# A Calculator via Visual C

, 14 May 2010 CPOL
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An Article the Demonstrates How to Build a Windows Forms Calculator

## A Calculator via Visual C#

### Preface

The .NET Framework provides a long list of Math APIs for calculation purposes. Our goal now is to build a calculator using some basic math operations and some of those APIs. Normally when working with Windows Forms we use a button to fire an event that warrants an event handler. But how do use the Button control to enter numeric character input into a TextBox control, and then further use other buttons to perform operations needed on the entered input? First off, there are 10, or 0 – 9 digits, that must have their  text properties set to those integers to appear on the buttons. The other buttons need to have their text properties set to the operation in which they are to perform when the user clicks them. With all of those buttons, we should group them. This means that we need to use two GroupBox controls to contain the input field and the Button controls. We then need to declare some local variables, particularly to indicate the status of an operation. Sounds like a Boolean data type. We then need to write a method that calculates the total of the particular operation performed. Because there will be several different types of cases at hand, we’ll need to use the switch statement.

Examine this code that compiles as a console application:

using System;
public class Program
{
public static void Main()
{
Console.WriteLine("Abs({0}) = {1}", -55, Math.Abs(-55));
Console.WriteLine("Ceiling({0}) = {1}", 55.3, Math.Ceiling(55.3));
Console.WriteLine("Pow({0},{1}) = {2}", 2, 16, Math.Pow(2, 16));
Console.WriteLine("Round({0},{1}) = {2}",
10.55358, 2, Math.Round(10.55358, 2));
Console.WriteLine("Sin({0}) = {1}", 323.333, Math.Sin(323.333));
Console.WriteLine("Cos({0}) = {1}", 323.333, Math.Cos(323.333));
Console.WriteLine("Tan({0}) = {1}", 323.333, Math.Tan(323.333));
Console.WriteLine("Sqrt({0}) = {1}", 65536, Math.Sqrt(65536));
}
}

Here we are using the .NET Framework Math APIs directly. It is obviously very simple to type in an API and plug in a value. Here is the result:

Abs(-55) = 55
Ceiling(55.3) = 56
Pow(2,16) = 65536
Round(10.55358,2) = 10.55
Sin(323.333) = 0.248414709883854
Cos(323.333) = -0.968653772982546
Tan(323.333) = -0.256453561440193
Sqrt(65536) = 256

Now if choose to get the square root of 65,536 (2 to the 16th power), we can just press a button:

I used this example because there are two possible values for a data bit: 1 or a 0. There are 8 bits in a byte. 2 raised to the 8th power = 256, which is 16 squared. 65,536 is equal to one segment of memory. Anyway, here is the code for the calculator. Try and expand on it by adding some trigonometric functions. That is the purpose of this article. This code is not split into partial classes. The downloadable file is, however. Unzip it the solution container into a newly made folder in your Projects directory, and then double-click the solution file.

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Data;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Forms;

public  class Form1 : Form
{
private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox1;
private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox txtInput;
private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox2;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button23;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button22;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button21;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button20;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button19;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button18;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button17;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button16;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button15;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button14;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button13;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button12;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button11;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button10;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button9;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button8;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button7;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button6;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button5;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button4;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button3;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button2;
private System.Windows.Forms.Button button1;

public Form1()
{
InitializeComponent();
}
//variables to hold operands
private double valHolder1;
private double valHolder2;
//Varible to hold temporary values
private double tmpValue;
//True if "." is use else false
private bool hasDecimal = false;
private bool inputStatus = true;
//variable to hold Operater
private string calcFunc;

private System.ComponentModel.IContainer components = null;

/// <summary>
/// Clean up any resources being used.
/// </summary>
/// true if managed resources should be disposed; otherwise, false.
protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
{
if (disposing && (components != null))
{
components.Dispose();
}
base.Dispose(disposing);
}

/// <summary>
/// Required method for Designer support - do not modify
/// the contents of this method with the code editor.
/// </summary>
private void InitializeComponent()
{
this.groupBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox();
this.txtInput = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
this.groupBox2 = new System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox();
this.button23 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button22 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button21 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button20 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button19 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button18 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button17 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button16 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button15 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button14 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button13 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button12 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button11 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button10 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button9 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button8 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button7 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button6 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button5 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button4 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.button1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
this.groupBox1.SuspendLayout();
this.groupBox2.SuspendLayout();
this.SuspendLayout();
//
// groupBox1
//
this.groupBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(39, 28);
this.groupBox1.Name = "groupBox1";
this.groupBox1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(274, 34);
this.groupBox1.TabIndex = 0;
this.groupBox1.TabStop = false;
//
// txtInput
//
this.txtInput.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 8);
this.txtInput.Name = "txtInput";
this.txtInput.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(261, 20);
this.txtInput.TabIndex = 0;
//
// groupBox2
//
this.groupBox2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(39, 80);
this.groupBox2.Name = "groupBox2";
this.groupBox2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(274, 223);
this.groupBox2.TabIndex = 1;
this.groupBox2.TabStop = false;
//
// button23
//
this.button23.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(203, 186);
this.button23.Name = "button23";
this.button23.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(40, 23);
this.button23.TabIndex = 22;
this.button23.Text = "=";
this.button23.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button23.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button23_Click);
//
// button22
//
this.button22.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(157, 186);
this.button22.Name = "button22";
this.button22.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(39, 23);
this.button22.TabIndex = 21;
this.button22.Text = "+";
this.button22.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button22.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button22_Click);
//
// button21
//
this.button21.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(107, 186);
this.button21.Name = "button21";
this.button21.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button21.TabIndex = 20;
this.button21.Text = ".";
this.button21.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button21.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button21_Click);
//
// button20
//
this.button20.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(57, 187);
this.button20.Name = "button20";
this.button20.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(43, 23);
this.button20.TabIndex = 19;
this.button20.Text = "+/-";
this.button20.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button20.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button20_Click);
//
// button19
//
this.button19.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 187);
this.button19.Name = "button19";
this.button19.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button19.TabIndex = 18;
this.button19.Text = "0";
this.button19.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button19.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button19_Click);
//
// button18
//
this.button18.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(203, 145);
this.button18.Name = "button18";
this.button18.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(40, 23);
this.button18.TabIndex = 17;
this.button18.Text = "1/x";
this.button18.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button18.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button18_Click);
//
// button17
//
this.button17.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(157, 145);
this.button17.Name = "button17";
this.button17.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(39, 23);
this.button17.TabIndex = 16;
this.button17.Text = "-";
this.button17.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button17.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button17_Click);
//
// button16
//
this.button16.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(107, 145);
this.button16.Name = "button16";
this.button16.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button16.TabIndex = 15;
this.button16.Text = "3";
this.button16.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button16.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button16_Click);
//
// button15
//
this.button15.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(58, 145);
this.button15.Name = "button15";
this.button15.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(42, 23);
this.button15.TabIndex = 14;
this.button15.Text = "2";
this.button15.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button15.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button15_Click);
//
// button14
//
this.button14.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 145);
this.button14.Name = "button14";
this.button14.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button14.TabIndex = 13;
this.button14.Text = "1";
this.button14.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button14.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button14_Click);
//
// button13
//
this.button13.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(203, 101);
this.button13.Name = "button13";
this.button13.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(40, 23);
this.button13.TabIndex = 12;
this.button13.Text = "Sqrt";
this.button13.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button13.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button13_Click);
//
// button12
//
this.button12.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(158, 101);
this.button12.Name = "button12";
this.button12.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(38, 23);
this.button12.TabIndex = 11;
this.button12.Text = "*";
this.button12.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button12.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button12_Click);
//
// button11
//
this.button11.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(106, 101);
this.button11.Name = "button11";
this.button11.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(45, 23);
this.button11.TabIndex = 10;
this.button11.Text = "6";
this.button11.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button11.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button11_Click);
//
// button10
//
this.button10.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(58, 102);
this.button10.Name = "button10";
this.button10.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(42, 23);
this.button10.TabIndex = 9;
this.button10.Text = "5";
this.button10.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button10.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button10_Click);
//
// button9
//
this.button9.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 102);
this.button9.Name = "button9";
this.button9.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button9.TabIndex = 8;
this.button9.Text = "4";
this.button9.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button9.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button9_Click);
//
// button8
//
this.button8.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(202, 61);
this.button8.Name = "button8";
this.button8.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(41, 23);
this.button8.TabIndex = 7;
this.button8.Text = "x^";
this.button8.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button8.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button8_Click);
//
// button7
//
this.button7.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(157, 60);
this.button7.Name = "button7";
this.button7.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(39, 23);
this.button7.TabIndex = 6;
this.button7.Text = "/";
this.button7.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button7.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button7_Click);
//
// button6
//
this.button6.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(106, 61);
this.button6.Name = "button6";
this.button6.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(45, 23);
this.button6.TabIndex = 5;
this.button6.Text = "9";
this.button6.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button6.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button6_Click);
//
// button5
//
this.button5.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(58, 60);
this.button5.Name = "button5";
this.button5.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(42, 23);
this.button5.TabIndex = 4;
this.button5.Text = "8";
this.button5.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button5.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button5_Click);
//
// button4
//
this.button4.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 61);
this.button4.Name = "button4";
this.button4.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(44, 23);
this.button4.TabIndex = 3;
this.button4.Text = "7";
this.button4.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button4.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button4_Click);
//
// button3
//
this.button3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(190, 19);
this.button3.Name = "button3";
this.button3.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(53, 23);
this.button3.TabIndex = 2;
this.button3.Text = "C";
this.button3.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button3.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button3_Click);
//
// button2
//
this.button2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(106, 19);
this.button2.Name = "button2";
this.button2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(57, 23);
this.button2.TabIndex = 1;
this.button2.Text = "CE";
this.button2.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button2.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button2_Click);
//
// button1
//
this.button1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(7, 20);
this.button1.Name = "button1";
this.button1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(75, 23);
this.button1.TabIndex = 0;
this.button1.Text = "BackSpace";
this.button1.UseVisualStyleBackColor = true;
this.button1.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.button1_Click);
//
// Form1
//
this.AutoScaleDimensions = new System.Drawing.SizeF(6F, 13F);
this.AutoScaleMode = System.Windows.Forms.AutoScaleMode.Font;
this.BackColor = System.Drawing.Color.FromArgb(((int)(((byte)(0)))), ((int)(((byte)(0)))), ((int)(((byte)(64)))));
this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(338, 328);
this.Name = "Form1";
this.Text = "Compute in C#";
this.groupBox1.ResumeLayout(false);
this.groupBox1.PerformLayout();
this.groupBox2.ResumeLayout(false);
this.ResumeLayout(false);

}

static void Main()
{
Application.EnableVisualStyles();
Application.SetCompatibleTextRenderingDefault(false);
Application.Run(new Form1());
}
private void button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
{
string str;
int loc;
//Make sure the text length is >

Notice string.Empty. Here is System.Entry disassembled:

[Serializable]
internal sealed class Empty : ISerializable
{
// Fields
public static readonly Empty Value = new Empty();

// Methods
private Empty()
{
}

[SecurityCritical]
public void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
{
if (info == null)
{
throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
}
UnitySerializationHolder.GetUnitySerializationInfo(info, 1, null, null);
}

public override string ToString()
{
return string.Empty;
}
}

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United States
I started electronics training at age 33. I began studying microprocessor technology in an RF communications oriented program. I am 43 years old now. I have studied C code, opcode (mainly x86 and AT+T) for around 3 years in order to learn how to recognize viral code and the use of procedural languages. I am currently learning C# and the other virtual runtime system languages. I guess I started with the egg rather than the chicken. My past work would indicate that my primary strength is in applied mathematics.

 First Prev Next
 My vote of 1 Pavel Vladov 15-May-10 5:17
 Writing a calculator in C# is equal to writing a "Hello World" program. When you learn to code, submit an article that is more advanced. For the noobs there are many tutorials much more better than your so called "article" PS: I noticed that you have not even renamed you buttons. They are called as default: button1, button2, etc. You have to learn a lot more and to gain much more experience in coding before diving into articles writing...
 My vote of 1 Uroš Šmon 14-May-10 21:01
 ! sam.hill 14-May-10 19:44
 My vote of 1 luisnike19 14-May-10 10:55
 Why? Matt McKinney 14-May-10 10:21
 My vote of 1 Ajay Vijayvargiya 14-May-10 10:08