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Design and Develop a website using ASP.NET MVC 4, EF, Knockoutjs and Bootstrap : Part - 1

By , 16 Jan 2013
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Another MVC Application: Introduction

All websites are growing faster these days, and once it grows, it is very hard to write, organize and maintain. As we add new functionality or developer to a project, any large web applications with poor design may be go out of control. So the idea behind this article is to design a website architecture that must be simple, easily understandable by any web designer (beginner to intermediate) and Search Engines. For this article I am trying to design a website for any individuals to maintain their contact details online. However, in future, the same application could be used by large community all over the world with added functionality and modules. So, the design should be easily adaptable in order to cope with the future growth of business.

In this article I will talk about creating and designing User Interface (UI) in such a manner so that UI will be separated from the business logic, and can be created independently by any designer/developer. For this part we will use ASP.Net MVC, Knockout Jquery and Bootstrap.

The Second part of this series is more about database design and implementing business logic using structured layers using SQl Server 2008, Entity Framework, and Castle Windsor for Dependency Injection.

Design and Develop a website using ASP.NET MVC 4, EF, Knockoutjs and Bootstrap : Part - 2

Separation of Concern: Primary Objective

The key concept is stripping out most or all logic. Logic should not be bound to a page. What if we need to re-use the logic from one page in another? In that case we will be tempted to copy-and-paste. If we are doing this then our project will become maintainable. Another important concept is to separate data access layer from any business logic, as we are planning to use Entity Framework this is less of a problem as EF should already have this end separate. We should be able to easily move all our EF files to another project and simply add a reference to the projects that need it. Below is the high level design:

And, the final solution will look like below image in Visual Studio :

Seven Projects in One Solution : Is it required ?

It is all about your decision… The proposed designed will offer some rather relevant benefits, which include:

  • Separation of Concern: Design should allow clear and defined layers; means segregate application into distinct areas whose functionality does not overlap. such that UI-designers can focus on their job without dealing with the business logic (Application.Web), and the core developer can only work on main business logics (Application.DTO or Application.Manager).
  • Productivity: It is easier to add new features to existing software, since the structure is already in place, and the location for every new piece of code is known beforehand, so any issue can be easily identified and separated to cope with complexity, and to achieve the required engineering quality factors such as robustness, adaptability, maintainability, and reusability.
  • Maintainability: It is easier to maintain application, due to clear and defined structure of the code is visible and known, so it’s easier to find bugs and anomalies, and modify them with minimal risk.
  • Adaptability: New technical features, such a different front ends, or adding a business rule engine is easier to achieve, as your software architecture creates a clear separation of concerns.
  • Reusability: Reusability is another concern on designing any application, because it is one of the main factors to decrease the total cost of ownership, and our design should consider to what extent we can reuse the created Web application and different layers.

In last section of this article, we will discuss the functionality of each individual layer’s in details.

Tools & Technology

To achieve the final solution, we need below tools/dll:

  • Visual Studio 2012
  • ASP.NET MVC 4 with Razor View Engine
  • Entity Framework 5.0
  • Castle Windsor for DI
  • SQL Server 2008/2012
  • Knockout.js & JQuery
  • Castle Windsor for DI
  • Bootstrap CSS

What we are trying to achieve: Requirement

Screen 1: Contact List - View all contacts

1.1 This screen should display all the contacts available in Database.
1.2 User should be able to delete any contact.
1.3 User should able to edit any contact details.
1.4 User should be able to create a new contact.

Initial sketch:


Screen 2: Create New Contact

This screen should display one blank screen to provide functionalities as.

2.1 User should be able to Enter his/her First name, Last Name and Email Address.
2.2 User should able to add any number of Phone numbers by clicking on Add numbers.
2.3 User should able to remove any phone number.
2.4 User should able to add any number of Addresses by clicking on Add new address.
2.5 User should able to remove any address.
2.6 Click on save button should save Contact details in Database and user will return back in Contact List page.
2.7 Click on Back to Profile button should return back the user to Contact List page.

Initial sketch:


Screen 3: Update Existing Contact

This screen should display screen with selected contact information details.

3.1 User should be able to modify his/her First name, Last Name and Email Address.
3.2 User should able to modify /delete/Add any number of Phone numbers by clicking on Add numbers or delete link.
3.3 User should able to modify /delete/Add any number of Addresses by clicking on Add new address or delete link.
3.4 Click on save button should update Contact details in Database and user will return back in Contact List page.
3.5 Click on Back to Profile button should return back the user to Contact List page.
>

Initial Sketch:


Part 1: Create Web Application (Knockout.js, Asp.Net MVC and Bootstrap): For Designers

Before kick-off the UI part, let us see what benefits we are getting using Knockoutjs and Bootstrap along with ASP.NET MVC 4.

Why Knockoutjs: Knockout is an MVVM pattern that works with a javascript ViewModel. The reason this works well with MVC is that serialization to and from javascript models in JSON is very simple, and it is also included with MVC 4. It allows us to develop rich UI's with a lot less coding and whenever we modify our data, Immediate it reflect in the user interface.

Why Bootstrap: Twitter Bootstrap is a simple and flexible HTML, CSS, and Javascript for popular user interface components and interactions. It comes with bundles of CSS styles, Components and Javascript plugins. It provides Cross platform support, which eliminates major layout inconsistencies. Everything just works! Good documentation and the Twitter Bootstrap's website itself is a very good reference for real life example. And, finally, it saves me plenty of times, as it cut the development time to half with very less testing and almost zero browser issues. Some other benefits we can get by using this framework are:

  • 12-Column Grid, fixed layout, fluid or responsive layout.
  • Base CSS for Typography, code (syntax highlighting with Google prettify), Tables, Forms, Buttons and uses Icons by Glpyhicons .
  • Web UI Components like Buttons, Navigation menu, Labels, Thumbnails, Alerts, Progress bars and misc.
  • Javascript plugins for Modal, Dropdown, Scrollspy, Tab, Tooltip, Popover, Alert, Button, Collapse, Carousel and Typehead.

In below steps, we will work through the layout and design to build UI for above requirement by using dummy javascript data.

Step 1: Create a new project as Blank Solution; name it as “Application”

Step 2: Right Click on Solution folder and add new Project of type ASP.NET MVC 4 as an Internet Application Template with View engine as Razor.

After Step 2 - the project structure should look like the below image

Step 3: Right click on References and click on Manage NuGet Packages. Type Bootstrap on search bar then click on Install button.

Step 4: add below line of code into BundleConfig.cs file under App_Start folder to add Knockoutjs and Bootstrap for every page

bundles.Add(new ScriptBundle("~/bundles/knockout").Include(
                                    "~/Scripts/knockout-{version}.js"));
bundles.Add(new StyleBundle("~/Content/css").Include("~/Content/bootstrap.css"));

Also in _Layout,cshtml file under Views/Shared folder add below line to register knockout files as :

@Scripts.Render("~/bundles/knockout")

Step 4: Add a new folder name as Contact inside Views, and then add Index.cshtml as new View page. Then add a new Controller name it ContactController.cs inside Controller folder, and add a new Contact.js file under Scripts folder. Refer to below image.

Step 5: Finally modify the default map route in Route.config to point to Contact controller as:

routes.MapRoute(
                name: "Default",
                url: "{controller}/{action}/{id}",
                defaults: new { controller = "Contact", action = "Index", id = UrlParameter.Optional }
            );

And also modify the _Layout.cshtml file inside View/Shared as per the BootStrap Syntax. Below is the modified code:

    
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <title>@ViewBag.Title - Contact manager</title>
    <link href="~/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" />
    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width" />
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/jquery")
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/knockout")
    @Styles.Render("~/Content/css")
    @Scripts.Render("~/bundles/modernizr")
    @RenderSection("scripts", required: false)
</head>
<body>

    <div class="container-narrow">
        <div class="masthead">
            <ul class="nav nav-pills pull-right">
                
            </ul>
            <h3 class="muted">Contact Manager</h3>
        </div>
        <div id="body" class="container">
            @RenderSection("featured", required: false)
            <section>
                @RenderBody()
            </section>
        </div>
        <hr />
        <div id="footer">
            <div class="container">
                <p class="muted credit">&copy; @DateTime.Now.Year - Design and devloped by <a href="http://www.anandpandey.com">Anand Pandey</a>.</p>
            </div>
        </div>
    </div>

</body>
</html>

Step 6: Now we are done with initial setup to run the application. The output is as below:




We will use this page to display the requirement for Screen 1 i.e. Contact List - View all contacts

Step 7: First we will create a dummy profile data as array in Contact.js (later we will fetch it from database), and then we will use this data to populate Grid.

var DummyProfile = [
    {
        "ProfileId": 1,
        "FirstName": "Anand",
        "LastName": "Pandey",
        "Email": "anand@anandpandey.com"
    },
    {
        "ProfileId": 2,
        "FirstName": "John",
        "LastName": "Cena",
        "Email": "john@cena.com"
    }
]

Next, we will create ProfilesViewModel, a viewmodel class which hold Profiles, an array holding an initial collection of DummyProfile data. Note that it's a ko.observableArray , and it is the observable equivalent of a regular array, which means it can automatically trigger UI updates whenever items are added or removed.

And finally we need to activate Knockout using ko.applyBindings().

var ProfilesViewModel = function () {
    var self = this;
    var refresh = function () {
        self.Profiles(DummyProfile);
    };
 
    // Public data properties
    self.Profiles = ko.observableArray([]);
    refresh();
};
ko.applyBindings(new ProfilesViewModel());

Step 8: Next we will write code in Index.cshtml page, that's supposed to display the Profile List. We need to use the foreach binding on <tbody> element, so that it will render a copy of its child elements for each entry in the profiles array, and then populate that <tbody> element with some markup to say that you want a table row (<tr>) for each entry.

<table class="table table-striped table-bordered table-condensed">
    <tr> 
        <th>First Name</th>
        <th>Last Name</th>
        <th>Email</th>
    </tr>
    <tbody data-bind="foreach: Profiles">
        <tr">
            <td data-bind="text: FirstName"></td>
            <td data-bind="text: LastName"></td>
            <td data-bind="text: Email"></td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
 
<script src="~/Scripts/Contact.js"></script>

If you run the application now, you should see a simple table of profile information as:

Remember for table style we are using Bootstrap’s css class. In above example it is ;

<table class="table table-striped table-bordered table-condensed">

Step 9: Now we need to add Edit and Remove functionality for each row, and one more button at top to create a new profile. So let us do:

  • Add one more <th> and <td> in our table template and bind it’s click event with removeProfile function in js.
  • Modify First Name row to add link for Edit Profile and then bind its click event with editProfile function.
  • Add one button for Create new profile and bind it with click event using createProfile function.

So out final code for Index.cshtml is :

<input type="button"  class="btn btn-small btn-primary"  value="New Contact" data-bind="click:$root.createProfile" />
<hr />
<table class="table table-striped table-bordered table-condensed">
    <tr> 
        <th>First Name</th>
        <th>Last Name</th>
        <th>Email</th>
        <th></th>
    </tr>
    <tbody data-bind="foreach: Profiles">
        <tr>
            <td class="name"><a data-bind="text: FirstName, click: $parent.editProfile"></a></td>
            <td data-bind="text: LastName"></td>
            <td data-bind="text: Email"></td>
            <td><button class="btn btn-mini btn-danger" data-bind="click: $parent.removeProfile">remove</button></td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
 
<script src="~/Scripts/Contact.js"></script>

And output is:

None of the added button and link will work, because we have not written any code for that, so let's fix that in next step.

Step 10: Add events for createProfile, editProfile and removeProfile in Contact.js

self.createProfile = function () {
        alert("Create a new profile");
    };
 
    self.editProfile = function (profile) {
        alert("Edit tis profile with profile id as :" + profile.ProfileId);
    };
 
    self.removeProfile = function (profile) {
        if (confirm("Are you sure you want to delete this profile?")) {
            self.Profiles.remove(profile);
        }
    };

Now when we run our application and click on Remove button, then it will remove that profile from current array. As we define this array as observable, the UI will be kept in sync with changes to that array. Try it by clicking on Remove button. Edit link and Create Profile button will simply display the alert. So, let us implemented this functionality in next steps:

Step 11: Next we will add:

  • A new Razor View inside Views/Contact as CreateEdit.cshtml, and register it in ContactController.cs class.
  • public ActionResult CreateEdit()
            {
                return View();
     }
    
  • A new js file named as CreateEdit.js inside Scripts folder.
  • Modify createProfile and editProfile method of Contact.js, so that it will point to the CreateEdit page.
  • self.createProfile = function () {
            window.location.href = '/Contact/CreateEdit/0';
        };
     
        self.editProfile = function (profile) {
            window.location.href = '/Contact/CreateEdit/' + profile.ProfileId;
        };
    

Running the application will now work for all the events in Contact List (screen -1). And create and Edit should redirect to CreateEdit page with required parameters.

Step 12: First we will start with adding Profile Information to this CreateEdit page. For that we need to do:

  • We need to get profileId from url so, add below two lines on top of the CreateEdit.js page
  • var url = window.location.pathname;
    var profileId = url.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/') + 1);
    
  • Define a dummy Profile data as array in CreateEdit.js
  • var DummyProfile = [
        {
            "ProfileId": 1,
            "FirstName": "Anand",
            "LastName": "Pandey",
            "Email": "anand@anandpandey.com"
        },
        {
            "ProfileId": 2,
            "FirstName": "John",
            "LastName": "Cena",
            "Email": "john@cena.com"
        }
    ]
    
  • Profile, a simple JavaScript class constructor that stores a profile’s FirstName, LastName and Email selection.
  • var Profile = function (profile) {
        var self = this;
     
        self.ProfileId = ko.observable(profile ? profile.ProfileId : 0);
        self.FirstName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.FirstName : '');
        self.LastName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.LastName : '');
        self.Email = ko.observable(profile ? profile.Email : '');
    };
     
    
  • ProfileCollection, a viewmodel class that holds profile (a JavaScript object providing Profile data) along with binding for saveProfile and backToProfileList events.
  • var ProfileCollection = function () {
        var self = this;
     
        //if ProfileId is 0, It means Create new Profile
        if (profileId == 0) {
            self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile());
        }
        else {
            var currentProfile = $.grep(DummyProfile, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
            self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile(currentProfile[0]));
        }
     
        self.backToProfileList = function () { window.location.href = '/contact'; };
     
        self.saveProfile = function () {
            alert("Date to save is : " + JSON.stringify(ko.toJS(self.profile())));
        };
    };
     
    
  • And finally, activate Knockout using ko.applyBindings().
  • ko.applyBindings(new ProfileCollection());
    

Step 13: Next we will write code in CreateEdit.cshtml page, that's supposed to display the Profile information. We need to use the “with” binding for profile data, so that it will render a copy of its child elements for a particular profile, and then assign the appropriate values. He code for CreateEdit.cshtml is as below:

<table class="table">
        <tr>
            <th colspan="3">Profile Information</th>
        </tr>
        <tr></tr>
    <tbody data-bind='with: profile'>
        <tr>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: FirstName'  placeholder="First Name"/>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: LastName' placeholder="Last Name"/>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: Email' placeholder="Email" />
            </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
 
<button class="btn btn-small btn-success" data-bind='click: saveProfile'>Save Profile</button>
<input class="btn btn-small btn-primary" type="button" value="Back To Profile List" data-bind="click:$root.backToProfileList" />
 
<script src="~/Scripts/CreateEdit.js"></script>

Running the application will display the below screens :

For create New:

For existing record with profile Id 1:

Update any existing record and click on save with give below output:

As per requirement for this screen, we already have done:

2.1 User should be able to Enter his/her First name, Last Name and Email Address
2.6 Click on save button should save Contact details in Database and user will return back in Contact List page.
2.7 Click on Back to Profile button should return back the user to Contact List page.

In next step we will try to achieve below requirement:

2.2 User should able to add any number of Phone numbers by clicking on Add numbers.
2.3 User should able to remove any phone number

Step 14: To achieve requirement no. 2.2 and 2.3, we need to do:

  • Define a dummy PhoneType and PhoneDTO data as an array in CreateEdit.js. phoneTypeData will be used to bind dropdown to define the Phone Type for a particular Phone number.
  • var phoneTypeData = [
        {
            "PhoneTypeId": 1,
            "Name": "Work Phone"
        },
        {
            "PhoneTypeId": 2,
            "Name": "Personal Phone"
        }
    ];
     
    var PhoneDTO = [
        {
            "PhoneId":1,
            "PhoneTypeId": 1,
            "ProfileId":1,
            "Number": "111-222-3333"
        },
        {
            "PhoneId": 2,
            "PhoneTypeId": 2,
            "ProfileId": 1,
            "Number": "444-555-6666"
        }
    ];
    
  • Profile, a simple JavaScript class constructor that stores a PhoneLine information which include its Phone Type i.e. whether its “Work Phone” or “Home Phone” etc. along with phone number.
  • var PhoneLine = function (phone) {
        var self = this;
        self.PhoneId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneId : 0);
        self.PhoneTypeId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneTypeId : 0);
        self.Number = ko.observable(phone ? phone.Number : '');
    };
    
  • Modify ProfileCollection viewmodel class to also holds phoneNumbers along with binding for addPhone and removePhone events.
  • var ProfileCollection = function () {
        var self = this;
     
        //if ProfileId is 0, It means Create new Profile
        if (profileId == 0) {
            self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile());
            self.phoneNumbers = ko.observableArray([new PhoneLine()]);
        }
        else {
            var currentProfile = $.grep(DummyProfile, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
            self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile(currentProfile[0]));
            var currentProfilePhone = $.grep(PhoneDTO, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
            self.phoneNumbers = ko.observableArray(ko.utils.arrayMap(currentProfilePhone, function (phone) {
                return phone;
            }));
        }
     
        self.addPhone = function () {
            self.phoneNumbers.push(new PhoneLine())
        };
     
        self.removePhone = function (phone) { self.phoneNumbers.remove(phone) };
     
        self.backToProfileList = function () { window.location.href = '/contact'; };
     
        self.saveProfile = function () {
            alert("Date to save is : " + JSON.stringify(ko.toJS(self.profile())));
        };
    };
    

Step 15: Next we will add one more section to add Phone Information in CreateEdit.cshtml page, that's supposed to display the Phone information. As one profile can have multiple phone of different types, So, we will use the “foreach” binding for Phone numbers data, so that it will render a copy of its child elements for a particular profile, and then assign the appropriate values. Add below section in CreateEdit.cshtml just after Profile Information and before Save button.

<table class="table">
        <tr>
            <th colspan="3">Phone Information</th>
        </tr>
        <tr></tr>
    <tbody data-bind='foreach: phoneNumbers'>
        <tr>
            <td>
                <select data-bind="options: phoneTypeData, value: PhoneTypeId, optionsValue: 'PhoneTypeId', optionsText: 'Name', optionsCaption: 'Select Phone Type...'"></select>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: Number' placeholder="Number" />
            </td>
            <td>
                <a class="btn btn-small btn-danger" href='#' data-bind=' click: $parent.removePhone'>X</a>
            </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
<p>
<button class="btn btn-small btn-primary" data-bind='click: addPhone'>Add New Phone</button>
</p>

Now the output to add new contact is:

And to edit existing Contact is:

So now we left only with below requirement:

2.4 User should able to add any number of Addresses by clicking on Add new address.
2.5 User should able to remove any address

Step 16: The requirement no. 2.4 and 2.5 are similar to Phone Information, below is the final code for CreateEdit.js and CreateEdit.cshtml files:

For CreateEdit.js

var url = window.location.pathname;
var profileId = url.substring(url.lastIndexOf('/') + 1);
 
var DummyProfile = [
    {
        "ProfileId": 1,
        "FirstName": "Anand",
        "LastName": "Pandey",
        "Email": "anand@anandpandey.com"
    },
    {
        "ProfileId": 2,
        "FirstName": "John",
        "LastName": "Cena",
        "Email": "john@cena.com"
    }
];
 
var PhoneTypeData = [
    {
        "PhoneTypeId": 1,
        "Name": "Work Phone"
    },
    {
        "PhoneTypeId": 2,
        "Name": "Personal Phone"
    }
];
 
var PhoneDTO = [
    {
        "PhoneId":1,
        "PhoneTypeId": 1,
        "ProfileId":1,
        "Number": "111-222-3333"
    },
    {
        "PhoneId": 2,
        "PhoneTypeId": 2,
        "ProfileId": 1,
        "Number": "444-555-6666"
    }
];
 
var AddressTypeData = [
    {
        "AddressTypeId": 1,
        "Name": "Shipping Address"
    },
    {
        "AddressTypeId": 2,
        "Name": "Billing Address"
    }
];
 
var AddressDTO = [
    {
        "AddressId": 1,
        "AddressTypeId": 1,
        "ProfileId": 1,
        "AddressLine1": "10000 Richmond Avenue",
        "AddressLine2": "Apt # 1000",
        "Country": "USA",
        "State": "Texas",
        "City": "Houston",
        "ZipCode": "70000"
    },
    {
        "AddressId": 2,
        "AddressTypeId": 2,
        "ProfileId": 1,
        "AddressLine1": "20000 Highway 6",
        "AddressLine2": "Suite # 2000",
        "Country": "USA",
        "State": "Texas",
        "City": "Houston",
        "ZipCode": "80000"
    }
];
 
 
var Profile = function (profile) {
    var self = this;
 
    self.ProfileId = ko.observable(profile ? profile.ProfileId : 0);
    self.FirstName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.FirstName : '');
    self.LastName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.LastName : '');
    self.Email = ko.observable(profile ? profile.Email : '');
    self.PhoneDTO = ko.observableArray(profile ? profile.PhoneDTO : []);
    self.AddressDTO = ko.observableArray(profile ? profile.AddressDTO : []);
};
 
var PhoneLine = function (phone) {
    var self = this;
    self.PhoneId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneId : 0);
    self.PhoneTypeId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneTypeId : 0);
    self.Number = ko.observable(phone ? phone.Number : '');
};
 
var AddressLine = function (address) {
    var self = this;
    self.AddressId = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressId : 0);
    self.AddressTypeId = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressTypeId : 0);
    self.AddressLine1 = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressLine1 : '');
    self.AddressLine2 = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressLine2 : '');
    self.Country = ko.observable(address ? address.Country : '');
    self.State = ko.observable(address ? address.State : '');
    self.City = ko.observable(address ? address.City : '');
    self.ZipCode = ko.observable(address ? address.ZipCode : '');
};
 
 
var ProfileCollection = function () {
    var self = this;
 
    //if ProfileId is 0, It means Create new Profile
    if (profileId == 0) {
        self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile());
        self.phoneNumbers = ko.observableArray([new PhoneLine()]);
        self.addresses = ko.observableArray([new AddressLine()]);
    }
    else {
        //For Profile information
        var currentProfile = $.grep(DummyProfile, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
        self.profile = ko.observable(new Profile(currentProfile[0]));
        //For Phone number
        var currentProfilePhone = $.grep(PhoneDTO, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
        self.phoneNumbers = ko.observableArray(ko.utils.arrayMap(currentProfilePhone, function (phone) {
            return phone;
        }));
        //For Address
        var currentProfileAddress = $.grep(AddressDTO, function (e) { return e.ProfileId == profileId; });
        self.addresses = ko.observableArray(ko.utils.arrayMap(currentProfileAddress, function (address) {
            return address;
        }));
    }
 
    self.addPhone = function () { self.phoneNumbers.push(new PhoneLine()) };
 
    self.removePhone = function (phone) { self.phoneNumbers.remove(phone) };
 
    self.addAddress = function () { self.addresses.push(new AddressLine()) };
 
    self.removeAddress = function (address) { self.addresses.remove(address) };
 
    self.backToProfileList = function () { window.location.href = '/contact'; };
 
    self.saveProfile = function () {
        self.profile().AddressDTO = self.addresses;
        self.profile().PhoneDTO = self.phoneNumbers;
        alert("Date to save is : " + JSON.stringify(ko.toJS(self.profile())));
    };
};
 
ko.applyBindings(new ProfileCollection());

and, for CreateEdit.cshtml

<table class="table">
        <tr>
            <th colspan="3">Profile Information</th>
        </tr>
        <tr></tr>
    <tbody data-bind='with: profile'>
        <tr>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: FirstName'  placeholder="First Name"/>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: LastName' placeholder="Last Name"/>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: Email' placeholder="Email" />
            </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
 
<table class="table">
        <tr>
            <th colspan="3">Phone Information</th>
        </tr>
        <tr></tr>
    <tbody data-bind='foreach: phoneNumbers'>
        <tr>
            <td>
                <select data-bind="options: PhoneTypeData, value: PhoneTypeId, optionsValue: 'PhoneTypeId', optionsText: 'Name', optionsCaption: 'Select Phone Type...'"></select>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: Number' placeholder="Number" />
            </td>
            <td>
                <a class="btn btn-small btn-danger" href='#' data-bind=' click: $parent.removePhone'>X</a>
            </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
<p>
<button class="btn btn-small btn-primary" data-bind='click: addPhone'>Add New Phone</button>
</p>
<hr />
<table class="table">
    <tr><th colspan="5">Address Information</th></tr>
    <tbody data-bind="foreach: addresses">
        <tr>
            <td colspan="5">
                <select data-bind="options: AddressTypeData, value: AddressTypeId, optionsValue: 'AddressTypeId', optionsText: 'Name', optionsCaption: 'Select Address Type...'"></select>
            </td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: AddressLine1' placeholder="Address Line1" />
                <p style="padding-top: 5px;"><input class="input-large" data-bind='value: State' placeholder="State" /></p>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind=' value: AddressLine2' placeholder="Address Line2" />
                <p style="padding-top: 5px;"><input class="input-large" data-bind='value: Country' placeholder="Country" /></p>
            </td>
            <td>
                <input class="input-large" data-bind='value: City' placeholder="City" />
                <p style="padding-top: 5px;"><input class="input-large" data-bind='value: ZipCode' placeholder="Zip Code" />
                <a class="btn btn-small btn-danger" href='#' data-bind='click: $root.removeAddress'>X</a></p>
            </td>
        </tr>
    </tbody>
</table>
<p>
<button class="btn btn-small btn-primary" data-bind='click: addAddress'>Add New Address</button>
</p>
<hr />
<button class="btn btn-small btn-success" data-bind='click: saveProfile'>Save Profile</button>
<input class="btn btn-small btn-primary" type="button" value="Back To Profile List" data-bind="click:$root.backToProfileList" />
 
<script src="~/Scripts/CreateEdit.js"></script>

So finally, Application will display screens as per the requirement:

Screen 1: Contact List - View all contacts

Screen 2: Create New Contact - This screen should display one blank screen to provide functionality as.

Screen 3: Update Existing Contact - This screen should display screen with selected contact information details.

Validation:

We are almost done with designing part of our application .The only thing left now, is to manage validation when the user clicks on “Save” button. Validation is the major requirement and now a day’s most ignorant part for any web application. By proper validation, user can know what data needs to be entered. Next in this article, I am going to discuss KnockoutJS Validation library which can be downloaded using NuGet. Let us check some of the most common validation scenarios, and how to achieve it using knockout validation.

Scenario 1: First Name is a required field in form

this.FirstName = ko.observable().extend({ required: true });

Scenario 2: Maximum number of character for First Name should not exceed 50 and should not be less than 3 character

this.FirstName = ko.observable().extend({ maxLength: 50, minLength:3});

Scenario 3: First Name is a required field in form and maximum number of character for First Name should not exceed 50 and should not be less than 3 character.

 
<p>Scenario 4: Age is a required field in form, and should be always greater than 18 and less than 100</p>
<pre>this.Age = ko.observable().extend({ required: true, max: 100, min:18 });

Scenario 5: Email is a required field and should be in proper email format

this.Email = ko.observable().extend({ required: true, email: true });

Scenario 6: Date of Birth is a required field and should be in proper date format

this.DateOfBirth = ko.observable().extend({ required: true, date: true });

Scenario 7: Price is a required field and should be in proper number or decimal format

this.Price = ko.observable().extend({ required: true, number: true });

Scenario 8: Phone Number is a required field and should be in proper US format

Note: A valid US phone number has the following format: 1–xdd–xdd–dddd
The "1–" at the beginning of the string is optional and so are the dashes. x is any digit between 2 and 9 while d can be any digit.

this.Phone = ko.observable().extend({ required: true, phoneUS: true });

Scenario 9: ToDate field must be greater than FromDate field

this.ToDate = ko.observable().extend({ 
    equal: function () { return (val > $(‘#FromDate’).val()) ? val : val + "|" } 
});

Scenario 9: Phone number should accept only -+ () 0-9 from users

var regex = /\(?([0-9]{3})\)?([ .-]?)([0-9]{3})\2([0-9]{4})/
this.PhoneNumber = ko.observable().extend({ pattern: regex });

So, far we have seen different type of validation scenarios and their syntax; now let us implement it in our application. For that first download the library knockout.validation.js using NuGet. Right now our validation script is fully completed and should look like this :

var Profile = function (profile) {
    var self = this;
    self.ProfileId = ko.observable(profile ? profile.ProfileId : 0).extend({ required: true });
    self.FirstName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.FirstName : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50 });
    self.LastName = ko.observable(profile ? profile.LastName : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50 });
    self.Email = ko.observable(profile ? profile.Email : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50, email: true });
    self.PhoneDTO = ko.observableArray(profile ? profile.PhoneDTO : []);
    self.AddressDTO = ko.observableArray(profile ? profile.AddressDTO : []);
};
 
var PhoneLine = function (phone) {
    var self = this;
    self.PhoneId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneId : 0);
    self.PhoneTypeId = ko.observable(phone ? phone.PhoneTypeId : undefined).extend({ required: true });
    self.Number = ko.observable(phone ? phone.Number : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 25, phoneUS: true });
};
 
var AddressLine = function (address) {
    var self = this;
    self.AddressId = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressId : 0);
    self.AddressTypeId = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressTypeId : undefined).extend({ required: true });
    self.AddressLine1 = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressLine1 : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 100 });
    self.AddressLine2 = ko.observable(address ? address.AddressLine2 : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 100 });
    self.Country = ko.observable(address ? address.Country : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50 });
    self.State = ko.observable(address ? address.State : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50 });
    self.City = ko.observable(address ? address.City : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 50 });
    self.ZipCode = ko.observable(address ? address.ZipCode : '').extend({ required: true, maxLength: 15 });
};

After validation our final solution looks like below screen after click on “Save” button:

Conclusion:

We’ve done it. Well, you have done it! I hope you enjoyed this tutorial and learned something.

In this article, we talked about achieving our UI without knowing any actual implementation (databases interaction) i.e. UI is created independently by any designer/developer without knowing the actual business logic. !!!That’s great!!!

In next part of this article, I will talk about how to design database and how to implement business logic using structured layers.

If you have any questions feel free to ask; I will be glad to talk more in the comments. Thanks for your time!

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

About the Author

Anand Ranjan Pandey
Software Developer (Senior)
United States United States
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Comments and Discussions

 
QuestionTable Headers & Thanks Pinmemberclosl16-Jan-13 8:38 
Thank you for taking the time to do this post. I've been looking for a good one all day and yours is it!
 
I'm having trouble in Step 8. My headers aren't sitting over the columns. They are all squished together. The data, on the other hand, is in columns.
 
Thanks again Smile | :)
AnswerRe: Table Headers & Thanks PinmemberAnand Ranjan Pandey16-Jan-13 9:10 
AnswerRe: Table Headers & Thanks Pinmemberclosl16-Jan-13 9:37 

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