Introduction
Extreme Optimization can lead to remarkable improvements in both speed and size. In this article, we will see an example of how we can modify a standard algorithm using our knowledge of the problem at hand to achieve significant performance gains.
Background
We build on an article written by R. Reyes called Optimized IP to ISO3166 Country Code Mapping in C#. The objective is to perform fast lookup of the country code corresponding to an IP address in a table of over 52,000 entries while keeping memory usage to a minimum. We are only interested in the current IPv4 addresses, consisting of a sequence of 4 byte values in the range 0255.
The existing solution
Mr. Reyes introduces the PATRICIA trie structure (pronounced ‘try’ according to Donald Knuth) to efficiently perform the lookups. We will not repeat the details of the implementation here. They can be found in the original article.
The Extreme Optimization
Extreme Optimization™ begins with a thorough understanding of the problem we are solving. We combine this understanding with indepth knowledge of existing algorithms
Storing IP addresses more efficiently
The original algorithm uses a BitVector class to store the keys. Keys are represented internally as a Byte array. Only the distinctive portion of the key is stored, so many vectors will actually be only one byte long. However, a lot of shifting of bits is involved in isolating the relevant portion of the key and to check for matches.
A first observation is that we do not need a general BitVector class to store our data. Our keys are sequences of up to 32 bits. They fit perfectly into a 32 bit unsigned integer. This will eliminate the overhead of managing the array object.
Furthermore, we can eliminate the excessive shifting by storing the entire key in every node and using the bitwise Xor operator. The boolean Xor (exclusive OR) operator returns true if its operands are different and false if they are the same. The bitwise version compares identically positioned bits in two numbers. It assigns 0 to the corresponding bit in the result when the bits are the same, and 1 when they are different.
To find the shared portion of two keys, we Xor the two values. The key length is the number of leading zeros in the result. We can find this number by comparing the result to powers of two. For a key length of 32 bits, if the result is smaller than 2^n, we know that the first 32n bits of the two keys are the same.
Here is an example. We want to find the common key length of two IP addresses, IP1= 207.176.130.34 and IP2= 207.176.151.11.
IP Address 
Binary value 
Numerical value 
IP1 (207.176.130.34) 
11001111.10110000.10000010.00100010 
411,303,936 
IP2 (207.176.151.11) 
11001111.10110000.10010111.00001011 
411,336,704 
IP1 xor IP2 
00000000.00000000.00010101.00101001 
5,417 
The result, 5417, is smaller than 8192 = 2^13. Therefore, the two IP’s have the first 32  13 = 19 bits in common.
When comparing a key value to the key values of the children of a node, we can start counting up from the key length of the parent node.
Optimizing Patricia tries for binary keys
Secondly, we are dealing with binary data. The acronym PATRICIA is short for Practical Algorithm To Retrieve Information Coded In Alphanumeric. This name suggests that Patricia tries are best suited for alphanumerical data, where every node can have many children. The keys in our problem are sequences of 0’s and 1’s. This means that any node can have at most two children. One child will have a prefix starting with a 0. The other will have a prefix starting with a 1.
This means we can eliminate the ArrayList we have been using to store the references to the child nodes. We replace it with two references, one each for the child whose key prefix starts with a 0 or a 1, respectively. If either child is not present, the corresponding reference is null
.
An ArrayList is a relatively expensive structure to store very short lists. In addition to the usual overhead associated with reference types, it also allocates space for unused entries. Eliminating both the overhead and the unused space should significantly reduce our memory requirements.
When looking up values in the trie, we can simply use the value of the first bit after the current key length to select the next child node. We can then quickly check that our value matches the full length of the child node.
Further Optimizations
A trie can work with one root element. The first few steps of the lookup will be spent working through the first byte or 8 bits of the IP address. If we create a separate root for each possible value of the first bits in the key, we eliminate 6 or 7 unnecessary recursive steps. We can do even better by preselecting on more leading bits. We will call this number of bits the index length.
We have to be somewhat careful, however. Every root node spans a certain range of IP addresses. Some entries in our input tables will span a range that covers more than one root node. We will have to add these entries to all the appropriate root nodes, adjusting the range to fit that root nodes' range. This will come at a small penalty in the memory footprint, but the speed gain is significant.
If we use an index length of at least 1, we can use Int32
values for the keys instead of the non CLScompliant UInt32
without any complications resulting from using signed numbers. A key passed to a node will always have at least the leading bit in common with the node's key. The leading bit of the result of the XOR operations will therefore always be zero, indicating a positive value.
Looking at the code
The new project contains three classes.
BinaryTrie
represents a trie with 32 bit binary values as its keys.
BinaryTrieNode
represents a node in BinaryTrie
.
IPCountryTable
represents a lookup table. It inherits from BinaryTrie
.
BinaryTrie
has two constructors. The first constructor takes one argument, indexLength
, which is the number of bits to use in preselection. It creates the _roots
array which will contain the root nodes. The default constructor uses an index length of 1.
The Add
method adds a key to the trie and returns the BinaryTrieNode
corresponding to the key. The AddInternal
method does the actual work of adding a key to the trie. If no root node exists for the given index
, it creates one. If the root node exists, the request is passed on to the root node, which does the bulk of the work.
BinaryTrieNode
represents an entry in the trie. It contains the following fields:
_key
is a UInt32 value containing the key of the current node.
_keyLength
is the number of bits in the current key prefix.
_userData
points to any usersupplied object associated with the key. In this instance, this will be the Country Code associated with the node.
_zero
contains a reference to the child node whose prefix starts with a 0.
_one
contains a reference to the child node whose prefix starts with a 1.
BinaryTrieNode
has one internal constructor that is used by BinaryTrie
to create a root node. It also contains two private constructors. One creates a shallow copy of a node. The other creates a node using the data that was passed to the Add
method. It calculates the key length based on the number of addresses available to the network.
Most of the hard work of building the trie is done in the AddInternal()
method. We first calculate the common key length of the current node and the new entry. If the new key length is smaller than the common key length, the new entry becomes the parent of the current node. If the match is complete, i.e. the common key length is at least the key length of the current node, the new entry is passed on to a child node. Which child we work with depends on the first bit after the current key.
If the match is incomplete, the current node is replaced with a new node with the common portion of the key as its key. It has two children: (a copy of) the current node, and a node for the new entry. In both cases, the bit at position _keyLength+1
determines which of the two child nodes gets to go in the _zero
and _one
slots, respectively.
The lookup is passed on from IPCountryTable
straight to the correct root BinaryTrieNode
, if it exists. If the lookup key matches one of the child node keys, the request is passed on to that child node. Otherwise, we have found the best match.
Benchmark results
Using the same data set and test code as the original article, we found the following results. The Optimized version #1 refers to the original version of the code as posted here on May 13, 2003. The Optimized version #1.1 refers to the latest code, which includes the further optimizations.

Original version 
Optimized version #1 
Optimized version #1.1 
Result 
Result 
Change 
Result 
Change 
Memory usage 
9,409 KB 
2,578 KB 
 72.6% 
2,963 KB 
 68.5% 
Load time 
7.361s 
2.864s 
 61.1% 
1.858s 
 74.8% 
25,000 lookups 
3.475s 
0.2567s 
 92.6% 
0.1997s 
 94.3% 
Lookups/second 
7,194 
97,048 
+ 1,249% 
125,190 
+ 1,640% 
Here is a graphical representation of the results:
Possible improvements
Is there room for even more optimization? Possibly.
A single country code will have many nodes referencing it. We can eliminate a node if, for each of the IP addresses in its range, the best matching node in the resulting trie has the same country code as the node we eliminated. This will happen if the node's parent node has the same country code.
After the trie has been built, we can go through all the nodes iteratively and eliminate unnecessary nodes. If we can eliminate a significant number of nodes, the memory usage will decrease and the lookup speed will increase accordingly. This possibility will be explored in a future update of this article.
Conclusion
The two main objectives were minimizing memory usage and maximizing speed. We have further optimized an already optimized solution to produce dramatic improvements in both areas. We originally reduced memory usage by 3/4, and increased the lookup speed by a factor of more than 13.
With the latest version, we give up a little bit of memory for an additional 30% increase in performance. We also untangled the binary trie code from the IP lookup code. It can now be used independently.
References
Update
APNIC (the Asia Pacific Network Information Centre), one of four organizations that publishes the data used in this article, recently changed the format of its statistics file to conform to the format used by the other three organizations. The size field in the database now contains the total size of the segment rather than the number of bits. To use files in this new format, you will need to make a change in the source code. In the call to LoadStatisticsFile
which loads the APNIC data file, set the calculateKeyLength
parameter to true
.