modal view, we just need to create three classes.
Taking for example the modal view which presents the Animal class, those classes are...

First of all, we need to create a TriggerAction for Animal implement the generic class. This is necessary in order to be used for raising the trigger from the main view.

public class AnimalInteractionAction : GenericInteractionAction<Animal>


Secondly, we have to create a class for Animal extending GenericInteractionDialogBase. This will be the modal view which once the TriggerAction has been risen, it uses this UserControl as DependencyProperty in the TriggerAction and thanks to that, we are able to retrieve the modal view and set its properties.

public class AnimalInteractionDialog : GenericInteractionDialogBase<animal>


Thirdly, we will create the modal view setting all XAML and implementing methods and properties in its code behind.

public partial class AnimalInteractionDialogView :

AnimalInteractionDialog, IGenericInteractionView<Animal>, IGenericAdapter<Animal>
    private readonly IGenericAdapter<Animal> adapter;

    public AnimalInteractionDialogView()
        this.adapter = new GenericAdapter<Animal>();
        this.DataContext = this.ViewModel;

    public void SetEntity(Animal entity)

    public Animal GetEntity()
        return this.ViewModel.GetEntity();

    public IGenericViewModel<Animal> ViewModel
        get { return this.adapter.ViewModel; }


Lastly, we just need to set the trigger binding in the main view's XAML. It looks like this:

    <Window x:Class="GenericInteractionRequest.MainWindow"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="350" Width="525">

        SourceObject="{Binding NotificationToPerson}">
                            <interactionRequest:PersonInteractionDialogView />

        SourceObject="{Binding NotificationToAnimal}">
                        <interactionRequest:AnimalInteractionDialogView />


        <Button Content="Get People" Height="35" HorizontalAlignment="Left" 
        Margin="12,12,0,0" Name="button1" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="102" 
        Command="{Binding Path=SetPeopleCommand}"/>
        <Button Content="Get Animal" Height="35" HorizontalAlignment="Left" 
        Margin="120,12,0,0" Name="button2" VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="107" 
        Command="{Binding Path=SetAnimalCommand}"/>
        <TextBlock Height="229" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Margin="12,70,0,0" 
        Name="textBlock1" Text="{Binding Path=Output}" 
        VerticalAlignment="Top" Width="479" />




  • 10/16/2011 - 1st revision 
  • 02/03/2012 - 2st revision (includes cancel callback support)
  • 09/19/2012 - 3rd revision (enable and disable controls behind the modal view)  


This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)


About the Author

Gerard Castelló Viader
Software Developer
Spain Spain

Comments and Discussions

GeneralMy vote of 2 Pinmembertbayart28-Jul-14 23:34 
QuestionIs it possible to move (drag&drop) the dialog? PinmemberMember 106200097-Jul-14 3:54 
GeneralMy Vote of 5 PinmemberDhadhan7-Apr-14 0:59 
QuestionDoes this work with Silverlight? I believe I only saw WPF mentioned. PinmemberYelnoc48-Oct-13 10:25 
Questiongran articulo Pinmemberfrancesc bernades17-Jan-13 8:07 
QuestionModal views without callbacks [modified] PinmemberDaniloCodelines6-Nov-12 1:51 
AnswerRe: Modal views without callbacks PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader6-Nov-12 5:01 
GeneralRe: Modal views without callbacks PinmemberDaniloCodelines6-Nov-12 6:10 
Questionthis.Raised NULL Pinmemberjharri2629-Oct-12 10:21 
AnswerRe: this.Raised NULL PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader30-Oct-12 0:34 
GeneralRe: this.Raised NULL Pinmemberjharri2630-Oct-12 4:09 
Yes in the code behind of the View I have
DataContext = new LookupListViewModel();
Where do I use the InteractionRequestTrigger. I have copied over the GenericInteractionAction, GenericInteractionDialogBase, etc into an Infrastructure project and in my Module project (I am using Prism with Unity and Modules) I have the InteractionDialog and InteractionAction classes
public class LookupHeaderEditInteractionDialog : GenericInteractionDialogBase<LookupHeader>
public class LookupHeaderEditInteractionAction : GenericInteractionAction<LookupHeader>
Then in my view.xaml i have
         <prism:InteractionRequestTrigger SourceObject="{Binding EditLookupHeaderRequest}">
                     <Views:LookupHeaderEditInteractionActionDialogView />
I am using VS2012 and in the xaml the interaction:LookupHeaderEditInteractionAction.Dialog is underlined saying
The property 'interactions:LookupHeaderEditInteractionAction.Dialog' is not declared as an attachable property.

Thanks for your help.
GeneralRe: this.Raised NULL PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader30-Oct-12 8:08 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberDaniloCodelines19-Sep-12 6:14 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader20-Sep-12 22:52 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmvpKanasz Robert19-Sep-12 5:30 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader19-Sep-12 5:30 
SuggestionMemory leaks PinmemberMember 403158817-Sep-12 16:59 
GeneralRe: Memory leaks PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader19-Sep-12 4:52 
GeneralRe: Memory leaks [modified] PinmemberDaniloCodelines19-Sep-12 5:31 
GeneralRe: Memory leaks [modified] PinmemberDaniloCodelines19-Sep-12 5:51 
GeneralRe: Memory leaks PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader21-Sep-12 0:22 
SuggestionRe: Memory leaks [modified] PinmemberDhadhan8-Apr-14 2:27 
QuestionHow about tab PinmemberOle Teilmann Mortensen8-Feb-12 3:33 
AnswerRe: How about tab PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader8-Feb-12 7:28 
GeneralRe: How about tab PinmemberJammer15-Mar-12 2:33 
AnswerRe: How about tab PinmemberMember 403158817-Sep-12 16:47 
GeneralRe: How about tab PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader19-Sep-12 4:40 
AnswerRe: How about tab PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader19-Sep-12 4:41 
GeneralMy vote of 4 PinmemberShahin Khorshidnia4-Feb-12 23:37 
QuestionLove the solution but I'd like to know how to catch a response event? PinmemberAaron Bar2-Feb-12 10:47 
AnswerRe: Love the solution but I'd like to know how to catch a response event? PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader3-Feb-12 13:32 
QuestionCancel Button Pinmemberfraschilla25-Dec-11 15:33 
AnswerRe: Cancel Button PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader3-Feb-12 13:33 
GeneralRe: Cancel Button Pinmemberfraschilla12-Feb-12 16:25 
QuestionUsercontrol Owner Pinmemberloveuhameshah16-Nov-11 5:28 
QuestionCross Nodule communication Pinmemberpeterforstmeier26-Oct-11 7:05 
AnswerRe: Cross Nodule communication PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader26-Oct-11 22:41 
GeneralRe: Cross Nodule communication Pinmemberpeterforstmeier26-Oct-11 23:14 
GeneralRe: Cross Nodule communication PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader27-Oct-11 2:30 
GeneralRe: Cross Nodule communication Pinmemberpeterforstmeier27-Oct-11 6:53 
QuestionI'm confused PinprotectorMarc Clifton18-Oct-11 3:36 
AnswerRe: I'm confused PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader18-Oct-11 4:50 
GeneralRe: I'm confused PinprotectorMarc Clifton18-Oct-11 9:03 
GeneralRe: I'm confused PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader18-Oct-11 11:03 
QuestionExcellent Pinmemberkiran dangar17-Oct-11 3:39 
AnswerRe: Excellent PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader17-Oct-11 3:46 
QuestionPretty useful PinmvpSacha Barber16-Oct-11 22:55 
AnswerRe: Pretty useful PinmemberGerard Castelló Viader16-Oct-11 23:17 

General General    News News    Suggestion Suggestion    Question Question    Bug Bug    Answer Answer    Joke Joke    Rant Rant    Admin Admin   

Use Ctrl+Left/Right to switch messages, Ctrl+Up/Down to switch threads, Ctrl+Shift+Left/Right to switch pages.

| Advertise | Privacy | Terms of Use | Mobile
Web04 | 2.8.150327.1 | Last Updated 19 Sep 2012
Article Copyright 2011 by Gerard Castelló Viader
Everything else Copyright © CodeProject, 1999-2015
Layout: fixed | fluid