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Arrays UNDOCUMENTED

, 4 Jan 2003
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An detailed look at the implementation of Arrays and ArrayLists.

Introduction

This is an in-depth look at the arrays in the Common Language Runtime and the .NET Framework. This study details the implementation of arrays and describes efficient ways of using them.

This is my second article in the UNDOCUMENTED series, following my earlier article on strings. The intent of writing articles in this series is to help me understand how to use the C# efficiently to develop a serious commercial application.

I am ex-Microsoft developer of Excel, who has started his own software company, developing applications employing artificial intelligence. Since my previous article on String Undocumented last month, I actually started doing some contract work on the side for Microsoft; I am actually working for the Windows group and can't believe the massive amount of great stuff that's gone on for the next generation of the NET framework. But, because I have signed an NDA, I have limited all my information to publicly available information and won't discuss unreleased products.

Background

The Array class is the base class for arrays used by the compiler and the runtime. Along with strings, arrays (including descendent classes) are the only types which are of variable length. The rank of an Array is the number of dimensions in the Array. The lower bound of a dimension of an Array is the starting index of that dimension of the Array; a multidimensional Array can have different bounds for each dimension

Internally, the runtime maintains two separate implementations of arrays -- optimized SZARRAYS and general arrays, which I will call MDARRAYS for multi-dimensional arrays (even though an MDARRAY can be of one dimensional). SZARRAYs are zero-based and one-dimensional. ARRAYs, on the otherhand, are multidimensional and/or have non-zero lower-bounds. SZARRAYS are by far more common than ARRAYs and therefore are highly optimized. The table below details the differences between the two.

 

  SZARRAYS MDARRAYS
Description One-dimensional, zero-based Multidimensional and/or non-zero-based
C# Syntax  object[] -- regular arrays
 object[][] -- jagged arrays
 object [,] -- multidimensional
CLS-Compliant Yes No, if lower bounds are non-zero
IL-Optimized Yes. IL contains specialized instructions such as ldelem and stelem to handle these arrays. No, in Version 1.0. Accesses and modifications occur through functions.
Methods Optimized Yes. Arrays of primitives have specialized methods that are perform efficiently without boxing. No, in Version 1.0. Arrays of all types are implemented using the same generic code, which casts all elements to objects. Value types there are repeatedly boxed and unboxed within functions such as sort, reverse and so on.
Base Size (not including 8 bytes of v-table and object header)  4 for valuetypes
 8 for referencetypes
 4-8 bytes + 8 * rank
JIT Optimized Jit performs range-check elimination. No special JIT optimization. Additional code is added to perform range-check for each dimension.

SZARRAYS, perform so much faster than MDARRAYS, that jagged arrays, which are SZARRAYS containing other SZARRAYS are highly preferred over regular multidimensional arrays for performance. Keep in mind, that jagged arrays are not CLS-compliant and may not be worked cross-language.

In version 1.0 of the CLR, each heap-allocated object consists of a 4 byte objectheader and 4 byte pointer to a method table, so each arrays have this initial overhead; in addition, both SZARRAYS and MDARRAYs contain the following internal fields.

 

Variable Type Description
Array Length int This is the actual number of elements int the array.
ElementType Type Optional. According to the source code, this field is only present if the array consists of "pointers." It appears that pointers, in this case, refer to object references and not unmanaged pointers.

MDARRAYS contain these additional internal internally.

Variable Type Description
Bounds[rank] int[] Optional. The number of elements in the array
LowerBound[rank]   int[] Optional. Valid indexes are lowerBounds[i] <= index[i] < lowerBounds[i] + bounds[i]

Thus every access in a regular array must examine several internal members. For high performance, two approaches for multidimensional arrays are possible: the aforementioned, "jagged" C# arrays or manual calculation within SZARRAYs. For example, (i-lowerbound1) * rowcount + (j-lowerbound2) would locate the element [i,j].

Non zero-based arrays have the same shortcomings as multidimensional arrays, since they are both MDARRAYS. Not only are they not optimized, but the suffer from greater quality problems due to both less testing and boundary issues.

For instance, arrays with negative lower bounds produce interesting bugs. array.IndexOf normally returns -1 for failure; however, for arrays with negative bounds, failure is int32.MaxValue. However, this same array will cause IList.Contain function to always return true for a missing item, because that function calls IndexOf and assumes that it will return a failure value less than the lowerbound. Moreover, array.BinarySearch also exhibits problems with negative bounds. When array.BinarySearch fails, it returns a negative value, which is the complement of the position to insert an item.

Two arrays are considered the same type if they have the same rank(number of dimensions) and the same element type. In contrast to C/C++, the upper and lower bounds of each dimension are not considered, not even inner dimensions in a multidimensional array. Methods such as Array.Copy operate on heterogeneous multidimensional arrays of the same type by treating each multidimensional array as one large flat unidimensional array. Jagged arrays of different rank are of different types as well; this simply follows from the fact that such arrays have different element types, despite the fact the elements are all arrays. Interestingly, the Type object representing the Array base class interestingly returns false for Type.IsArray and null for Type.GetElementType of course, the Array class is abstract and cannot normally be instantiated without being inherited.

Beyond the base size, both MDARRAYs and SZARRAYS will contain consecutive inline structures for value types and consecutive pointers for reference types like object and string. Reference types also have an element type field that precedes the data; it does seem redundant since the array's method table could instead extract the necessary type information. The presence of the element type as a field does allow the elements type information to be extracted quickly without an virtual call indirection and function call, which is important for features like array covariance.

If the data is a value type, then the elements would be of the same size as that value type. Reference types consume IntPtr.Size bytes. IntPtr.Size is 4 bytes for Win32 and 8-bytes for Win64. This is suppose to equate with the native size of void * according to the documentation, but in non-Win32 versions of Rotor such as Mac and UNIX, it is always 8 bytes regardless of the CPU.

 

Type Element Size in bytes
bool 1
byte 1
short 2
int 4
long 8
float 4
double 8
decimal 16
string IntPtr.Size
object IntPtr.Size
interface IntPtr.Size

In contrast to strings, the other variable-sized object, none of the internal array fields are exposed in Reflection. Accessing these internal fields requires the use of unsafe code. Since these fields are already exposed through public methods and properties, proving any source code as I have done in "Strings Undocumented" for such operations would be redundant.

Programmatically, an array is an SZARRAY if and only if array.Rank==1 && array.GetLowerBound(0)==0. An array contains value type members if (elementType = array.GetType().GetElementType()) && elementType.IsSubclassOf(typeof(ValueType)) && elementType != typeof(Enum) && elementType != typeof(ValueType).  Ironically, neither Enum[] or ValueType[] are value type arrays; they are just arrays containing references to boxed valuetypes elements. Actually, the last condition is redundant since ValueType or any other type cannot be a subclass of itself.

The Dynamic ArrayList

The ArrayList is a very useful class for dealing with dynamic arrays. However, it serves more general purposes as well--encapsulating collection classes and allowing special operations to be performed on these classes.

ArrayList will construct an array object and modify it directly. By default, ArrayList will create an array of 16 elements. The following members of the ArrayList class in the follow order.

Variable Type Description
_items object[] The base array.
_size int The current size of the array list.
_version int Version is incremented after each modification. This is used to signify that any operation on view or enumerator of an earlier version of the list should fail.

Altogether an ArrayList consumes 20 bytes (8 byte object overhead + 12 bytes for the instance information), not including the space for the underlying array.

If the array needs to grow beyond its capacity, a new array will be constructed with twice the previous capacity or the new desired size, subject to the maxcapacity constraint. This approach takes O(3n) which is linear time. The alternative approach of growing the array by a fixed amount rather than a percentage results in quadratic time performance, O(n^2). For optimal performance, arraylists should be preallocated if the size is known to reduce unnecessary copying.

Compacting the size of the ArrayList when done requires a call to TrimToSize, which will actually perform another copy operation. If all the elements are already added and no further expansion is necessary, it would be more optimal in both performance and memory to extract a type-safe array using a call to arraylist.ToArray(Type type).

Completely releasing the space of an array requires calling Clear (the only other alternative is using RemoveRange to free all elements), followed TrimToSize. Ironically, setting a arraylist with a capacity of less than 16 will result in less space than using a capacity of 0, which automatically uses the default capacity of 16.

ArrayLists are not a complete replacement for Arrays. (I suspect that they are of higher performance than the multidimensional arrays mentioned earlier, but I will determine that in another article in near future, specifically related to performance.)

  Arrays Array Lists
Memory requirements Compact inline data for value-types.
Object references for data.
Object-based arrays.
(Value-types incur additional 12-byte overhead per element--4 bytes for the object reference and 8 bytes for the object header introduced by boxing)
Performance Optimized IL instructions. Range check elimination.    Indirect references
  Fixed-size Dynamic
Random Access   Access to an indexed element is off-limits until elements in all previous indices have been added. An solution to this approach is construct an arraylist using the static ArrayList.Repeat(null, initial length) method.

It's rather straight-foward to convert back and forth from Arrays to ArrayLists. Arrays can be transformed into ArrayLists using ArrayList.Adapter(array). ArrayLists can be converted to compact arrays using ToArray() or ToArray(type).

You can also accessing the underlining array of an ArrayList by calling (object[]) sb.GetType().GetField("_items", BindingFlags.NonPublic|BindingFlags.Instance).GetValue(arrayList). This is not a perfect replacement for ToArray() because of the fact that the array length is the capacity of the ArrayList rather than its count. By stashing away and reusing the FieldInfo object from the call to GetField, any memory and time overhead can be eliminated.

Array Manipulation Without ArrayLists

Manual Array Resizing

Arrays can be resize manually. Here is a useful function that should have been provided by the array class. To mimic the behavior of ArrayList manually, a call to ensure should be placed before any potentially invalid indexing.
    public static Array Resize(Array array, int newSize)
    {
        Type type = array.Type;
        Array newArray = Array.CreateInstance(type.GetElementType(), newSize);
        Array.Copy(array, 0, newArray, 0, Math.Min(newArray.Length, newSize))l
        return newArray;
    }
    
The Resize method uses Array.CreateInstance to do late-bound construction.

Array Movement

To manual move elements within an array, the Array provides a general Copy function to copy data from one array to another. This function also works withthe same array. Range checks are performed just once. Within the same array, the copying behaves like the C standard library's memmove function rather than memcpy.

The InsertHelper function shifts the contents of array to make room for count elements at the indexth position. Any elements towards the end are right-shifted out of the array and disappear. Similarly, the RemoveHelper method removes elements from the specified position, shift trailing elements to the left.

public static Array InsertHelper(Array array, int index, int count)
{
    Array.Copy(array, index, array, index+count, array.Length-(index+count));
    array.Clear(index, count);
}
    
public static Array RemoveHelper(Array array, int index, int count)
{
    int copy = ;
    Array.Copy(array, index+count, array, index, array.Length - (index+count));
    array.Clear(array.Length - count, count);
}

The Buffer class also provides useful functions, GetByte, SetByte, ByteLength and BlockCopy, for manipulating arrays of value-types, that no not contain any internal object references. In fact, the types of the elements are ignored as the Buffer class treats each array as a range of bytes. Arrays of different value types can be copied in one another, so, for example, floating-point values can be overlaid unto integral data and vice-versa. To use this class, it is helpful to use the sizeof keyword or Marshal.SizeOf to obtain the exact size of the valueType.

When copying elements inside a multidimensional array, the array behaves like a long one-dimensional array, where the rows (or columns) are conceptually laid end to end. For example, if an array has three rows (or columns) with four elements each, copying six elements from the beginning of the array would copy all four elements of the first row (or column) and the first two elements of the second row (or column).

Arrays of Bits

One class that should not be forgotten is the Pascal set-like BitArray, which works surprisingly like an array of booleans in code. Booleans in .NET occupy a single byte, while, more compact than the int-size C++ bool, is still quite wasteful in an array.

BitArray is implement as an array of Int32s, each consisting of 32 bits. Using an array of ints instead of bytes allows a single instruction to access and modify 32 bits at a time instead of 8, for a four-fold improvement in performance for many operations.

Additional, operators for BitArray include And, Or, Xor, and Not. There's also a cousin BitVector32, that will use an int for a small set.

Array Casting & Conversion

Array Covariance: Conversions of Arrays

Arrays of references types support a feature called Array covariance, that mimic the ability of C++ to cast an array of pointers of one type to another type. One array can be converted to another array of the different type at compile time, if there is some built-in conversion, either explicit or implicit, between the two. The two arrays must also have the same rank. The array is reinterpreted and no underlying physical changes made during the conversion.

If the conversion is implicit, (that is, the element type of the array before conversion is being converted to an interface that it supports or to a base type) a cast is not required and no runtime check is performed. If the conversion is explicit, (the conversion is from an interface to another type, from a base type to a derived type, or from a base type to an interface not supported directly by that base type) an explicit cast is required and a runtime check is performed.

Each array of references, as mentioned earlier, has an underlying element type that remains fixed throughout the conversions. The runtime check is performed to ensure compatibility between the underlying element type and the new element type that it is being reinterpreted as.

A few examples should make it clear:

public class Animal {}

object [] data = new Animal[2]; // Animal [] is converted implicitly to object []
Animal [] animals1 = data; // Error: explicit conversion from object[] to Animal [] 
                           // is required
Animal [] animals2 = (Animal[]) data; // object[] is converted explicit to Animal []
    
string [] strings1 = (string[]) animals2; // fails at compile time because
                                      // no conversion exists between two
string [] strings2 = (string[]) data; // succeeds at compile because explict 
                                      // conversion exists between object and string
                                      // but fails at runtime, because underlying 
                                      // Animal array is not derived from string 
                                      // array
    
object [] data2 = new object[1];
data2[0] = new Animal();
Animal [] animals3 = (Animal[]) data2; // succeeds at compile time because explicit 
                                      // conversion exists between object and Animal
                                      // fails at runtime even because data2's 
                                      // underlying data type is object[] which is
                                      // not derived from Animal[] even though all
                                      // the elements of data2 are currently
                                      // Animals, the cast still because data2[],
                                      // being an array of objects, is not 
                                      // constrained to Animals and 
                                      // potentially data2[0] could be assigned
                                      // later a string or other type

Being able to reinterpret an array of one type to an array of interfaces, base type or derived achieves efficiencies in time and memory, that would have disappeared if another array of the other type were required to be constructed.

public void Test()
{
    string data [] = new string [] { "a", "b", "c", "d", "e" };
    SetRange(array, 1, 3, "x" );
}

public void SetRange(object [] array, int start, int count, object value)
{
    for (int i=0; i < count; i++)
        array[i+start] = value;
}

In the above example, the new string would appear as { "a", "x", "x", "x", "e" }. Though we did not explicit code to handle strings, array covariance allows SetRange to work for string arrays, nevertheless. Passing an integer as the parameter value would have resulted in a runtime exception because all array assignments for reference arrays include runtime type checking.

The following example illustrates issues with using value type arrays and string arrays with param arrays. The call to Write with integer arrays results in Results in "System.Int32 []" being written out because the the array of integers is wrapped up into another newly constructed array of objects. However, the call with string arrays results in "a", "b", "c" being written out; because of covariance, the string array becomes the args parameter.

// This illustrates the difference in treatement between array and value types

Write( new int [] { 1, 2, 3 } );  // Results in "System.Int32 []" being written
Write( new string[] {"a", "b", "c" } ); // Results in "a", "b", "c" being written
    
void Write(params object [] args)
{
    for (int i=0; i<args.Length; i++)
        Console.WriteLine(args[i]);
}

Everything has some cost. The downside of array covariance is anytime an element in assigned a new object, that object must be type-checked at runtime.

There's always the choice of using object[] and Array when using covariance to right general array functions. Object[] in many cases are faster because it is clear the array is an SZARRAY and IL has special instructions to call for setting and getting elements. However, Array can always hold arrays of value-types as well as multidimensional arrays.

Coversion of Array Elements (Array.Copy)

When copying elements between arrays of the same types, array.Copy before a single range check before the transfer followed by a ultrafast memmove byte transfer.

Besides copying elements between arrays of different types, array.Copy can copy elements between those of different types. When copying elements from a reference array to a value-type array, unboxing is performed; in the other direction, boxing is performed. Between different arrays of different value types, only widening conversions are performed (for example, from int to long, but not from long to int). When a conversion cannot be performed an InvalidCastException is thrown. Between reference types, elements are type-checked for compatibility and a shallow copy of references is performed; an ArrayTypeMismatchException occurs for arrays of incompatible arrays.

public Array Convert(Array array, Type type)
{
    Array newArray = Array.CreateInstance(type, array.Length);
    Array.Copy(array,0, newArray,0, array.Length);
    return newArray;
}

ArrayList Views

Some of the versatility of array lists are its ability to construct various types of views of other Arrays, ArrayLists and ILists.

Adapter

ArrayList.Adapter allows any IList (that includes an array and many other collections) to be viewed as a ArrayList. This is useful in several ways: An IList can use the binary search, sorting, reverse, subrange and array conversion capabilities that the arraylist automatically provides. However, this may not be as useful for an array since it already provides all those capabilities accept the subrange views.

  Syntax
Converting an IList to an Array ArrayList.Adapter(iList).ToArray()
Reversing an IList ArrayList.Adapter(iList).Reverse()
Getting a Subrange ArrayList.Adapter(iList).GetRange(start, count)
Binary Search ArrayList.Adapter(iList).BinarySearch()
Sort ArrayList.Adapter(iList).Sort()

Array Subranges

To extract a subrange of an array, one can write the following code.

public static Array GetRange(Array range, int start, int count)
{
    Type type = array.Type;
    Array newArray = Array.CreateInstance(type.GetElementType(), count);
    Array.Copy(array, start, newArray, 0, count);
    return newArray;        
}

Because this produces an actual (shallow) copy of the subrange of the array, this potentially consume a lot of memory. The ArrayList class contains a GetRange(int start, int count) which is potentially a memory saver for large array. GetRange returns a derived ArrayList that presents a view of array. The view can be manipulated as well. Elements can be modified, added and removed from within the view; however, any modification to the arraylist from outside the view will cause an exception to be thrown next time the view is used.

This method does not create copies of the elements. The new ArrayList is only a view window into the source ArrayList. However, all subsequent changes to the source ArrayList must be done through this view window ArrayList. If changes are made directly to the source ArrayList, the view window ArrayList is invalidated and any operations on it will return an InvalidOperationException.

In combination with the Adapter method, a view of an array or another collection can be obtained as well. For example, ArrayList.Adapter(array).GetRange(start, count) provides a view of the underlying array.

Wrapper Support

ArrayList contains three static methods with two overloads each that take either an IList or an ArrayList and returns a fixed-size, synchronized, or readonly IList and ArrayList respectively. The IList methods returns a lightweight wrapper class inherited from IList and consisting of one instance variable, a reference to the base IList. The ArrayList methods returns a derived ArrayList class, which consists of an additional instance variable referring to the base ArrayList class and ignores the inherited arrays. The ILists returned from the methods overloaded for ILists, are not derived from ArrayList and are somewhat misplaced in the ArrayList class. It would have been more appropriate for them to have been static members of the IList interface.

For example, these are the actual implementations of FixedList.

public static IList FixedSize(IList list) {
    if (list==null)
    throw new ArgumentNullException("list");
        return new FixedSizeList(list);
}

public static ArrayList FixedSize(ArrayList list) {
    if (list==null)
        throw new ArgumentNullException("list");
    return new FixedSizeArrayList(list);
}
  Description
FixedSize Returns a fixed size IList or ArrayList. All operations that change the size of the array such as Add or Remove result in a NotSupportedException.
ReadOnly Returns a readonly IList or ArrayList. All operations that modify any part of the array results in a NotSupportedException.
Synchronized Returns a synchonized IList or ArrayList

These operations can be combined for a synchronized fixed-size array or a synchronized read-only array: ArrayList.Synchronized(ArrayList.ReadOnly(list)). A readonly array is automatically fixed-sized.

Readonly is especially useful for prohibiting modification. Arrays, while fixed-size, are still always passed by reference and are mutable. In marshaling, arrays of greater than ten elements are pinned rather than copied, so potentially they could be modified.

Array Performance

Range Check Elimination: Use for(int i=0; i<a.Length; i++)

The C# compiler performs a special optimization that improves the performance of iterating through an array. First, compare the following three approaches to iterating through an array. Which is fastest?

1) standard iteration

int hash = 0;
for (int i=0; i< a.Length; i++)
{
    hash += a[i];
}

2) iterative loop with saved length variable

int hash = 0;
int length = a.length;
for (int i=0; i< length; i++)
{
    hash += a[i];
}

3) foreach iteration

foreach (int i in a)
{
    hash += i;
}

In the current version of the JIT compiler, you may be surprised to learn the first example produces the fastest code, while the third "foreach" example produces the slowest. In later versions of the compiler, foreach will be special case for arrays to provide the same performance or better as example 1.

Why is example 1 faster than example 2? This is because the compiler recognizes the pattern for (int i=0; i<a.length; i++) for both arrays. Since array have constant length, the compilers simply stores away the length, so that no function call is made on each iteration. (The JIT compiler may actually inline references to the array length, since the current version automatically inlines non-virtual method calls that consist of simple control flow and < 32 bytes of IL instructions.)

In addition, the compiler eliminates all range-check tests on any instance of s[i] within the loop, because i is guaranteed in the for condition to be within the range 0 <= i < length. Normally, any indexing of an array results in a range-check being performed; this is why attempting to save time by stashing away the length variable in example 2 actually results in slower code than in example 1.

There also the pointer approach.

fixed (int *pfixed = a)
{
    for (int *p = pfixed; count-->0; p++)
       hash += *p++;
}

Large Arrays

Large arrays can have a significant performance hit. Any large object that consumes 85K is placed in the large object heap. Practically speaking, almost all of these objects are going to be arrays, and possibly some strings, because very few classes will contain enough fields to exceed that amount of memory. Large objects are not compacted, and are only removed in a FULL garbage collection, containing generation 2. If the large object includes any finalizers, then at least two FULL garbage collections will be required. Since FULL garbage collections can be 100 times or more less frequent than the partial collections, it can take a long time for memory to be recovered.

Thus, a very poor allocation scheme, probably the worst, for a .NET application would be one that allocates large amounts very frequently for temporary uses.

Array Initialization

Static arrays of primitive data types are initialized at compiled time, just as in C++. Unfortunately, static arrays of structs are not and must be initialized at initialized at runtime. The developers defer this features because of the complexity introduced by the ability of structures to contain object references.

Presizing ArrayLists and Other Collections

In general, collections in the .NET Framework are dynamically resized by doubling their capacity each time they are full. This is an linear-time approach that takes O(3N), which is superior to the quadratic time approach of appending a fixed size to an array. But, if you know the approximate size of final array beforehand, you can essentially bring down the time to create a collection by two-thirds just by preallocating; instead of 3N copies, the collection will make just 1N copy. Each collection has a capacity setting for doing so.

Use Jagged Arrays Over Multidimensional Arrays

In future versions of C# post-Everett, many of the performance issues from the multidimensional arrays will be address. For now, jagged array which rely on optimized SZARRAYs and require just slightly more memory, are significantly faster.

Use strongly typed arrays whenever possible

Strongly typed arrays are highly optimized, avoiding the costs of boxing, casting, function calls and other indirection. With value-type arrays, a number of functions such as Reverse, IndexOf, LastIndexOf, BinSearch and Sort,

In the future, C# in "Visual Studio for Yukon" is expected to support generics and constraints, which will complete eliminate boxing and allow functions to perform as efficiently as possible. More information is available from Microsoft's public announcement at www.csharp.net .

public class Stack<ItemType>
{
    private ItemType[] items;

    public void Push(ItemType data)
    {
        ...
    }

    public ItemType Pop()
    {
        ...
    }
}

Generics have several advantages over C# templates such as the elimination of code bloat. Code for specialized classes are generated at run-time on the fly, and all reference types share the same code.

Conclusion

This concludes my discourse on arrays for now. I will continue update this article with new source code and actual benchmarks in the future. Be sure to watch for update versions of this page.

As a result of the enthusiasm that this article has generated, I will continue to develop more UNDOCUMENTED articles. My next article will be a discussion of the implementations of arrays and collections. I hope to publish a couple dozen articles when I am done with the series. I might eventually make this into a book.

My sources include various books, the shared source CLI, MSDN, magazine articles, interviews, inside sources, developer conference presentations, and some decompilers. One reader has suggested that I examined .NET Essentials by Don Box & Chris Sells and Applied .NET Framework by Jeffrey Richter provide the some of the same information that I do; but I have tried to come up with new information that in neither of those two books.

All of this behind-the-scenes information takes some amount of work to research and obtain, so, if you enjoyed this article, don't forget to vote.

Version History

Version Description
January 5 Original article on arrays

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About the Author

Wesner Moise
CEO SoftPerson; previously, Microsoft
United States United States
I am a software entrepreneur and former Microsoft Excel developer
 
I founded SoftPerson LLC (softperson.com) to build software using artificial intelligence to perform tasks associated with people. My business plan was a finalist in a national competition.
 
I helped develop Microsoft Excel 97, 2000 and XP. I received a BA from Harvard College in Applied Mathematics/Computer Science and an MBA from UCLA in technology entrepreneurship. I also obtained an MCSE/MCSD certification in 1997. My IQ is in the 99.9 percentile. I received a Microsoft MVP award in 2006.
 
My technical blog on .NET technologies is wesnerm.blogs.com.
My personal website is http://wesnermoise.com.
My company website is http://softperson.com.
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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmembergorgone24-Nov-11 11:58 
GeneralArray List Pinmemberamitrajahuja31-Jan-11 23:41 
GeneralDonot use arrays Pinmemberbhains30-Jul-08 6:10 
GeneralRe: Donot use arrays PinmemberPenGunAssassin12-Nov-08 6:13 
Arrays can be perfectly useful. Lets take for example a queue.
i want to take my queue and without modifying it get each value in it and play around with it. Simple, no?
To do this i do this:
Array ItemQueue = MyQueueObject.toArray();
foreach( Item i in ItemQueue)
{
   // ...
}
All a collection is is an old pointer hack of being an array of pointers. Its _slightly_ more efficient, but costs you when you're going to fragment memory.
 
----
Morgan Gangwere
Lead programmer, Unknown Software
 
"Pinky, are you thinking what im thinking?"
"I Dunno brain, how many licks DOES it take to get to the tootsie roll center of a tootsie pop?"
"You want me to calculate that? or should we take over the world?"
"ooh! OooooOOOooH! lets find out!"

GeneralRe: Donot use arrays Pinmemberan_phu6-Feb-09 10:06 
Generalsweet PinmemberMember 37378036-Mar-08 21:13 
GeneralExtremely informative - small correction PinmemberMichael B. Hansen20-Aug-07 3:20 
GeneralRe: Extremely informative - small correction PinmemberBigTuna29-Aug-07 5:42 
GeneralRe: Extremely informative - small correction PinmemberMichael B. Hansen29-Aug-07 6:46 
GeneralArray performance Pinmemberjan.truckenbrodt10-Jun-07 2:15 
GeneralRe: Array performance PinmemberJWvanDijk16-Oct-07 23:21 
QuestionURGENT Pinmembergr8est_chic8-Nov-06 7:45 
QuestionURGENT C# Help Pinmembergr8est_chic8-Nov-06 7:37 
QuestionHow would I go about using this? PinmemberEtias27-Sep-06 13:04 
AnswerRe: How would I go about using this? PinmemberWesner Moise27-Sep-06 13:08 
GeneralJagged vs. multidimensional arrays Pinmemberfd9720726-May-06 10:43 
GeneralArray PinmemberHomeBoy_21-Jan-06 13:06 
Generalconverting Array Object to ArrayList PinsussAnonymous25-May-05 18:34 
QuestionBinarySearch returning a negative index? Pinmember_Goose30-Apr-05 0:48 
AnswerRe: BinarySearch returning a negative index? PinmemberWesner Moise30-Apr-05 6:14 
GeneralRe: BinarySearch returning a negative index? Pinmember_Goose30-Apr-05 7:07 
GeneralRange Check Elimination optimization not true. PinmemberChris Coble18-Nov-04 12:01 
GeneralRe: Range Check Elimination optimization not true. Pinmembersnarfblam22-Feb-07 12:35 
GeneralormAn Array of Textboxs Pinmemberstarsprince9-Sep-04 1:25 
Generalexam timetable Pinsusskanisky23-Jul-04 5:42 

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