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Multimedia Streaming Synchronization Mechanisms Under DirectShow

, 1 Feb 2000
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An overview of three methods on how to perform multimedia streaming.
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Introduction

This article discusses synchronization mechanisms under DirectShow (part of the DirectX Media SDK) in order to play a video stream synched with the audio stream. The article provides custom solutions for that purpose, using the Microsoft Foundation Classes framework.

Playing a video stream on a standard PC computer is not something easy & natural. If the video stream is encoded with a frame rate of say 25 images a second, one can not say that a given PC is able to play the stream on screen really at this rate. Whether we are talking about an old PC, a Pentium based, or recent PCs, having in hand more horse power means moving the problem, not solving it. Indeed, a PIII based PC is very likely to be able to play the stream at such rate, but whether you're doing something else at the same time, say compile a source code, processing something in the background, and so on, the computer will drastically lose performance. Core mechanisms in DirectShow are designed to undertake this issue. The more politically correct solution, and by the way working solution, is to try to play the video stream as fast as possible, being synch with the audio stream, and drop any image from the video stream whenever it loses synchronization with the audio stream.

In this article, we are to talk with different point of views about synchronization mechanisms and by the way provide custom solutions, including or not multithreading.

Solution #1: using CWinApp::OnIdle from the MFC framework.

Solution #2: using asynchronous notifications through a custom video renderer filter

Solution #3: using asynchronous streaming through multithreading


Why video loses synchronization with audio

It's well known that audio decoding needs less CPU time than video decoding. It's because for a specific time duration, there is much more data to decode in the video stream than in the audio stream. Thus, whenever there is a lack of synchronization between the video and the audio stream, it's very likely the video stream is hard fighting trying to catch up the lost audio stream timestamp.

For this reason, if the computer or software had to choose the reference stream out of the two, then it would be the audio stream. Good reasons for that are:

  • The audio stream can't be delayed without producing undesirable awful sounds

  • The video stream takes much more bandwidth than the audio stream

The GraphEditor tool from the SDK exemplifies this quite well. Let's launch it, insert a source filter to a video file, then Render its output pin. You can see that once the filter graph construction is finished, the audio renderer has a yellow circle in it, saying that it features the reference clock for the whole stream. Doing this, when you play the video file, the video stream will do its best to stay near the audio stream, so that only unheard small delays will occur, with the immediate effect of dropped image frames.

You may prefer not use any reference clock, thus the 2 streams will run their own way. Let's try it: go the Graph menu, uncheck "Use Clock", then run the video file. Both streams will go as fast as possible, without trying at all to synchronize.



The audio reference clock helps to synchronize the streams

In a piece of code using multimedia streaming without reference clock customization, the audio renderer features the reference clock.


Multimedia Streaming

DirectShow comes with a set of interfaces that help play a video/audio stream by only calling a given method, Update() as often as possible, until the streams are completed. These are the multimedia streaming interfaces. Check out the documentation at the following node: DirectShow / MultimediaStreaming / MultimediaStreaming reference.

These interfaces can be regarded as interfaces that are on top of the filter graph interfaces. It's not true, but it helps understanding that DirectShow doesn't require you to use one set of interfaces and nothing else. The multimedia streaming interfaces help playing a stream, just saying OpenFile, Run, then call Update as long as the stream is not completed, then Stop, and good bye. It can also be used for streams output to the disk. It uses a different set of functions and metaphore than the filter graph, and is suitable for progressive rendering under your control.



MultimediaStreaming is a part of DirectShow which simplifies playing/encoding streams


Information about dropped frames

Let me recall first that trying to sync is a internal job. You can't customize it without writing yourself one or more filters, in which some clock will either synchronize with some other clocks or authentify themself as the reference clock.



The property page from the "Sample video renderer" filter does give information

To get statistics about how many frames are dropped by second, you may use another more verbose video renderer filter for example. Say the SampVid.ax video renderer filter is ready in the /bin directory of the DirectShow SDK. Let's launch the GraphEditor, then insert the filter called "Sample video renderer" in the list of DirectShow filters, then insert a source filter, and render its output pin. The filter graph manager will construct a filter graph using the video renderer filter you have inserted. It features a property page giving lotsa information about what we are dealing with. Let's by the way say that the full source code for this filter is available in the samples directory.

For example the renderer frame rate can be compared with the frame rate encoded in the stream itself, which can be retrieved with code like this:

REFTIME CMovieView::getTimePerFrame()
{
   STREAM_TIME result=0;

   if (m_pDDStream != NULL) // from IDirectDrawMediaStream *m_pDDStream
   {
      m_pDDStream->GetTimePerFrame(&result);
   }

   return ((REFTIME)result) / 10000000; // returns the time duration of one frame, in seconds unit
}

Please note the frame rate is thus 1 / getTimePerFrame(). getTimePerFrame() often returns 0.040s (40 milliseconds), which is 25 frames a second.


I can live without audio too

For a given set of video-based applications, there is no particular need to render the audio stream. In this case, synchronization is not needed anymore. For example, an application that automatically cuts the video stream into sequences of short shots, basing the cut algorithm solely on image details, doesn't need audio at all.

For this purpose, let's first of all take the following piece of code (without error handlers):

CComPtr <IAMMultiMediaStream> pAMStream;

CoCreateInstance( CLSID_AMMultiMediaStream, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
                  IID_IAMMultiMediaStream, (void **)&pAMStream);

//Initialize stream
pAMStream->Initialize(STREAMTYPE_READ, 0, NULL);

//Add primary video stream
pAMStream->AddMediaStream(m_pDD3, &MSPID_PrimaryVideo, 0, NULL);

//Add primary audio stream
pAMStream->AddMediaStream(NULL, &MSPID_PrimaryAudio, AMMSF_ADDDEFAULTRENDERER, NULL);

//Opens and automatically creates a filter graph for the specified media file
pAMStream->OpenFile(wFile, 0);  // wFile : fully qualified filepath (Wide Char format)

This opens a standard video/audio stream. Now let's replace the four last lines of code with:

pAMStream->OpenFile(wFile, AMMSF_NOCLOCK);

Now there is no audio anymore, and no sync. Video frames won't be dropped. This is a suitable piece of code for critical applications requiring to render all frames in the video. Please also notice that because there is no reference clock, the frame rate won't be calculated by the renderer, thus the piece of code given above doesn't work in this context. You will have to retrieve the timestamps for the given media sample, and for example calculate the midpoint from the begin and end times. These, as a series of data, help in order to calculate an average frame rate.


What about the video size & color depth

I didn't underline much at this point the fact that the video is rendered either in a window or fullscreen, that is any case covers a given surface of the desktop window. And the CPU time needed to blit the current video frame, which is in the initial core video size, to the final size, is proportional to both the extent in X and Y and also the color depth. For this reason, it's advised to use hardware acceleration as much as possible. The set of multimedia streaming interfaces let you create a video stream with a custom DirectDraw surface at the end, thus it's up to you to do what you want with it. That standard thing is to stretch blit the surface so that it fills the client rect of a given working video window. Or else, in fullscreen mode. Check out the samples.

Many video-based applications simply render the video to its initial size. This is a preferred solution of course to avoid synchronization problems with the audio, but tell me why the hell all my windows can be stretched while this damn expensive third-party video application I am using doesn't allow stretching? All of you third party developers, what about Windows compliancy?

A note about color depth: as DirectDraw doesn't allow color mapping on the fly, you will have to either insert an additional Color space converter filter, or even worse, use the standard Blit/StretchBlit methods from the GDI.


Samples in the DirectShow SDK

Dealing with video/audio synchronization, the DirectShow SDK comes with three main samples worth looking.

The first is in the sample directory. It's called ShowStrm. It plays a video/audio stream using the set of multimedia streaming interfaces. It's small and self explanatory, but it also lacks some windowing stuff.

The second, and I will base all explanations on it, is in plain text in the documentation itself. It's called MovieWin. Let's check it out at the following node: DirectShow / Application developer's guide / How to / Play a movie in a window using DirectDrawEx and multimedia streaming / Entire MovieWin example code.

MovieWin is not in the sample directory.

The other sample is VidClip from the sample directory. It encodes a video/audio stream to an AVI video/audio stream using the multimedia streaming interfaces for both reading and writing at the same time. Good starting point for an encoder under DirectShow.

As MovieWin is written in raw WIN32, I provide a MFC version of this sample, thus we'll be able without much work to use one of the simplified OnIdle mechanisms that the MFC framework provides. The source code for it is available in this web site.


Custom solutions

In the following, I try to exhibit several custom solutions in order to manage synchronized video/audio streams.

  • The first of them is basic. It uses the standard OnIdle mechanism from the CWinApp MFC class.

  • The second uses a custom renderer filter notification mechanism.

  • The third uses multithreading

All solutions are working solutions. The fact that I wanted to show both is that while the first is straight forward, it has a potential drawback. The drawback is that the CPU keeps calling RenderToSurface() inside the OnIdle() method, resulting in full CPU charge all the time the application is running. Weird that. The two other solutions don't have this drawback, but are significantly more complex to run.


Solution #1: using CWinApp::OnIdle from the MFC framework.


Basic framework

I use the set of multimedia streaming interfaces to construct the filter graph, and run the video/audio stream. This is standard stuff.

I don't use the simple FilterGraph metaphore (such like in the MFCPlay sample from the SDK), because it doesn't give the control you may need on the rendered surface. For example, MFCPlay renders a multimedia stream to a default ActiveMovie window. What if you want to blit the frame buffer somewhere else ? In fact, there is not so much to say about rendering multimedia streams through simple FilterGraph Play() because all the synchronization is handled at a hidden level, and thus speaks for itself for demo time, but is also unsuitable for a real video application.

We know that, relying on a hidden controlling measure, not all frames will be shown. Some will be dropped down depending on the capacity of the CPU to handle video/audio streaming, decoding and rendering.

But what's interesting to check now is what is the process that will actually tell the video engine to render each new available frame buffer (the image media sample) ready for the final blit on screen.

In fact, we have nothing else to do than render each new frame buffer, then wait for the new frame buffer to come. It looks like we are going to call the Update() method in such a way that this method doesn't return until the frame buffer is ready for final blit. At this point, it should be noted that we have the option to call Update() with an ASYNC flag so that the method immediately returns, and it's up to us to know when the new frame buffer is ready. More on that later in this article.

Let's get back. It's up to our video engine (CMovieView class) to call the Update() method:

void CMovieView::RenderToSurface()
{
   ...
   if (!bPaused)
   {
      //update each frame
      if (pMediaSample->Update(0, NULL, NULL, 0) != S_OK)
      {
         bAppactive = FALSE;
         pMMStream->SetState(STREAMSTATE_STOP); // finished!
      }
   }
   ...
   // now blit the surface somewhere so that we see it (the surface itself is 
   // known & associated to the pMediaSample at init time)
   ...
}
Now what class/component will call the RenderToSurface() method and how often?

And, while we are at it, why don't we loop the RenderToSurface() call in the video engine itself until it's finished? That's simple: who then processes the windows messages for this application. Usually a CView processes a message then gives back control to the core Afx stuff, which more or less calls the Run/OnIdle mechanism from the CWinApp entry-point class (inherited from CWinThread).

Now for the main loop:

BOOL CMovieApp::OnIdle( LONG lCount )
{
   CWinApp::OnIdle(lCount);
   if (lCount>10)
   if (m_viewChild)
   {
      // update the frame buffer on screen
      m_viewChild->RenderToSurface();
      if (!m_viewChild->IsPaused())
      {
         // evaluate the new cursor position (we have a slider control to update too in fact)
         STREAM_TIME total = m_viewChild->getDuration();
         STREAM_TIME current = m_viewChild->getCurrentPosition();
         if (total>0)
         {
            long pos = long( current * MAXFRAME / total );
            GetDialogBar()->setFramePos(pos);
         }
      }
   }
   return TRUE;
}
m_viewChild is a pointer to the CMovieView class (video engine).

The OnIdle() method is called within the main Run() method from CWinApp. It's called as often as there are no more windows messages to process and dispatch to the child windows, including CMovieView.

On one hand, this implementation is straight forward, we don't need a timer to signal us we should update the buffer onscreen, but on the other hand, the CPU is always working, and thus has no real Idle time. If you launch the performance monitor, then you will immediately notice this.

Download the source code for solution #1 : Rendering mechanism using OnIdle.


Solution #2: using asynchronous notifications through a custom video renderer filter

Here we get a bit deep. For full details about building a custom video renderer filter, check one of my other articles. It features and explains everything about that. Though the OnIdle() technique is really well working, it's not exactly suitable for an application which does other processing in the same time, ie needs CPU time to process something else, for example applying a real-time filter in a part of the current frame buffer.

The idea is to get into the asynchronous metaphore. We tell the DirectShow engine to render the new frame buffer, and while we are it, we register as people receiving a notification when the new frame buffer is ready (or the stream is complete or whatever error). Doing so, there is no synchronous Update() call at all. Once the stream is run, it notifies us of any new frame buffer, and we can even ignore them if we want. The stream is however controlled with methods such like Pause()/Stop()/Run()/Seek(nFrame). That's the filter graph metaphore.

Well in fact, we are using the filter graph manager. The custom thing is a renderer filter which is able to use a notification sink interface and to communicate with the filter graph component to tell a new frame buffer is ready. And, as the filter graph is at the application level, we register as listeners of any new messages that may be sent to, and proceed as we want. That's the magics behind. Now for the code.

Below is the filter graph construction mechanism. We use the standard filter graph manager method call. That is, we create an empty filter graph, then we add our renderer filter by hand (we know the CLSID), then we add a source filter and call Render on its output pin, exactly as we would do with the GraphEditor.

HRESULT CMovieView::RenderFile(LPCTSTR szFilename)
{
   DeleteCurrentFilterGraph();

   if ( !CreateFilterGraph() )
   {  AfxMessageBox(IDS_CANT_INIT_QUARTZ);
      return FALSE;
   }

   WCHAR wPath[MAX_PATH];
   MultiByteToWideChar( CP_ACP, 0, szFilename,
                        -1, wPath, MAX_PATH );

   // add our custom renderer filter
   // this tells the filter graph manager to use this filter
   // instead of the default noisy ActiveMovie renderer filter
   AddNewVideoRendererToGraph();

   if (FAILED( m_pGraph->RenderFile(wPath, NULL) ))
   {  AfxMessageBox(IDS_CANT_RENDER_FILE);
      return FALSE;
   }
}
HRESULT CMovieView::AddNewVideoRendererToGraph()
{
   HRESULT  hr;

   IBaseFilter *pFilter=NULL;

   if (m_pGraph==NULL)
   {  AfxMessageBox(IDS_NO_FILTERGRAPH_AVAILABLE);
      return E_FAIL;
   }

   hr = CoCreateInstance(CLSID_ARST_DirectDrawVIDEORenderer,
                         NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
                         IID_IBaseFilter, (LPVOID *)&pFilter);
   if (FAILED(hr))
   {   AfxMessageBox(IDS_CANT_ADD_FILTER);
       return E_FAIL;
   }

   hr = m_pGraph->AddFilter(pFilter, L"ARST DirectDraw Video Renderer");
   if (FAILED(hr))
   {   pFilter->Release();
       return E_FAIL;
   }

   return S_OK;
}
We then create a listener for all notification messages sent to the filter graph. As you can see, we also register the EC_REPAINT message as a specific message that we will handle (normally handled by the filter graph). What follows is a piece of code which can be embedded in any init() routine:

// get hold of the event notification handle so we can wait for completion or other messages
IMediaEvent *pME;
hr = m_pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaEvent, (void **) &pME);
if (FAILED(hr))
{  DeleteCourrentFilterGraph();
   return FALSE;
}

hr = pME->GetEventHandle((OAEVENT*) &m_hGraphNotifyEvent);

// the EC_REPAINT message has a special meaning to us
pME->CancelDefaultHandling(EC_REPAINT);

pME->Release();
The EC_REPAINT message is sent as often as a new frame buffer is ready for final rendering to screen. What we do in the main active loop is check for any message received, and process as follows:

The GetGraphEventHandle() method retrieves the handle to the listener we have just created.

int CMovieApp::Run()
{
   // Overridden to check for Graph events as well as messages

   if (m_pMainWnd == NULL && AfxOleGetUserCtrl())
   {
      // Not launched /Embedding or /Automation, but has no main window!
      TRACE0("Warning: m_pMainWnd is NULL in CMovieApp::Run - quitting application.\n");
      AfxPostQuitMessage(0);
   }

   BOOL bIdle = TRUE;
   LONG lIdleCount = 0;
   HANDLE  ahObjects[1];               // handles that need to be waited on
   const int cObjects = 1;             // no of objects that we are waiting on

   // message loop lasts until we get a WM_QUIT message
   // upon which we shall return from the function
   while (TRUE)
   {
      // If we don't have an event handle then process idle
      // routines until a message arrives or until the idle routines
      // stop (when we block until a message arrives). The graph event
      // handle can only be created in response to a message
      if( (ahObjects[ 0 ] = GetView()->GetGraphEventHandle()) == NULL )
      {
         while ( bIdle && !::PeekMessage(&m_msgCur, NULL, NULL, NULL, PM_NOREMOVE))
         {
            // call OnIdle while in bIdle state
            if (!OnIdle(lIdleCount++))
            {
               bIdle = FALSE;
               WaitMessage();
            }
         }
      }
      else
      {
         // wait for any message sent or posted to this queue
         // or for a graph notification. If there is no message or event
         // and we are idling then we process the idle time routines
         DWORD result;

         result = MsgWaitForMultipleObjects( cObjects, ahObjects,
                                             FALSE, (bIdle ? 0 : INFINITE),
                                             QS_ALLINPUT);
         if( result != (WAIT_OBJECT_0 + cObjects) )
         {
            // not a Windows message... GREAT !! The buffer is ready
            if( result == WAIT_OBJECT_0 )  GetView()->OnGraphNotify();

            else if( result == WAIT_TIMEOUT )
                    if(!OnIdle(lIdleCount++))
                        bIdle = FALSE;

            continue;
         }
      }

      // When here, we either have a message or no event handle
      // has been created yet.

      // read all of the messages in this next loop
      // removing each message as we read it
      do
      {
         // pump message, but quit on WM_QUIT
         if (!PumpMessage())
            return ExitInstance();

         // reset "no idle" state after pumping "normal" message
         if (IsIdleMessage(&m_msgCur))
         {
            bIdle = TRUE;
            lIdleCount = 0;
         }

      } while (::PeekMessage(&m_msgCur, NULL, NULL, NULL, PM_NOREMOVE));

   } // end of the always while-loop

}
The implementation of the method is such that it sleeps and wakes up when the EC_REPAINT (or any other event notification code) has arrived, then it processes it, and then it processes all windows messages, before calling OnIdle and looping again. All in all, the CPU performs an active sleep. When your application is paused, the CPU % is almost 0, and when it's streaming, it's only taking the process time for the final rendering on screen. really nothing to do with the previous solution.

Please note we override the CWinApp::Run() method, not OnIdle() which is left with its default implementation, ie the CPU can turn to idle state properly speaking.

Each time we get a new message, not necessarily EC_REPAINT, it can be EC_COMPLETE (see the following node in the official documentation for a full list of event codes: DirectShow / C++ reference / Event Notification codes), we then call back the OnGraphNotify() method implemented by our video engine.

For any EC_REPAINT message received, we get the parameters passed along with the message itself, and process the final rendering on screen. To be short, because it's explained in another article on this web site, the other fundamental parameter passed is the pointer to a core DirectDraw surface fully handled by our custom renderer filter. Thus this message does give us all the needed data for the final blit.

The OnGraphNotify() implementation must also process other event codes, such like EC_COMPLETE, otherwise the program may break down at the end of the stream for example.

// If the event handle is valid, ask the graph
// if anything has happened. eg the graph has stopped...
void CMovieView::OnGraphNotify()
{
   IMediaEvent *pME;
   long lEventCode, lParam1, lParam2;
   static long count=0;

   ASSERT( m_hGraphNotifyEvent != NULL );
   ASSERT( m_pGraph != NULL);

   if( SUCCEEDED(m_pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaEvent, (void **) &pME)))
   {
      if( SUCCEEDED(pME->GetEvent(&lEventCode, &lParam1, &lParam2, 0)))
      {
         // Free parameters only if this is something else than EC_REPAINT
         // because we have an important paramter to extract from the message structure
         if (lEventCode!=EC_REPAINT)
         {
            HRESULT hrTmp = pME->FreeEventParams(lEventCode, lParam1, lParam2);
            ASSERT(SUCCEEDED(hrTmp));
         }
         else
         {
            //TRACE("EC_REPAINT %ld:A repaint is required.\n",count++);
            // get a pointer to the core DirectDraw surface
            m_pDDSOffscreen2 = (IDirectDrawSurface*)lParam1;
            // render to the screen immediately
            RenderToSurface();
         }

         ...
      }
   }
}
Now what about synchronization? It's working and it's hidden!!! The cascaded filters manage the video & audio streams. The audio renderer has a reference clock, which is default behaviour whenever you use the filter graph manager, thus any frame that can't be processed by the filters is dropped away, and the frames we get back are frames that are synchronized with the audio stream, thus candidate for consistent immediate rendering on screen while the sister audio data is being heard.


Solution #3: using asynchronous streaming through multithreading

This time we get back to the multimedia streaming interfaces. We didn't use yet all the power behind the Update() method from the IDirectDrawStreamSample interface. Indeed, when passing no specific flag, the Update() method call returns as soon, but not before, the next frame buffer is ready for final rendering, but Update has more to offer. We may use the SSUPDATE_ASYNC flag and pass along either a WIN32 event to signal when the next frame buffer is ready, or even pass a pointer to a callback function which is automatically called at this time.

The implementation we suggest uses the event model from WIN32. At init time, we create an apartment thread (ie a thread with a windows message loop (that helps in serializing method calls)), then create an instance of a trigger event, and pass along to the thread the handle of this event.

Then what we do in this thread is trivial: we wait for a signal, and then we send a message to the video engine to notify that the frame buffer should be rendered now. Otherwise, we sleep.

The following code shows the code for the auxiliary thread:

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// CStreamUpdater
//   - A simple C++ class that encapsulates creating a
//     component on an apartment thread.
//
class CStreamUpdater
{
public:
   // Constructor
   CStreamUpdater();

   // Destructor
   virtual ~CStreamUpdater();

   // Create and start the thread.
   BOOL StartThread(CMovieView *pView,DWORD WaitTime = 500);

   // Stop the thread.
   void StopThread();

   // Current thread status
   BOOL IsThreadStarted();

   // Member variables
protected:

   // ID of thread
   DWORD m_ThreadId;

   // Handle to thread
   HANDLE m_hThread;

   // Event signals main thread to continue.
   HANDLE m_hComponentReadyEvent;

   // Time to wait before calling WorkerFunction
   DWORD m_WaitTime;

   CMovieView *m_cpView;

   BOOL m_bShouldStopNow;

   // Internal helper functions
private:
   // Thread procedure
   static DWORD WINAPI RealThreadProc(void* pv);

   // Member thread procedure
   DWORD ClassThreadProc();

   // Wait for an event, but process window messages.
   BOOL WaitWithMessageLoop(HANDLE hEvent);
}
///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Constructor
//
CStreamUpdater::CStreamUpdater()
{
   m_ThreadId = 0;
   m_hThread  = NULL;
   m_hComponentReadyEvent = NULL;
   m_WaitTime = 500;
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Destructor
//
CStreamUpdater::~CStreamUpdater()
{
   // The thread must be stopped before we are deleted
   // because the WorkerFunction is in the derived class.
   StopThread();
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// StartThread
//   - Create and start the thread.
//
BOOL CStreamUpdater::StartThread(CMovieView *pView,DWORD WaitTime)
{
   m_cpView = pView;
   m_bShouldStopNow=FALSE;

   if (IsThreadStarted())
   {
      return FALSE;
   }

   // Create the thread.
   m_hThread = ::CreateThread(NULL,              // Default security
                              0,                 // Default stack size
                              RealThreadProc,
                              (void*)this,
                              CREATE_SUSPENDED,  // Create the thread suspended.
                              &m_ThreadId);     // Get the Thread ID.
   if (m_hThread == NULL)
   {
      return FALSE;
   }

   // Create an event for the thread to signal when it is finished.
   m_hComponentReadyEvent = ::CreateEvent(NULL, FALSE, FALSE, NULL);
   if (m_hComponentReadyEvent == NULL)
   {
      return FALSE;
   }

   // Initialize the wait time.
   m_WaitTime = WaitTime;

   // Thread was created suspended; start the thread.
   DWORD r = ResumeThread(m_hThread);
   assert(r != 0xffffffff);

   // Wait for the thread to start up before we continue.
   WaitWithMessageLoop(m_hComponentReadyEvent);

   return TRUE;
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Stop Thread
//
void CStreamUpdater::StopThread()
{
   m_bShouldStopNow = TRUE;
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Current thread status
//
BOOL CStreamUpdater::IsThreadStarted()
{
   return (m_hThread != NULL);
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Thread procedure
//
DWORD WINAPI CStreamUpdater::RealThreadProc(void* pv)
{
   CStreamUpdater* pApartment = reinterpret_cast<CStreamUpdater*>(pv);
   return pApartment->ClassThreadProc();
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// Thread procedure
//
DWORD CStreamUpdater::ClassThreadProc()
{
   // Signal that we are starting.
   SetEvent(m_hComponentReadyEvent);

   HANDLE hUpdater=m_cpView->getUpdateEvent(); // retrieve the event from the video engine

   // Wait for the signal to create a component.
   BOOL bContinue = TRUE;

   while (bContinue )
   {
      switch( ::WaitForSingleObject( hUpdater,m_WaitTime) )
      {
         // Update the surface becoz now it's ready
         case WAIT_OBJECT_0:
            ::SendMessage(m_cpView->GetSafeHwnd(),WM_USER+100,0,0);
            break;
         // Do background processing.
         case WAIT_TIMEOUT:
            if (m_bShouldStopNow)
               bContinue=FALSE;
            break;

         default:break;
      }
   }

   return 0;
}

///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
//
// BOOL WaitWithMessageLoop(HANDLE hEvent)
//
BOOL CStreamUpdater::WaitWithMessageLoop(HANDLE hEvent)
{
   while (TRUE)
   {
      // Wait for the event and for messages.
      DWORD dwReturn = ::MsgWaitForMultipleObjects(1,
                                                   &hEvent,
                                                   FALSE,
                                                   INFINITE,
                                                   QS_ALLINPUT);
      if (dwReturn == WAIT_OBJECT_0)
      {
         // Our event happened.
         return TRUE;
      }
      else if (dwReturn == WAIT_OBJECT_0 + 1)
      {
         // Handle message to keep client alive.
         MSG msg;
         while(::PeekMessage(&msg, NULL, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE))
         {
            ::DispatchMessage(&msg);
         }
      }
      else
      {
         return FALSE;
      }
   }
}
Please note that we don't need either CWinApp::OnIdle() nor CWinApp::Run() custom implementation at all. For this reason, the CPU won't at all be loaded up to 100% as in solution #1.

Whenever the auxiliary thread gets the signal, it doesn't call RenderToSurface(), a method to perform the final rendering on screen, because if it did, it would do it with this particular execution unit (this thread), though the rendering step should always be performed by the video engine itself. Thus, a message is sent to the window wrapping the video engine, and the rendering step is actually done when the message is processed by the message loop within CWinApp::Run() implementation. Because a lot of other messages may occur, including WM_MOUSEMOVE, or so, the message WM_USER+100 will probably not be processed immediately. It's a good idea that there is no message taking a big process time, because there would be otherwise a delay between the moment the frame buffer is ready (and the audio sound heard) and the actual image be seen on screen.

Now, what's left to see is the method called when the WM_USER+100 message is being processed:

BEGIN_MESSAGE_MAP(CMovieView, CView)
   //{{AFX_MSG_MAP(CMovieView)
   ON_MESSAGE( WM_USER+100, OnRefresh )
   ...
   //}}AFX_MSG_MAP
   END_MESSAGE_MAP()
afx_msg void CMovieView::OnRefresh(UINT wparam, LONG lparam)
{
   TRACE ("Refresh msg received\n");
   Update();
}

void CMovieView::Update(BOOL bForceUpdate)
{
   if (!m_bFileLoaded) return;

   ::ResetEvent(m_hUpdateEvent);

   // final rendering on screen
   RenderToSurface();

   if ( bForceUpdate || IsPlaying() )
   {
      // update each frame
      pMediaSample->Update(SSUPDATE_ASYNC, m_hUpdateEvent, NULL, 0);
   }
}
Note also that when the multimedia stream is run, you should call once the previous method so that the signal is ignited.

Additional note: there is another option to the Update() call. Using the SSUPDATE_ASYNC flag, we could as well or instead ofpass no event handle at all, but try iteratively a call to CompletionStatus() which is a method implemented at the same level than Update(). This method helps in looping and waiting for a new frame buffer state.

A possible implementation can be:

pMediaSample->Update(SSUPDATE_ASYNC, NULL, NULL, 0);

do
{
  hr = pMediaSample->CompletionStatus(COMPSTAT_WAIT,10); // wait 10 milliseconds before returning
}
while (hr==MS_S_PENDING);

if (FAILED(hr))
{
   // handling error
}

In other words, the return value of CompletionStatus is MS_S_PENDING, a frame buffer is pending, until it turns to either S_OK or any error. The method returns when it's finished or at the end of the next 10 milliseconds. This rate works for most cases because a lot of video streams are encoded at 15 frames by second or 25 frames by second, which is 40 milliseconds between two frames.

Download source code for solution #3: using a separate thread for asynchronous rendering mechanism.


Conclusion

This article has presented a couple of synchronization techniques in order to render multimedia streams under DirectShow. The source code has no copyright.

Stephane Rodriguez -
September 20, 1999

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Stephane Rodriguez

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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralDirectShow video capture device not synchronised with playback Pinmemberak2687-Jun-08 10:47 
Generalrealtime switch to fullscreen fails Pinmemberdrquake14-Dec-07 20:38 
QuestionCan you help me! Pinmembernguyenthetu9-Jan-07 22:10 
QuestionCustom Render Filter PinmemberChulips11-Nov-06 6:30 
Questionhow to brodcast radio online Pinmembereasanka1-Sep-06 21:35 
GeneralWeb View Pinmemberintlaccess18-Jun-06 23:45 
General[HELP] video / audio synchronization in LIVE preview Pinmembercan999918-Mar-06 0:11 
Generali want to develop a dll to resulve directshow reading rtsp stream by c# Pinmembershihongtao6-Mar-06 17:08 
Generalplease , i have an error in dshow.h Pinmemberdynamica12330-Aug-05 4:47 
Generalplease , i need dshow.h Pinmemberdynamica12330-Jul-05 2:26 
GeneralRe: please , i need dshow.h Pinmembertiancai_pgy1-Sep-05 17:21 
GeneralRe: please , i need dshow.h Pinmembertiancai_pgy1-Sep-05 17:29 
QuestionSolution # 2 link? Pinmemberfwsouthern8-Jun-05 20:33 
Generalmany to one filters Pinmemberbekkali5-Apr-05 7:02 
Generalneed buffer in directshow Pinmemberh021457827-Jan-05 7:18 
GeneralRe: need buffer in directshow Pinmembere696482227-Oct-05 1:42 
Questionhow to grap each frame of video Pinmemberpszcolumn11-Mar-04 21:44 
AnswerRe: how to grap each frame of video Pinmembertanvon malik25-Sep-07 1:29 
GeneralFirewire &amp; Directshow PinsussMike Schreudert25-Jan-04 1:12 
GeneralNeed to swap USB 2 WebCams on the fly... PinmemberBobboots23-Dec-03 9:47 
GeneralRe: Need to swap USB 2 WebCams on the fly... PinmemberStephane Rodriguez.23-Dec-03 10:22 
GeneralHardware Acceleration.! Pinmembernewnick23-Dec-03 0:20 
GeneralRe: Hardware Acceleration.! Pinmemberveligeti30-May-05 5:16 
Generalhelp me... Pinmemberhuanghui_grace2-Dec-03 18:58 
GeneralRe: help me... PinmemberMihai Moga30-Mar-06 22:26 
GeneralplayList continuiti PinmemberBatman_cond4-Nov-03 2:20 
Questionhow to add picture to multimedia stream? Pinmemberxnew5-Oct-03 19:37 
Answerhow to do chat application ? Pinmemberjagadish2413-Apr-06 6:31 
Generalsyncing audio with video Pinsussanonymous8-Jul-03 10:03 
GeneralDIRECTX AUDIO/VIDEO Decoder Pinmemberdeepa_dodiya25-Jun-03 3:41 
GeneralRe: DIRECTX AUDIO/VIDEO Decoder Pinmembermezik4-Jan-06 11:50 
Generalrtsp protocol files Pinsussdbo8-Apr-03 23:01 
GeneralRe: rtsp protocol files Pinmember.S.Rod.8-Apr-03 23:44 
GeneralControl sound by using DX PinsussAnonymous5-Mar-03 15:57 
Generalmulticasting using DirectShow PinmemberTapan D27-Jan-03 8:58 
GeneralRe: multicasting using DirectShow PinsussVincenzoDaNapoli20-Feb-03 0:01 
GeneralRe: multicasting using DirectShow PinsussAnonymous24-Jun-03 6:18 
GeneralRe: multicasting using DirectShow Pinmembere696482227-Oct-05 1:34 
GeneralDynamic switch source PinsussAnonymous5-Dec-02 10:05 
Generalmemory cost PinsussAnonymous25-Jul-02 17:24 
GeneralI am also annoyed with ASSERT Failed error Pinmemberhanson201017-Mar-02 2:28 
Generalhi,please help me... PinmemberM. Ashokkumar5-Mar-02 2:12 
GeneralRe: hi,please help me... PinmemberSanjay Kashalkar27-Mar-02 1:52 
GeneralWeb interface for channels and playlists PinmemberElvis the radio dude11-Dec-01 9:05 
Generaldirectshow over the internet PinmemberJohn Singer30-Nov-01 10:30 
GeneralRe: directshow over the internet PinsussAnonymous29-Jun-04 23:59 
GeneralI can not find source code for solution #2 PinmemberTom200119-Aug-01 5:54 
GeneralRe: I can not find source code for solution #2 Pinmemberpowenko19-Sep-01 17:01 
GeneralInvalid Page Fault at Quartz.dll Pinmemberjaskin4-Feb-01 17:38 
GeneralRe: Invalid Page Fault at Quartz.dll PinmemberRobin17-Feb-01 9:03 

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