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Simple Comic Book Viewer for Android

, 11 Dec 2012 CPOL
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This is an Android application that, I believe, contains just slightly more than the minimum necessary feature set to be able to view .cbz format files.

Introduction

This is an Android application that, I believe, contains just slightly more than the minimum necessary feature set to be able to view .cbz format files.

These features are:

  • A "list view"of the .cbz files on the SD card, as shown in the above image. For each file:
    • Show a thumbnail of the first page of the comic.
    • Show the name of the file.
    • Allow user to start viewing the rest of the file.
  • A "viewer" to read the .cbz file.
    • Viewer will show one page (or part of page) at a time.
    • Fling gestures are used to move to the next or previous page.
    • Double tap will zoom in on a part of the page.
    • Pinch can be used to zoom in and out.
    • When zoomed in, image can be scrolled using drag gestures.
  • User can set a bookmark (Comic book & page). When application is initially started, the application will go to the bookmark.
  • A menu, to allow user to set the bookmark, return to the bookmark, or go to a list view of .cbz files to select a different comic to view.

In terms of Android features, this code demonstrates how to:

  • Enumerate files on a SD card
  • Read a zip file.
  • Read (and resize) a bitmap from a file
  • Show a bitmap, with zoom, scroll, pinch zoom, and fling functionality.
  • Handle the user changing the screen orientation between landscape and portrait.
  • Use intents to pass data between activities in an Android application.
  • Save user settings to persistent storage, and retrieve them later.
  • Provide a menu.
  • Customize the layout of the items of a ListActivity
  • Create a simple dialog.
  • Do work in on a background thread using AsyncTask

Warning, this is the second Android application I've written, and my first Code Project article, so there are probably many things I've done that could be improved. Feedback is welcomed.

Using the code

If you don't know how to set up Eclipse and the Android SDK, go here for instructions.

Download the project, unzip and import into Eclipse. Requires minimum of Android 2.3

Comic Book File Format

There are actually a number of formats for storing comic books. The simplest (and easiest for us) is .cbz. It's a set of image files (usually PNG or JPEG) that have been packed into a zip archive file. Each image is a page of the comic.

CbzComic.java in this project handles decoding the contents of .cbz files. From the preceding .cbz description, a .cbz archive file can be thought of as an array of Bitmaps. So, the most important functions of the CbzComic class are "Get Bitmap representing page N" and "Get number of Bitmaps". These are implemented by the functions getPage() and numPages() respectively.

Reading the contents of a Zip archive file.

Android provides two main classes to read a ZIP file, ZipInputSteam, and ZipFile. ZipFile provides random read access to a Zip file. As we want to be able to move both forward and backward, and even jump to a specific page of the comic, this is the class we want to use. (ZipInputStream only allows access to the contents of the file in a serial fashion, not what we want.)

Using the ZipFile class is reasonably simple. Each file stored in the archive has corresponding ZipEntry. To extract a file from the archive, calling ZipFile.getInputStream() with the appropriate ZipEntry will return the file as an InputStream.

There are two ways to get a ZipEntry. ZipFile.getEntry(String entryName), will return the ZipEntry with the specific name, but requires you to know the entryName in advance. The other way is ZipFile.entries(), which returns an enumeration that gives you all entries.

As we wish to access the files in the zip archive in random order, the simplest way to achieve this would be to use ZipFile.entries() to get all the entries, and place them in an array. Then, to get the file that represents page 'n' of the comic we'd simply get the ZipEntry held in the 'n'th element of the array, and use this to get the InputStream.

However, as Android is typically used in mobile devices that are memory constrained, instead of storing the ZipEntries themselves in an array, the CbzFile class stores the name of each entry in an array. Then, when we want a particular page from the archive, ZipFile.getEntry() is called with the name to obtain the appropriate ZipEntry, which is then used to obtain the InputStream.

Once we have an InputStream, converting it into a bitmap is trivial. The BitmapFactory class's decodeStream() function does this for us.

Thus, the most interesting functions in CbzComic are the constructor, which builds the array of ZipEntry names, and getPage(), which does the index to entryName to ZipEntry mapping and InputStream to Bitmap conversion. There is also getPageAsThumbnail(), which shows how to get a page's bitmap that has been scaled down. So it could be used, for example, as a thumbnail on a menu.

    public CbzComic(String fileName) {
        mFileName = fileName;
        try {
            // populate mPages with the names of all the ZipEntries
            mZip = new ZipFile(fileName);
            mPages = new ArrayList<string>();
            Enumeration<? extends ZipEntry> entries = mZip.entries();
            while (entries.hasMoreElements()) {
                ZipEntry entry = entries.nextElement();
                if (isImageFile(entry)) {
                    mPages.add(entry.getName());
                }
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            Log.e(Globals.TAG, "Error opening file", e);
        }
    }

    public Bitmap getPage(int pageNum) {
        Bitmap bitmap = null;
        try {
            ZipEntry entry = mZip.getEntry(mPages.get(pageNum));
            InputStream in = null;
            try {
                in = mZip.getInputStream(entry);
                bitmap = BitmapFactory.decodeStream(in);
            }  finally {
                if (in != null) { 
                    in.close();
                }
            }
        } catch (IOException e) {
            Log.e(Globals.TAG, "Error loading bitmap", e);
        }
        return bitmap;
    }</string>

Viewing the pages of a Comic:

The viewing of a comic is between two classes; BitmapView.java, and BitmapViewController.java.

The BitmapView is responsible for showing the page image and responding to the user's zoom, pinch and scroll gestures to display the appropriate part of the selected image.

The BitmapViewController is responsible for responding to the users fling gestures, to change the currently selected page in the BitmapView. The reason for this division of responsibility is so that I could, in the future, easily reuse the BitmapView. e.g. If I wanted to do a photo album browser, (or a web comic viewer) all that would be needed is writing a new BitmapViewController that obtains the correct bitmaps in response to fling gestures.

Linking a BitmapView and BitmapViewController together is done by the following code.

    mBitmapView = (BitmapView) findViewById(R.id.comicView);
    mBitmapController = new BitmapViewController(mBitmapView, (Activity) this);
    mBitmapView.setController(mBitmapController);

The BitmapView is actually a very simple class. It derives from view, and overrides on Draw() to show the currently selected image (or part thereof) to the user. Getting the View to react to scroll, fling, and zoom and gestures is slightly complicated because the View does not receive these gestures as events directly. Instead, its onTouchEvent() is called with MotionEvents, and you need to analyse these events to determine the gesture(s) the user is making. However, you can use an android.view.GestureDetector to do this analysis work for you. There are three steps involved.

First, create an anonymous class that derives from android.view.GestureDetector.SimpleOnGestureListener. This class has a set of methods that are called when the GestureDetector determines a gesture occurs. e.g. onDoubleTap(), onScroll(), etc. For each gesture you want to handle, you override that function and implement the functionality to handle the gesture.

    private SimpleOnGestureListener mGestureListener = new SimpleOnGestureListener() {
        @Override
        public boolean onDoubleTap(MotionEvent e) {
            ZoomInOnPoint(e);
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public void onLongPress(MotionEvent e) {
            if (mController != null) {
                mController.onLongPress();
            }
        }

        @Override
        public boolean onScroll(MotionEvent e1, MotionEvent e2, float distanceX, float distanceY) {
            scrollViewport(distanceX, distanceY);
            return true;
        }

        @Override
        public boolean onFling(MotionEvent e1, MotionEvent e2, float velocityX, float velocityY) {
            if (mController != null) {
                mController.onFling(e1, e2, velocityX, velocityY);
            }
            return true;
        }
    };

Next, you create an android.view.GestureDetector, and hook it up to the SimpleOnGestureListener.

    public BitmapView(Context context, AttributeSet attrs) {
        super(context, attrs);
        mGestureDetector = new GestureDetector(context, mGestureListener);
    }

Finally, you override the view's onTouchEvent() and pass the MotionEvents on to the GestureDetector.

    public boolean onTouchEvent(MotionEvent event) {
        mGestureDetector.onTouchEvent(event);
        return true;
    }

A minor complication is that the GestureDetector does not handle "pinch to zoom", In order to do that, you need to use a ScaleGestureDetector, and its matching SimpleOnScaleGestureListener, in addition to the GestureDetector.

As previously mentioned, the BitmapView does not directly handle converting flings to "turn the page" actions, this is done by the BitmapViewController. However, as flings are detected by the GestureDetector, when they occur, the BitmapView passes them onto the BitmapViewController. There is (yet another) minor issue in that we want the user to be able to do both scroll and fling gestures and the GestureDetector sometimes interprets a small scroll movement as a fling. Or adds a fling to the end of scroll movement. So, to avoid a page turn when user is just doing a scroll, we check that the fling exceeds threshold criteria for length and speed. Note, the thresholds were determined by experimentation, and may not be suitable for all users. Ideally, we'd provide settings, so that each user can adjust the thresholds to a value that works best for them.

    public boolean onFling(MotionEvent e1, MotionEvent e2, float velocityX, float velocityY) {
        int minDistance = mBitmapView.getWidth() / 4;
        float minVelocity = minDistance * 6;  
        float distanceX = Math.abs(e2.getX() - e1.getX()) / 2.0f;
        if ((minDistance < distanceX) && (minVelocity < Math.abs(velocityX))) {
            if (0 < velocityX) {
                backPage();
            } else {
                forwardPage();
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

Beyond setting up the GestureDetectors, most of the BitmapView code is keeping track of the area of bitmap that should be shown on screen, and maths to adjust the area in response to zoom and scroll requests.

Viewing list of comic book files

ListComicsActivity.java provides the UI that allows a user to to choose the comic to view. i.e. It provides this UI.

Thus, this class does three tasks:

  • Find the available .cbz files.
  • Show the found files to the user, in a way that allows the user to select one of them
  • Return the selection to the main activity.

Finding the .cbz files is a cheat. As this is a minimal viewer, it just lists all the files in the "Downloads" directory on the SD card. This should really be done via a content provider. (A possible future feature.) The code to get a list of the files is isMediaAvailable() and listComicFiles(), which load mFileNames with a list of the comic book files.

    private boolean isMediaAvailable() {
        String state = Environment.getExternalStorageState();
        if (Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED.equals(state)) {
            return true;
        } else {
            return Environment.MEDIA_MOUNTED_READ_ONLY.equals(state);
        }
    }

    private void listComicFiles() {
        if (!isMediaAvailable()) {
            Utility.showToast(this, R.string.sd_card_not_mounted);
        } else {
            File path = Environment
                    .getExternalStoragePublicDirectory(Environment.DIRECTORY_DOWNLOADS);
            mRootPath = path.toString();
            mFileNames = new ArrayList<string>();
            String[] filesInDirectory = path.list();
            if (filesInDirectory != null) {
                for (String fileName : filesInDirectory) {
                    mFileNames.add(fileName);
                }
            }
            if (mFileNames.isEmpty()) {
                Utility.showToast(this, R.string.no_comics_found);
            }
        }
    }</string>

ListComicsActivity derives from ListActivity, and uses the ListActivity to provide the UI. For the basics of how to use a ListActivity see this article.

The major additional points of interest in this class are using a background thread to populate the thumbnail on the menu, and returning the comic selected by the user to the MainActivity.

A background thread is used to load the thumbnail because this operation could potentially take a long time, so should not be run on the UI thread. This is implemented by the LoadThumbnailsTask class, which derives from android.os.AsyncTask. AsyncTask is well covered by this document by Google, so I won't discuss it further.

Returning the comic selected

The ListActivity is an activity, and we want it to return a result. So, to get it to appear, it's launched from the main activity by calling startActivityForResult().

    private void launchComicList() {
        Intent listComicsIntent = new Intent(this, ListComicsActivity.class);
        startActivityForResult(listComicsIntent, 0);
    }

To return information from ListComicsActivity, you create an Intent, add the desired information to the intent, call setResult(), and then call finish() to end ListComicsActivity and return to the activity that launched ListComicsActivity.

    OnClickListener readButtonListener = new OnClickListener() {
        @Override
        public void onClick(View v) {
            String fileName = titleToFileName((String) v.getTag());
            Intent intent = new Intent();
            intent.putExtra(FILENAME_EXTRA, fileName);
            setResult(RESULT_OK, intent);
            finish();
        }
    };

When ListComicsActivity ends, onActivityResult() in the activity that launched it is called, with the intent from setResult(). So, we override onActivityResult() and extract the information from the intent.

    protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode, Intent data) {
        super.onActivityResult(requestCode, resultCode, data);
        if (resultCode == RESULT_OK) {
            String fileName = data.getStringExtra(ListComicsActivity.FILENAME_EXTRA);
            loadComic(fileName, 0);
        }
    }

Bookmark

The final feature of this application is the ability to set and restore a bookmark. The most common scenario being, just before shutting down the application, the user should be able to tell the application to remember the currently displayed comic and page. Later, when the application is restarted, it should return to the comic and page. Bookmark.java is responsible for saving/loading this persistent information.

Note, if desired, the application could automatically record the current position on shutdown by overriding MainActivity.onPause(). It could also store multiple bookmarks, one per comic. But to keep things simple at this time, a bookmark is set by the user selecting the "set bookmark" menu item.

As detailed by Google, there are several ways of storing persistent information. The simplest is Shared Preferences. Here's how the Bookmark saves and loads the state information using Shared Preferences

    public void saveToSharedPreferences(Context context) {
        if (!isEmpty()) {
            SharedPreferences settings = context.getSharedPreferences(PREFS_NAME,
                    Context.MODE_PRIVATE);
            SharedPreferences.Editor editor = settings.edit();
            editor.putString(PREFS_COMIC_NAME, mComicName);
            editor.putInt(PREFS_PAGE, mPage);
            editor.commit();
        }
    }

    public Bookmark(Context context) {
        SharedPreferences settings = context.getSharedPreferences(PREFS_NAME, Context.MODE_PRIVATE);
        mComicName = settings.getString(PREFS_COMIC_NAME, "");
        mPage = settings.getInt(PREFS_PAGE, -1);
    }

In addition to storing state persistently, in order to handle the screen orientation changing (i.e. going from landscape to portrait and vice versa), we also need to be able to save the state to a Bundle. This is because, when the device is rotated, Android expects you to save the state to bundle. Android then restarts your app, passing in the bundle, which your app uses to restore its state.

In slightly more detail, when the device is rotated, onSaveInstanceState() in you activity is called. You need to override this function and save any state you need persisted into the supplied Bundle. In our case, the state information we want is the comic and page currently being viewed.

After calling onSaveInstanceState, the OS will change the orientation and restart your application, calling onCreate() with the bundle from onSaveInstanceState(). Note, onCreate() is also called when your application starts. But, when it's starting, bundle is null. Thus, the standard implementation of onCreate() should check if the bundle is null or not. If it's not null, then the app should restore its state, using the information in the bundle.

Here's how the Bookmark saves and loads state information to a bundle, note how the code is almost identical to that used for Shared Preferences. (Oddly, SharedPreferences and Bundles are not related.)

    public void save(Bundle outState) {
        if (!isEmpty()) {
            outState.putString(PREFS_COMIC_NAME, mComicName);
            outState.putInt(PREFS_PAGE, mPage);
        }
    }

    public Bookmark(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        mComicName = savedInstanceState.getString(PREFS_COMIC_NAME);
        mPage = savedInstanceState.getInt(PREFS_PAGE);
    }

And in our main activity, the code is:

    public void onSaveInstanceState(Bundle outState) {
        super.onSaveInstanceState(outState);
        mBitmapController.getBookmark().save(outState);
    }

    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);
        mBitmapView = (BitmapView) findViewById(R.id.comicView);
        mBitmapController = new BitmapViewController(mBitmapView, (Activity) this);
        mBitmapView.setController(mBitmapController);

        if (savedInstanceState != null) {
            // screen orientation changed, reload
            loadComic(new Bookmark(savedInstanceState));
        } else {
            // app has just been started.
            // If a bookmark has been saved, go to it, else, ask user for comic
            // to view
            Bookmark bookmark = new Bookmark(this);
            if (bookmark.isEmpty()) {
                launchComicList();
            } else {
                loadComic(bookmark);
            }
        }
    }

Main Activity

MainActivity.java is, well, the application's main activity. It's the activity that is first started when the application starts. It uses the BitmapView as its view, creates the main menu and responds to user selecting menu actions, and responding to user changing the screen between landscape and portrait.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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About the Author

dteviot
Software Developer (Senior) Pharos Systems Ltd
New Zealand New Zealand
No Biography provided

Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionI have a question PinmemberMember 109258494-Jul-14 22:44 
AnswerRe: I have a question Pinmemberdteviot6-Jul-14 11:01 
QuestionMy vote 5 PinmemberSOHAM_GANDHI6-Apr-14 21:27 
QuestionRandom images PinmemberMember 1023630610-Sep-13 15:06 
AnswerRe: Random images Pinmemberdteviot10-Sep-13 15:58 
GeneralRe: Random images PinmemberMember 1023630611-Sep-13 7:37 
GeneralRe: Random images [modified] Pinmemberdteviot11-Sep-13 10:56 
AnswerRe: Random images Pinmemberdteviot10-Sep-13 16:07 
GeneralRe: Random images PinmemberMember 1023630618-Sep-13 14:58 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberMyNameIsCode28-Jan-13 15:19 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberMihai MOGA15-Jan-13 7:52 
GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmemberSrivatsa Haridas13-Dec-12 8:05 

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