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Minimizing windows to the System Tray

, 18 Oct 2000
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A set of routines that show how easy it is to minimise your windows to the system tray
  • Download demo project - 21 Kb
  • Introduction

    We’re all familiar with programs that add icons to the system tray - Windows NT/2000’s Task Manager, the Microsoft offline files synchronisation manager, and many other third-party apps.

    Quite frequently, these icons open a dialog of some sort when double-clicked. The normal procedure is to simply hide or show the window. It would be nice if the window displayed the same animation used when minimizing or maximizing a window to and from the task bar. This article shows how simple it is to do just that.

    Drawing the Animation

    It is actually very simple to duplicate the effect of the minimizing and maximizing animation - just one function call will do the trick. DrawAnimatedRects is used to draw and animate a rectangle. Here’s the prototype:

    BOOL WINAPI DrawAnimatedRects(HWND hwnd,    // handle to clipping window
    <span>    int idAni,    // type of animation
    <span>    CONST RECT *lprcFrom,    // rectangle coordinates (minimized)
    <span>    CONST RECT *lprcTo    // rectangle coordinates (restored)
    );

    When animating the caption, the hwnd argument is the handle to the window to be animated, rather than the window to use for clipping and it cannot be NULL, as suggested in the documentation. The lprcFrom and lprcTo RECTs describe the start and the end positions of the animation.

    The interesting argument is idAni, which sets the type of animation to display. If this is set to IDANI_CAPTION, the window caption will animate from the lprcFrom to lprcTo, in the same way as windows are minimized and maximized.

    (As a brief aside, the include files that come with Visual C++ 6 include definitions for not only IDANI_CAPTION, but also IDANI_OPEN and IDANI_CLOSE. There is no documentation as to what IDANI_OPEN and IDANI_CLOSE do, and when plugged into the example code, they fail to produce any animation at all. Perhaps it was intended that Windows display an animation when opening and closing a window in the same way as the Mac does. Whatever was intended, it doesn’t appear to have been implemented.

    Another thing to note is that the headers for the current Platform SDK - April 2000 - only define IDANI_OPEN, so it is necessary to either use the Visual C++ 6 headers, or manually define the missing values, which is what the example code does)

    Determining the Animation Parameters

    It’s not enough to know how to display the animation; we also need to know the start and end position. When minimizing, the “from” value is simple, you can use the RECT of the window. This gives us the correct width of the window, but the height is going to be larger than the caption bar. This is not a problem, however. We have told Windows that we are animating the caption, so Windows only uses the caption’s height.

    The “to” value is slightly trickier. We need to get the RECT of the system tray. Unfortunately, there is no documented way to do this, and each method we can use has its downside.

    The most accurate way of getting the system tray dimensions is to actually get the system tray’s window. Through judicious use of the very handy Spy++ utility, we can see that the system tray is a window of class “TrayNotifyWnd”, which is a child of the top-level window of class “Shell_TrayWnd”. We can easily get these windows using FindWindow, and then simply call GetWindowRect to get the dimensions of the system tray. As this gives the best results, this is the preferable method, but it must be remembered that this is undocumented and utilises window class names and hierarchies that might not exist in future versions of the shell, so mustn’t be relied upon. If this method fails, we drop through to the next method.

    The nearest thing we can get to a documented method is to use the SHAppBarMessage function with the ABM_GETTASKBARPOS message. This will return us the bounding rectangle and edge position of the task bar. From this we can tell where the system tray is. If the edge position is the left or the right of the screen, the tray is at the bottom of the task bar. If the edge position is the top or the bottom of the screen, the tray is to the right of the screen. The only problem with this method is that it doesn’t give us the actual coordinates of the system tray, just the rough position - we have to give a default size for the system tray.

    There is still the possibility that this will fail. This is really only likely if explorer has been replaced by a third party shell. Many of these shells now support a system tray (Shell_NotifyIcon sends a WM_COPYDATA message to a top level window of class “Shell_TrayWnd”, which is the task bar) If we find this window, we can get some dimensions for the system tray.

    If all else fails, we just use a default value in the bottom right of the screen.

    Obviously enough, when maximizing, the “to” and “from” values are the opposite to when minimizing.

    One Last Nicety

    Windows allows the animation to be disabled (using a registry setting, or a tool such as the infamous TweakUI), so we must check for that before calling DrawAnimatedRects. This is a simple call to SystemParametersInfo, with the SPI_GETANIMATION value. If the animation has been disabled, the window is simply hidden; otherwise, we call DrawAnimatedRects.

    The Sample Code

    There are two main files in the example project included with this article. MinimizeToTray.cpp contains the functions to minimize and restore the window, and MinimizeDemo.cpp contains a simple dialog app that demonstrates how to use these functions.

    MinimizeToTray.cpp contains two public functions:

    <span>VOID MinimizeWndToTray(HWND hWnd);
    <span>VOID RestoreWndFromTray(HWND hWnd);

    The MinimizeWndToTray function displays the minimize animation and hides the window passed in as a parameter. The RestoreWndFromTray function displays the restore animation and shows the passed in window. Neither of these functions adds or removes a system tray icon - that is left to the caller.

    One thing to note is that if Shell_NotifyIcon is called before DrawAnimatedRects, the entire taskbar is erased, and not redrawn until the animation is complete. As long as the shell icon is removed after the animation, the taskbar is drawn properly. So call Shell_NotifyIcon after calling MinimizeWndToTray or RestoreWndFromTray.

    MinimizeDemo.cpp shows how to use the two functions in an actual app, and even shows a simple use of the Shell_NotifyIcon function. The dialog is minimized to the tray in response to the WM_CLOSE message and to the SC_MINIMIZE WM_SYSCOMMAND message. The dialog is restored when the icon is double-clicked.

    Conclusion

    This code is very easy to use. Simply drop the MinimizeToTray.cpp file into your project, and add two function calls to your app. There are plenty of comments in the source files, and the MinimizeDemo.cpp sample is very easy to follow.

    This code is public domain. Feel free to use and abuse it in any way you want. If you do use it though, I’d appreciate it if you dropped me a quick note. Consider it emailware.

    Coda

    The main purpose of this article was to explain how to use DrawAnimatedRect, and provide as near to foolproof method as possible of finding the position of the system tray. I didn't intend to describe how to use Shell_NotifyIcon. However, it is a reasonable place to pass along a couple of tips on common problems:

    The most prevalent problem with notification icons is that once you display a menu for the icon, clicking outside of the menu doesn't dismiss it. Apparently, "this behaviour is by design" and is documented in Microsoft's Knowledge Base article Q135788.

    Another problem frequently encountered is that the notification icon stays in the system tray, and disappears when the mouse moves over it. This is simply that the program hasn't removed the icon before quitting - a call to Shell_NotifyIcon with NIM_DELETE before exiting will sort this out.

    Finally, we have a somewhat tricky one. When double-clicking on one icon, it is sometimes possible to also activate another. This happens if the first icon is removed in response to the double-click message. As this message is sent in response to the mouse button being pressed, released and then pressed again, Windows still has a button up event left to send. And because the icons have moved in response to the first icon being removed, this message is sent somewhere it wasn't intended for. That icon may then innocently enough take action in response to this message.

    This is a situation where no one can take blame. However, it is one we can work around. Instead of removing the icon once we action on the double-click event, we remove it in response to the second button up, everything works perfectly. The easiest way to do this is to set a flag when we receive a double-click event, and remove the icon when the flag is set in the button up handler. The example code included shows how to do this.

    History

    1.0 28 June 2000 Initial version

    1.1 19 October 2000 Added useful tips on using Shell_NotifyIcon. Thanks to Darren Schroeder for reporting this potential problem!

    License

    This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

    A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

    About the Author

    Matthew Ellis
    Web Developer
    United Kingdom United Kingdom
    No Biography provided

    Comments and Discussions

     
    GeneralAwesome! PinmemberBrockC12-May-09 13:29 

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