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How to replace recursive functions using stack and while-loop to avoid the stack-overflow

By , 5 Sep 2013
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Prize winner in Competition "Best C++ article of July 2012"

Table of contents

  1. Introduction 
  2. Purpose of Simulated function 
  3. Pros and cons of Recursive and Simulated functions  
  4. 10 rules (steps) for replacing the recursive function using stack and while-loop   
    1. First rule 
    2. Second rule 
    3. Third rule
    4. Fourth rule
    5. Fifth rule
    6. Sixth rule
    7. Seventh rule
    8. Eighth rule
    9. Ninth rule
    10. Tenth rule 
  5. Simple examples by types of recursion 
  6. More practical example sources
  7. Why do the sources contain both the simulated version and the recursive version?
  8. Conclusion
  9. Reference   

Introduction

There are cases where we prefer to use recursive functions such as sort (Merge Sort) or tree operations (heapify up / heapify down). However, if the recursive function goes too deep in some environments, such as in Visual C++ code, an unwanted result might occur such as a stack-overflow. Many professional developers probably already know how to replace recursive functions to avoid stack-overflow problems in advance by replacing with iterative function or using stack (heap stack) and while-loop (recursive simulation function). However I thought it would be a great idea to share simple and general methods (or guidelines) to replace the recursive functions using stack (heap stack) and while-loop to avoid the stack-overflow to help novice developers.    

Purpose of the Simulated function   

If you are using recursive function, since you don't have control on call stack and the stack is limited, the stack-overflow/heap-corruption might occur when the recursive call's depth gets too deep. The purpose of simulated function is moving the call stack to stack in heap, so the you can have more control on memory and process flow, and avoid the stack-overflow. It will be much better if it is replaced by iterative function, however in order to do that, it takes time and experience to handle every recursive function in proper way, so this article is a simple guide to help the novice developers to avoid the stack-overflow by using the recursive function, when they are not ready yet to handle everything in proper way.  

Pros and Cons of Recursive and Simulated function  

Recursive function 

  • Pros 
  • Cons  
    • May occur "Stack-overflow," or "Heap corruption" 
      • Try to run IsEvenNumber function (Recursive) and IsEvenNumberLoop function (simulated) of "MutualRecursion.h" in  RecursiveToLoopSamples.zip with "10000" as its parameter input. 
#include "MutualRecursion.h"
 
bool result = IsEvenNumberLoop(10000); // returns successfully
bool result2 = IsEvenNumber(10000);     // stack-overflow error occurs 

Some people say that "(In order to fix the stack-overflow occurred by recursive function,) increase the MAX value of the stack to avoid the stack-overflow." However this is just temporary bandage, since if the recursive call gets deeper and deeper, the stack-overflow will most likely reappear. 

Simulated function 

  • Pros 
    • Can avoid "Stack-overflow," or "Heap corruption" errors.
      • More control on process flow and memory.  
  • Cons 
    • Not very intuitive about the algorithm.
    • Hard to maintain the code. 

10 Rules (steps) for replacing the recursive function with stack and while-loop  

First rule

  1. Define a new struct called "Snapshot". The purpose of this data structure is to hold any data used in the recursive structure, along with any state information.
  2. Things to include in the "Snapshot" structure.
    1. the function argument that changes when the recursive function calls itself **However,** when the function argument is a reference, it does not need to be included in the Snapshot struct. Thus, in the following example, argument n should be included in the struct but argument retVal should not.
      • void SomeFunc(int n, int &retVal);
    2. the "Stage" variable (usually an int to switch into the correct process divisions)
      • Read "Sixth rule" for detail.
    3. local variables that will be used after returning from the function call (can happen during binary recursion or nested recursion)
// Recursive Function "First rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
} 
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
    // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    ...
}

Second rule

  1. Create a local variable at the top of the function. This value will represent the role of the return function in the recursive function.
    1. in the iterative function, it is more like a temporary return value holder for each recursive call within the recursive function, since a C++ function can only have one return type.
    2. if the recursive function's return type is void, then you can simply ignore creating this variable.
    3. If there is any default return value then initialize this local variable with default value returning.
// Recursive Function "Second rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };

    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value

    ...
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Third rule

  1. Make a stack with the "Snapshot" struct type.
// Recursive Function "Third rule" example

// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };

    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value

    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    ...
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
}  

Fourth rule

  1. Create a new "Snapshot" instance, and initialize with parameters that are input into the iterative function and the start "Stage" number.
  2. Push the Snapshot instance into the empty stack.
// Recursive Function "Fourth rule" example

// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };

    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value

    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;

    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage

    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);

    ...
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
}  

Fifth rule

  1. Make a while loop which continues to loop while the stack is not empty.
  2. At each iteration of the while loop, pop a Snapshot object from the stack
// Recursive Function "Fifth rule" example

// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value
    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage
    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);
    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();
       ...
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
}  

Sixth rule

  1. Split the stages into two (for the case where there is only a single recursive call in the recursive function). The first case represents the code in the recursive function that is processed before the next recursive call is made, and the second case represents the code that is processed when the next recursive call returns (and when a return value is possibly collected or accumulated before the function returns it).
  2. In the situation where there are two recursive calls within a function, there must be three stages:
    1. ** (Stage 1 --> recursive call --> (returned from first recursive call) Stage 2 (recursive call within stage 1)--> (return from second recursive call) Stage 3
  3. In the situation where there are three different recursive calls then there must be at least 4 stages.
  4. And so on.
// Recursive Function "Sixth rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value
    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage
    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);
    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();
       // (Sixth rule)
       switch( currentSnapshot.stage)
       {
       case 0:
          ...      // before ( SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx); )
          break; 
       case 1: 
          ...      // after ( SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx); )
          break;
       }
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Seventh rule

  1. Switch into the process division according to the " Stage " variable
  2. Do the relevant process
// Recursive Function "Seventh rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };

    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value

    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;

    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage

    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);

    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();

       // (Sixth rule)
       switch( currentSnapshot.stage)
       {
       case 0:
          // (Seventh rule)
          if( currentSnapshot.n>0 )
          {
             ...
          }
          ...
          break; 
       case 1: 
          // (Seventh rule)
          currentSnapshot.test = retVal;
          currentSnapshot.test--;
          ...
          break;
       }
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Eighth rule

  1. If there is a return type for the recursive function, store the result of the loop iteration in a local variable (such as retVal ).
  2. This local variable will contain the final result of the recursive function when the while loop exits.
// Recursive Function "Eighth rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value
    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage
    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);
    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();
       // (Sixth rule)
       switch( currentSnapshot.stage)
       {
       case 0:
          // (Seventh rule)
          if( currentSnapshot.n>0 )
          {
             ...
          }
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = 0 ;
          ...
          break; 
       case 1: 
          // (Seventh rule)
          currentSnapshot.test = retVal;
          currentSnapshot.test--;
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = currentSnapshot.test;
          ...
          break;
       }
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Ninth rule

  1. In a case where there are "return" keywords within the recursive function, the  "return" keywords should be converted to "continue" within the "while" loop.
    1. In a case where the recursive function returns a value, then as stated in "Eighth rule," store the return value in the local variable (such as retVal), and then "continue"
    2. Most of the time, "Ninth rule" is optional, but it helps avoid logic error.
// Recursive Function "Ninth rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value
    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage
    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);
    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();
       // (Sixth rule)
       switch( currentSnapshot.stage)
       {
       case 0:
          // (Seventh rule)
          if( currentSnapshot.n>0 )
          {
             ...
          }
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = 0 ;
          
          // (Ninth rule)
          continue;
          break; 
       case 1: 
          // (Seventh rule)
          currentSnapshot.test = retVal;
          currentSnapshot.test--;
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = currentSnapshot.test;

          // (Ninth rule)
          continue;
          break;
       }
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Tenth rule (and the last...)

  1. To convert the recursive call within the recursive function, in iterative function, make a new "Snapshot" object, initialize the new "Snapshot" object stage, set its member variables according to recursive call parameters, and push into the stack, and "continue"
  2. If there is process to be done after the recursive call, change the stage variable of current "Snapshot" object to the relevant stage, and  push into the stack before pushing the new "Snapshot" object into the stack.
// Recursive Function "Tenth rule" example
int SomeFunc(int n, int &retIdx)
{
   ...
   if(n>0)
   {
      int test = SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx);
      test--;
      ...
      return test;
   }
   ...
   return 0;
}
// Conversion to Iterative Function
int SomeFuncLoop(int n, int &retIdx)
{
     // (First rule)
    struct SnapShotStruct {
       int n;        // - parameter input
       int test;     // - local variable that will be used 
                     //     after returning from the function call
                     // - retIdx can be ignored since it is a reference.
       int stage;    // - Since there is process needed to be done 
                     //     after recursive call. (Sixth rule)
    };
    // (Second rule)
    int retVal = 0;  // initialize with default returning value
    // (Third rule)
    stack<SnapShotStruct> snapshotStack;
    // (Fourth rule)
    SnapShotStruct currentSnapshot;
    currentSnapshot.n= n;          // set the value as parameter value
    currentSnapshot.test=0;        // set the value as default value
    currentSnapshot.stage=0;       // set the value as initial stage
    snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);
    // (Fifth rule)
    while(!snapshotStack.empty())
    {
       currentSnapshot=snapshotStack.top();
       snapshotStack.pop();
       // (Sixth rule)
       switch( currentSnapshot.stage)
       {
       case 0:
          // (Seventh rule)
          if( currentSnapshot.n>0 )
          {
             // (Tenth rule)
             currentSnapshot.stage = 1;            // - current snapshot need to process after
                                                   //     returning from the recursive call
             snapshotStack.push(currentSnapshot);  // - this MUST pushed into stack before 
                                                   //     new snapshot!
             // Create a new snapshot for calling itself
             SnapShotStruct newSnapshot;
             newSnapshot.n= currentSnapshot.n-1;   // - give parameter as parameter given
                                                   //     when calling itself
                                                   //     ( SomeFunc(n-1, retIdx) )
             newSnapshot.test=0;                   // - set the value as initial value
             newSnapshot.stage=0;                  // - since it will start from the 
                                                   //     beginning of the function, 
                                                   //     give the initial stage
             snapshotStack.push(newSnapshot);
             continue;
          }
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = 0 ;
          
          // (Ninth rule)
          continue;
          break; 
       case 1: 
          // (Seventh rule)
          currentSnapshot.test = retVal;
          currentSnapshot.test--;
          ...
          // (Eighth rule)
          retVal = currentSnapshot.test;
          // (Ninth rule)
          continue;
          break;
       }
    }
    // (Second rule)
    return retVal;
} 

Simple Examples by types of recursion  

  • Please download RecursiveToLoopSamples.zip
  • Unzip the file.
  • Open the project with Visual Studio.
    • This project has been developed with Visual Studio 2008
  • Sample project contains
    • Linear Recursion Example
    • Binary Recursion Example
    • Tail Recursion Example
    • Mutual Recursion Example
    • Nested Recursion Example

More Practical Example Sources  

The below sources contain both a recursive version and a simulated version, where the simulated version has been derived using the above methodology. 

Why do the sources contain both the simulated version and the recursive version?  

If you look at the source, you can easily notice the simulated versions look much more complex than the recursive versions. For those who don't know what the function does, it will be much harder to figure out what the function with the loop actually does. So I prefer to keep both versions, so people can easily test out simple inputs and outputs with the recursive version, and for huge operations, use simulated version to avoid stack overflow. 

Conclusion   

My belief is that when writing C/C++ or Java code, the recursive functions MUST be avoided in all cases. However as you can see from the examples, in many cases, the recursive functions are easy to understand, and easy to write with the downside of "if the recursive function call's depth goes too deep, it leads to stack-overflow error". So conversion from recursive function to simulated function is not for increasing readability nor increasing algorithmic performance, but it is helpful to avoid the crashes or undefined behaviors/errors. As I stated above, I prefer to keep both recursive version and simulated version in my code, so I can use the recursive version for readability and maintenance of the code, and the simulated version for running and testing the code.  It will be your choice how to write your code as long as you know the pros and cons for the choice, you are making.  

Reference   

History  

  • 09.06.2013:- Typo fixed (Thanks to  lovewubo
  • 08.22.2013:-  Re-distributed under MIT License from GPL v3 
  • 08.10.2012: - Table of contents updated 
  • 08.04.2012: - Moved the article's subsection to "Howto" 
  • 07.23.2012: - Minor fixes on the article  
  • 07.13.2012: - Table of contents modified 
    • Sections removed
    • Moved the article to Beginner section 
    • Changed the wording 
  • 07.13.2012: - Table of contents added.
    • Titles modified.
    • New sections added.
      • Difference between Recursive and Iterative function
      • Pros and Cons of Recursive and Iterative approach
  • 07.12.2012: - Sample bugs fixed.
    • Article re-organized.
    • Ninth and Tenth rule added.
    • Examples for each rule added.
  • 07.11.2012: - Submitted the article.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

About the Author

Woong Gyu La
Software Developer
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Woong Gyu La had been working as a software developer for over 8 years.
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Comments and Discussions

 
SuggestionExample within a loop Pinmemberdudz197814-Apr-14 3:25 
QuestionBest Authoritative PinmemberjediYL27-Sep-13 10:21 
GeneralMy vote of 3 PinmemberJeroen Walter6-Sep-13 3:28 
GeneralRe: My vote of 3 PinmemberjediYL27-Sep-13 10:22 
Questionis there a typo in step 10? Pinmemberlovewubo5-Sep-13 22:23 
AnswerRe: is there a typo in step 10? PinmemberWoong Gyu La5-Sep-13 22:28 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmemberpasztorpisti26-Aug-13 10:29 
GeneralMy five star rating PinmemberMarco Giacinti24-Aug-13 11:25 
Questionconversion of recursive to loop PinmemberMember 991447115-Mar-13 6:25 
AnswerRe: conversion of recursive to loop PinmemberWoong Gyu La15-Mar-13 17:07 
Questionconversion of recursive to loop Pinmembermadhurisamudrala14-Mar-13 8:13 
AnswerRe: conversion of recursive to loop PinmemberWoong Gyu La14-Mar-13 15:58 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberPhilippe Chessa12-Nov-12 22:49 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberWoong Gyu La19-Dec-12 19:23 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberMichael Haephrati מיכאל האפרתי30-Oct-12 12:05 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberWoong Gyu La19-Dec-12 19:22 
GeneralMy vote of 4 PinmemberEdward Keningham11-Aug-12 3:24 
GeneralRe: My vote of 4 PinmemberWoong Gyu La17-Sep-12 22:50 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberMihai MOGA8-Aug-12 5:27 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberWoong Gyu La17-Sep-12 22:50 
GeneralMy vote of 4 PinmemberMarco Sorich23-Jul-12 3:06 
Good article for an interesting solution.
GeneralRe: My vote of 4 PinmemberWoong Gyu La25-Jul-12 15:41 
GeneralMy vote of 5 Pinmembergndnet18-Jul-12 22:27 
GeneralRe: My vote of 5 PinmemberWoong Gyu La20-Jul-12 13:36 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberPaul H Kim15-Jul-12 19:52 

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