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Amazon S3 from C# Developer Point of View

, 2 Jun 2010 CPOL
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This article shows how you can interact with Amazon S3 storage directly from C#.

Introduction

This article describes Amazon S3 from the C# developer point of view. It shows how to access the Amazon S3 service from C#, what operations can be used, and how they can be programmed.

Amazon SDK for .NET is used for the examples in the article. An Amazon EC2 account is required, and an access and private keys are also necessary to start using the SDK. See more details at this link.

Amazon S3 is called a simple storage service, but it is not only simple, but also very powerful. It supports a lot of features that can be used in everyday work. But of course, the main feature is the ability to store data by key.

Storage Service

You can store any data by key in S3, and then you can access and read it. But to do it, a bucket should be created at first. A bucket is similar to a namespace in terms of C# language. An AWS account is limited by 100 buckets, and all bucket names are shared through all of Amazon accounts. So you must select a unique name for it. See more details at this link.

Let's see how to check if a bucket is already created, and how to create it in case of its absence:

ListBucketsResponse response = client.ListBuckets();

bool found = false;
foreach (S3Bucket bucket in response.Buckets)
{
    if (bucket.BucketName == BUCKET_NAME)
    {
        found = true;
        break;
    }
}

if (found == false)
{
    client.PutBucket(new PutBucketRequest().WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME));
}

where "client" is the Amazon.S3.AmazonS3Client object. You can see how to initialize it in the example that is attached to this article.

Let's run the code and check that the bucket has been really created. I am using EC2Studio (add-in for Microsoft Visual Studio) to work with S3 through the UI.

A code that stores some data for some key in a bucket is shown here:

PutObjectRequest request = new PutObjectRequest();
request.WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME);
request.WithKey(S3_KEY);
request.WithContentBody("This is body of S3 object.");
client.PutObject(request);

Here, the S3 object is created with a key defined in the constant S3_KEY and a string is written into it.

A content of a file can also be put into S3 (instead of a string). To do it, the code should be modified a little:

PutObjectRequest request = new PutObjectRequest();
request.WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME);
request.WithKey(S3_KEY);
request.WithFilePath(pathToFile);
client.PutObject(request);

To write a file, the method WithFilePath should be used instead of the method WithContentBody. See more details about S3 objects at this link.

Now, let's make sure that the data into S3 has really been written:

After you see the S3 object in the S3 browser in the EC2Studio add-in, double click on it and select a program to use to show its content. The screenshot shows that S3Object has been created and its content is opened in Notepad.

To read the S3 object from C# code:

GetObjectRequest request = new GetObjectRequest();
request.WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME);
request.WithKey(S3_KEY);
GetObjectResponse response = client.GetObject(request);
StreamReader reader = new StreamReader(response.ResponseStream);
String content = reader.ReadToEnd();

Metadata

In addition to the S3 object content, a metadata (key/value pair) can be associated with an object. Here is an example of how it can be done:

CopyObjectRequest request = new CopyObjectRequest();
request.DestinationBucket = BUCKET_NAME;
request.DestinationKey = S3_KEY;
request.Directive = S3MetadataDirective.REPLACE;
NameValueCollection metadata = new NameValueCollection();
// Each user defined metadata must start from "x-amz-meta-"
metadata.Add("x-amz-meta-test", "Test data");
request.AddHeaders(metadata);
request.SourceBucket = BUCKET_NAME;
request.SourceKey = S3_KEY;
client.CopyObject(request);

Amazon S3 does not have a special API call to associate metadata with an S3 object. Instead of it, the Copy method should be called.

But the S3 API has a special method for reading metadata:

GetObjectMetadataRequest request = new GetObjectMetadataRequest();
request.WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME).WithKey(S3_KEY);
GetObjectMetadataResponse response = client.GetObjectMetadata(request);
foreach (string key in response.Metadata.AllKeys)
{
    Console.Out.WriteLine("   key: " + key + ", value: " + response.Metadata[key]);
}

Let's see through the EC2Studio add-in that the metadata has been assigned:

s3_ec2studio/screen3.png

HTTP Access

The good news is that S3 allows accessing S3 objects not only by API calls, but directly by HTTP (so each S3 object has a URL that can be used to access it by any web browser). You can use S3 as a simple static HTTP server, where you can host your static web content.

Moreover, S3 has an access control that allows limiting users who can access data (see more about ACL access below). And not only who, but also when...

The Amazon SDK API allows generating a signed URL that is valid for a limited time only. Here is the code that makes a URL with a validity for a week:

GetPreSignedUrlRequest request = 
    new GetPreSignedUrlRequest().WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME).WithKey(S3_KEY);
request.WithExpires(DateTime.Now.Add(new TimeSpan(7, 0, 0, 0)));
string url = client.GetPreSignedURL(request));

And the same can be done through the EC2Studio add-in:

s3_ec2studio/screen4.png

Then you can send the URL to everyone and be sure that the access to your data is stopped for them after the defined time.

Logging

When talking about hosting a static web content at Amazon S3, the log access feature should be mentioned, because you should know who accesses your web site and when.

S3 has such a feature. First of all, you should configure logging for a bucket. It can be done through an API, but it is a quite a rare operation, so let's just use the EC2Studio add-in to turn logging on for a bucket.

s3_ec2studio/screen5.png

A target bucket where your logging files are stored must be defined. A prefix can be defined to know where those log files are from.

As a result, every access to any object in the bucket will be logged to the destination bucket, and Amazon S3 will create the file with logging information from time to time. The file can be read using the usual API call for reading any S3 object.

But it has a special format that is not very convenient to view, so let's use EC2Studio again to see the logging information.

See more details at this link.

Access Control Lists

As I mentioned earlier, Amazon S3 has a feature to define access. There are two types of access: by user ID/email, or by URL (this means predefined groups or users):

s3_ec2studio/screen7.png

So you can define a read or write access and define who is permitted to read and write ACL for any S3 object or bucket.

There is a special API call to set or read ACLs; for example, an owner of S3Object can be found like:

GetACLResponse response = client.GetACL
    (new GetACLRequest().WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME).WithKey(S3_KEY));
Console.Out.WriteLine("Object owner is " + response.AccessControlList.Owner.DisplayName);

See more details at this link.

Versions

Another cool feature of Amazon S3 is versioning. You can turn versioning on for a bucket, and when you put any object into it, it will not be simply replaced, but the new version of the object will be created and stored under the same key. So you will be able to access and manage all versions (modifications) of the object.

All versions of an S3 object can be retrieved by the following call:

ListVersionsResponse response = client.ListVersions
    (new ListVersionsRequest().WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME).WithPrefix(S3_KEY));
Console.Out.WriteLine("Found the following versions for prefix " + S3_KEY);
foreach (S3ObjectVersion version in response.Versions)
{
    Console.Out.WriteLine("   version id: " + version.VersionId + ", 
    last modified time: " + version.LastModified);
}

For accessing versions by UI:

s3_ec2studio/screen8.png

To delete a particular object version, client.DeleteObject can be used. The required version ID should be put as a request parameter.

The same is true for accessing objects. A version can be read by client.GetObject with the version ID as a request parameter.

See more details at this link.

Like a file system

If you use any S3 browser (the EC2Studio add-in or any other), you will notice that all of them represent the S3 storage as a file system, while it is just a key/value storage. Moreover, most tools show S3 primarily as a file storage (usually to backup files). As shown earlier, it has a lot of cool features that don't exist in usual file systems. So S3 can be used as a more generic storage for keeping application data.

It is useful to have a hierarchical structure, and S3 supports it. Every key of S3Object can have special delimiters (usually '/' is used, but you can define your own delimiter) that divide a full key into some path. And you can request an S3 object list for a defined path (directory):

ListObjectsRequest req = new ListObjectsRequest();
req.WithBucketName(BUCKET_NAME);
req.WithPrefix(DIR_NAME);
ListObjectsResponse res = client.ListObjects(req);
Console.Out.WriteLine("Enumerating all objects in directory: " + DIR_NAME);
foreach (S3Object obj in res.S3Objects)
{
    Console.Out.WriteLine("   S3 object key: " + obj.Key);
}

And the same can be viewed in the UI:

s3_ec2studio/screen9.png

Conclusion

The Amazon S3 service is a full featured service that can be utilized from C# code to store application data, to define additional metadata for it, with the ability to define who will have a pure HTTP access to your data and when. See the log for data access. And moreover, there is the versioning storage with the ability to define a hierarchical structure.

History

  • 2 June, 2010: Initial post.

License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The Code Project Open License (CPOL)

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GeneralMy vote of 5 PinmvpKanasz Robert27-Sep-12 9:28 

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