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# Interpolate 2D points, usign Bezier curves in WPF

, 21 May 2014
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Interpolate 2D points, usign Bezier curves in WPF

## Introduction

Interpolating points sometimes is hard mathematical work, even more if the points are ordered. The solution is to create a function using the points, and using an extra parameter `t` that represents the time dimension. This often is called a parametric representation of the curve. This article shows a simple way of interpolating a set points using Bezier curves in WPF.

## Background

The idea of this solution comes after asking this question in Stack Overflow. The accepted answer makes references to a simple and interesting method proposed by Maxim Shemanarev, where the control points are calculated from the original points (called anchor points).

Here we create a WPF `UserControl `that draws the curve from any collection of points. This control can be used with the pattern MVVM. If any point's coordinate changes, the curve also will change automatically. For instance, it can be used for a draw application, where you can drag & drop the points for changing the drawing, or curve.

## The Algorithm Behind

Due the original antigrain site is down, I'm going to explain what is the algorithm proposed by Maxim Shemanarev.

A Bezier curve has two anchor points (begin and end) and two control ones (CP) that determine its shape. Our anchor points are given, they are pair of vertices of the polygon. The question is, how to calculate the control points. It is obvious that the control points of two adjacent edges plus the vertex between them should form one straight line.

The solution found is a very simple method that does not require any complicated math. First, we take the polygon and calculate the middle points Ai of its edges.

Here we have line segments Ci that connect two points Ai of the adjacent segments. Then, we should calculate points Bi as shown in this picture.

The third step is final. We simply move the line segments Ci in such a way that their points Bi coincide with the respective vertices. That's it, we calculated the control points for our Bezier curve and the result looks good.

One little improvement. Since we have a straight line that determines the place of our control points, we can move them as we want, changing the shape of the resulting curve. I used a simple coefficient K that moves the points along the line relatively to the initial distance between vertices and control points. The closer the control points to the vertices are, the sharper figure will be obtained.

The method works quite well with self-intersecting polygons. The examples below show that the result is pretty interesting.

## The Class for Calculation

Below it is exposed the class that makes the calculation of the spline segments, based in the algorithm, exposed above. This class is named `InterpolationUtils `, it has a `static `method (named `InterpolatePointWithBeizerCurves`) that returns a list of `BeizerCurveSegment`, that will be the solution of our problem.

The class `BeizerCurveSegment `has the four properties that define a spline segment: `StartPoint`, `EndPoint`, `FirstControlPoint`, and the `SecondControlPoint`.

As the above algorithm is originally implemented for closed curves, and it is desired that it can be applied for open curves too, a little change is needed. For this reason, the `InterpolatePointWithBeizerCurves `method receive as second parameter, a boolean variable named `isClosedCurve`, that determines if the algorithm will return an open or closed curve. The change consists in: if `isClosedCurve==true`, then for building the first segment, the first point will be used two times, and the second point, and for the last segment will be used the last but one point, and the last point two times.

```using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Windows;

namespace BezierCurveSample.View.Utils
{
public class InterpolationUtils
{
public class BeizerCurveSegment
{
public Point StartPoint { get; set; }
public Point EndPoint { get; set; }
public Point FirstControlPoint { get; set; }
public Point SecondControlPoint { get; set; }
}

public static List<BeizerCurveSegment> InterpolatePointWithBeizerCurves(List<Point> points, bool isClosedCurve)
{
if (points.Count < 3)
return null;
var toRet = new List<BeizerCurveSegment>();

//if is close curve then add the first point at the end
if (isClosedCurve)

for (int i = 0; i < points.Count - 1; i++)   //iterate for points but the last one
{
// Assume we need to calculate the control
// points between (x1,y1) and (x2,y2).
// Then x0,y0 - the previous vertex,
//      x3,y3 - the next one.
double x1 = points[i].X;
double y1 = points[i].Y;

double x2 = points[i + 1].X;
double y2 = points[i + 1].Y;

double x0;
double y0;

if (i == 0) //if is first point
{
if (isClosedCurve)
{
var previousPoint = points[points.Count - 2];    //last Point, but one (due inserted the first at the end)
x0 = previousPoint.X;
y0 = previousPoint.Y;
}
else    //Get some previouse point
{
var previousPoint = points[i];  //if is the first point the previous one will be it self
x0 = previousPoint.X;
y0 = previousPoint.Y;
}
}
else
{
x0 = points[i - 1].X;   //Previous Point
y0 = points[i - 1].Y;
}

double x3, y3;

if (i == points.Count - 2)    //if is the last point
{
if (isClosedCurve)
{
var nextPoint = points[1];  //second Point(due inserted the first at the end)
x3 = nextPoint.X;
y3 = nextPoint.Y;
}
else    //Get some next point
{
var nextPoint = points[i + 1];  //if is the last point the next point will be the last one
x3 = nextPoint.X;
y3 = nextPoint.Y;
}
}
else
{
x3 = points[i + 2].X;   //Next Point
y3 = points[i + 2].Y;
}

double xc1 = (x0 + x1) / 2.0;
double yc1 = (y0 + y1) / 2.0;
double xc2 = (x1 + x2) / 2.0;
double yc2 = (y1 + y2) / 2.0;
double xc3 = (x2 + x3) / 2.0;
double yc3 = (y2 + y3) / 2.0;

double len1 = Math.Sqrt((x1 - x0) * (x1 - x0) + (y1 - y0) * (y1 - y0));
double len2 = Math.Sqrt((x2 - x1) * (x2 - x1) + (y2 - y1) * (y2 - y1));
double len3 = Math.Sqrt((x3 - x2) * (x3 - x2) + (y3 - y2) * (y3 - y2));

double k1 = len1 / (len1 + len2);
double k2 = len2 / (len2 + len3);

double xm1 = xc1 + (xc2 - xc1) * k1;
double ym1 = yc1 + (yc2 - yc1) * k1;

double xm2 = xc2 + (xc3 - xc2) * k2;
double ym2 = yc2 + (yc3 - yc2) * k2;

const double smoothValue = 0.8;
// Resulting control points. Here smooth_value is mentioned
// above coefficient K whose value should be in range [0...1].
double ctrl1_x = xm1 + (xc2 - xm1) * smoothValue + x1 - xm1;
double ctrl1_y = ym1 + (yc2 - ym1) * smoothValue + y1 - ym1;

double ctrl2_x = xm2 + (xc2 - xm2) * smoothValue + x2 - xm2;
double ctrl2_y = ym2 + (yc2 - ym2) * smoothValue + y2 - ym2;
{
StartPoint = new Point(x1, y1),
EndPoint = new Point(x2, y2),
FirstControlPoint = i == 0 && !isClosedCurve ? new Point(x1, y1) : new Point(ctrl1_x, ctrl1_y),
SecondControlPoint = i == points.Count - 2 && !isClosedCurve ? new Point(x2, y2) : new Point(ctrl2_x, ctrl2_y)
});
}

}
}
} ```

## The User Control

The user control that we propose is very simple to use, and it works with the MVVM pattern.

The `LandMarkControl `has only two dependency properties, one for the points, and other for the color of the curve. The most important property is the `Points `attached property. It is of `IEnumerable `type, and it assumes that each item, has an `X` and `Y` properties.

In case the collection of points implements the `INotifyCollectionChanged `interface, the control will register to the `CollectionChanged `event, and if each point implements the `INotifyPropertyChanged `interface, the control also will register to the `PropertyChanged `event. In this way, every time any point is added or removed, or any point's coordinates changed, the control will be refreshed.

This is the complete user control code behind:

```using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Collections.Specialized;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Linq;
using System.Windows;
using System.Windows.Controls;
using System.Windows.Media;
using BezierCurveSample.View.Utils;

namespace BezierCurveSample.View
{
/// <summary>
/// Interaction logic for LandmarkControl.xaml
/// </summary>
public partial class LandmarkControl : UserControl
{
#region Points

public IEnumerable Points
{
get { return (IEnumerable)GetValue(PointsProperty); }
set { SetValue(PointsProperty, value); }
}

// Using a DependencyProperty as the backing store for Points. This enables animation, styling, binding, etc...
public static readonly DependencyProperty PointsProperty =
DependencyProperty.Register("Points", typeof(IEnumerable),

private static void PropertyChangedCallback(DependencyObject dependencyObject,
DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs)
{
var landmarkControl = dependencyObject as LandmarkControl;
if (landmarkControl == null)
return;

if (dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.NewValue is INotifyCollectionChanged)
{
(dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.NewValue as
INotifyCollectionChanged).CollectionChanged += landmarkControl.OnPointCollectionChanged;
landmarkControl.RegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged
(dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.NewValue as IEnumerable);
}

if (dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.OldValue is INotifyCollectionChanged)
{
(dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.OldValue as
INotifyCollectionChanged).CollectionChanged -= landmarkControl.OnPointCollectionChanged;
landmarkControl.UnRegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged
(dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.OldValue as IEnumerable);
}

if (dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs.NewValue != null)
landmarkControl.SetPathData();
}

#endregion

#region PathColor

public Brush PathColor
{
get { return (Brush)GetValue(PathColorProperty); }
set { SetValue(PathColorProperty, value); }
}

// Using a DependencyProperty as the backing store for PathColor.  This enables animation, styling, binding, etc...
public static readonly DependencyProperty PathColorProperty =
DependencyProperty.Register("PathColor", typeof(Brush), typeof(LandmarkControl),

#endregion

#region IsClosedCurve

public static readonly DependencyProperty IsClosedCurveProperty =
DependencyProperty.Register("IsClosedCurve", typeof (bool), typeof (LandmarkControl),

private static void OnIsClosedCurveChanged(DependencyObject dependencyObject, DependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs dependencyPropertyChangedEventArgs)
{
var landmarkControl = dependencyObject as LandmarkControl;
if (landmarkControl == null)
return;
landmarkControl.SetPathData();
}

public bool IsClosedCurve
{
get { return (bool) GetValue(IsClosedCurveProperty); }
set { SetValue(IsClosedCurveProperty, value); }
}

#endregion

public LandmarkControl()
{
InitializeComponent();
}

void SetPathData()
{
if (Points == null) return;
var points = new List<Point>();

foreach (var point in Points)
{
var pointProperties = point.GetType().GetProperties();
if (pointProperties.All(p => p.Name != "X") ||
pointProperties.All(p => p.Name != "Y"))
continue;
var x = (float)point.GetType().GetProperty("X").GetValue(point, new object[] { });
var y = (float)point.GetType().GetProperty("Y").GetValue(point, new object[] { });
}

if (points.Count <= 1)
return;

var myPathFigure = new PathFigure { StartPoint = points.FirstOrDefault() };

var myPathSegmentCollection = new PathSegmentCollection();

var beizerSegments = InterpolationUtils.InterpolatePointWithBeizerCurves(points, IsClosedCurve);

if (beizerSegments == null || beizerSegments.Count < 1)
{
//Add a line segment <this is generic for more than one line>
foreach (var point in points.GetRange(1, points.Count - 1))
{

var myLineSegment = new LineSegment { Point = point };
}
}
else
{
foreach (var beizerCurveSegment in beizerSegments)
{
var segment = new BezierSegment
{
Point1 = beizerCurveSegment.FirstControlPoint,
Point2 = beizerCurveSegment.SecondControlPoint,
Point3 = beizerCurveSegment.EndPoint
};
}
}

myPathFigure.Segments = myPathSegmentCollection;

var myPathFigureCollection = new PathFigureCollection {myPathFigure} ;

var myPathGeometry = new PathGeometry { Figures = myPathFigureCollection };

path.Data = myPathGeometry;
}

private void RegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged(IEnumerable collection)
{
if (collection == null)
return;
foreach (INotifyPropertyChanged point in collection)
point.PropertyChanged += OnPointPropertyChanged;
}

private void UnRegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged(IEnumerable collection)
{
if (collection == null)
return;
foreach (INotifyPropertyChanged point in collection)
point.PropertyChanged -= OnPointPropertyChanged;
}

private void OnPointCollectionChanged(object sender, NotifyCollectionChangedEventArgs e)
{
RegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged(e.NewItems);

UnRegisterCollectionItemPropertyChanged(e.OldItems);

SetPathData();
}

private void OnPointPropertyChanged(object sender, PropertyChangedEventArgs e)
{
if (e.PropertyName == "X" || e.PropertyName == "Y")
SetPathData();
}
}
} ```

And this is the XAML code:

``` <UserControl x:Class="BezierCurveSample.View.LandmarkControl"
xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
mc:Ignorable="d"
x:Name="UserControl"
d:DesignHeight="300" d:DesignWidth="300">
<Path x:Name="path" Stroke="{Binding PathColor, ElementName=UserControl}" StrokeThickness="1"/>
</UserControl>  ```

## Examples of Usage

Using the control for creating the data template for the `LandMarkViewModel`:

``` <DataTemplate DataType="{x:Type ViewModel:LandmarkViewModel}">
<PointInterpolation.View:LandmarkControl x:Name="control"
Points="{Binding LandmarkPoints}" Visibility="{Binding IsVisible,
Converter={StaticResource BoolToVisibilityConverter}}" ToolTip="{Binding Label}"/>
<DataTemplate.Triggers>
<DataTrigger Binding="{Binding IsSelected}" Value="True">
<Setter Property="PathColor" TargetName="control" Value="Red"/>
</DataTrigger>
</DataTemplate.Triggers>
</DataTemplate> ```

Now everywhere a `LandMarkViewModel` is displayed, this data template will show the item as a `LandMarkControl`. It needs be rendered on a `Canvas`:

``` <ListBox x:Name="landMarks" ItemsSource="{Binding Landmarks}">
<ListBox.Template>
<ControlTemplate>
<Canvas IsItemsHost="True"/>
</ControlTemplate>
</ListBox.Template>
</ListBox> ```

This is a final image example:

## You may also be interested in...

Software Developer
Cuba
Since I was a kid I really like computation. My first lines of code were in an ancient programming language called GW-BASIC. Then I learned some Borlan Pascal programming language because I was involved in programming contest during the high school. I got silver medals in such contests. Then I began studying Computer Science in the Collage, where I have learned several programming languages, like C#, Python, have coding in C, F#, Java Script, even Assembly programming language. Also I have learned Data Structure, Database theory, Compilers theory (have written a Tiger compiler using Antlr tool), network theory and other useful things. I have learned some Software Engineering, some programming patterns, and SOLID principles. I'm open to new software ideas, and I feel passionate about what I do.

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