# Fast Binary Tree Operations

By , 22 Jan 2005

## Introduction

In this article, I will show you how to use the Binary Search Tree to store data. And I am using templates for keys and data values to simplify usage of any data types. If you have good experience about the theory behind the binary search trees, you can skip next sections of the background.

## Background

[1] Binary search trees are data structures which support many dynamic-set operations including search, insert, delete, minimum, maximum, predecessor, and successor. Basic operations on binary search tree take time proportional to the height of the tree. For a complete binary tree with n nodes, such operations take O(log n) time in the worst-case, as the height of randomly built binary search tree is proportional to log n. In some cases operations take O(n) time in case of sorted input, so the tree will be like a sorted list, so I used the `Red-Black` tree balancing technique, as described in the Tree Load Balancing section

A binary search tree is organized in a binary tree as shown in figure 1. Such a tree can be represented by a linked data structure in which each node is an object. In addition to the key field, each node contains fields left, right, and parent that point to the nodes corresponding to its left child, its right child, and its parent, respectively. If a child or the parent is missing, the appropriate field field contains a value NIL.

I will not dig in all `Binary Tree` functions here, I will just refer to the search function, and you can check reference [1] for more details, and I will talk about some of them in the code description, as many of them is so sophisticated like the `Delete` function.

#### Searching

The most common operation performed in binary search tree is searching for a key stored in the tree, which can be done in two ways:

1. Recursion:

```Node Search(Node, key)
{
if Node = NIL or key = Node.key
return Node
if key < Node.key
then return Search(Node.Left, key)
else return Search(Node.Right, key)
}```
2. While loop:
```Node Search(key)
{
Node = root
while Node != NIL and key != Node.key
do if key < Node.key
then Node = Node.Left
else Node = Node.Right
return Node
}```

The two ways begin search at the root and trace a path downward in the tree till they find the `key` or return `NIL` (not found case). First way code is more simple, but second way optimizes stack usage, which I am preferring in all my cases to deal with huge data without affecting the stack and the performance.

## Code Description

All Tree functions encapsulated in a template class `CBinaryTree` and `CBinaryTreeNode`.

 `GetCount` returns tree nodes count with repetition (repeated key will assigned to one node). `RemoveAll` removes all tree nodes. `Insert` inserts new `key` in the tree. `Search` searches for `key` in the tree. `Min` gets minimum node key under the input node. `Max` gets maximum node key under the input node. `Successor` gets node successor (node which comes next in the over all tree sorting). `Predecessor` gets node predecessor (node which comes previous in the over all tree sorting). `Delete` deletes node from tree and adjusts its childs' nodes. `Save` saves all tree nodes' order in a vector of integers.

In all my code here, I am avoiding recursion functions to avoid stack overflow, as I am dealing with huge data, so you will find all my code using `while` loops, sometimes code becomes complicated like the `RemoveAll` function:

#### RemoveAll function

This function removes all tree nodes, it does that by order to each node to delete its `left` child then its `right` child, then delete itself. This can be done with two ways:

1. While loop:
```// remove all tree nodes
void RemoveAll()
{
TREENODE *node = Root, *pTemp;
while(node != Nil)
{
// check for left child
if(node->Left != Nil)
node = node->Left;
// check for right child
else    if(node->Right != Nil)
node = node->Right;
else    // node has no childs
{    // save node pointer
pTemp = node;
// set node pointer at its parent to NULL
if(node->Parent != Nil)
node->Parent->Childs[node != node->Parent->Left] = Nil;
// update pointer node to its parent
node = node->Parent;
// delete the saved node
delete pTemp;
}
}
Count = Serial = 0;
Root = Nil;
Modified = false;
}```

As you can see, there is some complication at this section (node has no children).

2. Recursion way:

It simply puts `delete left` and `right` nodes at each node destructor and call `delete` for tree root.

```~CBinaryTreeNode()
{
if(Childs[0])
delete Childs[0];
if(Childs[1])
delete Childs[1];
}
// ...
delete Tree.Root;```

All the nodes will be deleted automatically through stack usage, but if you read the comments in the first way code, you will find it easy to understand it, and avoid stack usage.

#### Min function

The Minimum of a node x can be found by following `left` child from the node x until a `Nil` is encountered, as in the following code:

```// return minimum key in the tree
TREENODE* Min(TREENODE* node) const
{
// iterate in the left branch
while(node != Nil && node->Left != Nil)
node = node->Left;
return node;
}```

#### Successor function

The successor of a node x is the node with the smallest key greater than key[x]. For example, if you add keys (C I D H B F E G A J K) in sequence and will be as shown in the following figure:

Each arrow represents the direction from each node to its successor. The code in the `Successor`function takes two paths:

1. If the node has right child then return the left most node in the right sub tree.
2. Else, it goes up from node until we find a node that is to the left of its parent.
```TREENODE* Successor(TREENODE* node) const
{
// return the left most node in the right sub tree
if(node->Right != Nil)
return Min(node->Right);
// go up from node until we find a node that is the left of its parent
TREENODE* Parent = node->Parent;
while(Parent != Nil && node == Parent->Right)
{
node = Parent;
Parent = node->Parent;
}
return Parent;
}```

You can use the `Successor` function with the `Min` function to iterate tree nodes in ascending order.

#### Delete function

`Delete` function has three cases, I found it too complicated, and I hope I can describe it, The three cases are:

1. The node has no child, so we just remove it. As in you can see in figure 2, node K can be deleted by just resetting the pointer from node J.
2. The node has one child, so we need to splice it as node H in figure 2, we should make node D point to node F as a right child, and set node F parent to point to node D
3. The node has two children, so we choose its successor to take its position, and splice its successor (join successor parent and child, like the previous case) . For example, if we delete node C at figure 2, we get node C successor (D), so we will splice node D so that node I and H will be connected directly and node C will take node C place as in Figure 3.

Code in the `Delete` is optimized to handle the three cases altogether, so I find it hard to describe it here, but you can try to apply the code in each case and read comments carefully, and you will find it working well.

```void Delete(TREENODE* node)
{
TREENODE *pSplice = (node->Left == Nil ||
node->Right == Nil)?node:Successor(node);
TREENODE *pChild = pSplice->Childs[pSplice->Left == Nil];
// connect child to spliced node parent
if(pChild != Nil)
pChild->Parent = pSplice->Parent;
// connect spliced node parent to child
if(pSplice->Parent == Nil)
Root = pChild;
else
pSplice->Parent->Childs[pSplice !=
pSplice->Parent->Childs[0]] = pChild;
// put spliced node in place of node (if required)
if(pSplice != node)
{    // copy spliced node
*node = *pSplice;
// delete the spliced node
delete pSplice;
}
else
// delete the node
delete node;
Count--;
}```

#### Iterate Tree Nodes

You can call `Min(Tree.Root)` and then `Successor` in a loop to retrieve all nodes in order (ascending):

```TREENODE* node = Min(Root);
while(node)
{
// use node here then get next one
node = Successor(node);
}```

And in the same way you can call `Max(Tree.Root)` and then `Predecessor` in a loop to retrieve all nodes in a reversed order (descending):

```TREENODE* node = Max(Root);
while(node)
{
// use node here then get next one
node = Predecessor(node);
}```

## Class Usage

`CBinaryTree` usage is very simple, we just need to decide the `KEY` and `DATA` data types, then you can define the class, but you must choose a `KEY` that supports the `compare` function as it is used in the `Insert` and `Search` functions. For example:

```CBiaryTree<string, LPCSTR, int, int> tree;
tree.NoRepeat = true;
for(...)
{
// ... fill str in some way
tree.Insert(str);
}```

class `String` of the STL supports the `compare` function, but in some cases you have to add it yourself, as in case of integers' sort:

```class CInt
{
public:
int m_nKey;
int compare(int nKey)
{ return nKey == m_nKey ? 0 : (nKey >= m_nKey ? -1 : 1); }
void operator=(int nKey) { m_nKey = nKey; }
bool operator==(int nKey) { return m_nKey == nKey; }
};

CBiaryTree<CInt, int, int, int> tree;
tree.NoRepeat = true;
for(...)
{
// ... fill n in some way
tree.Insert(n);
}```

Tree balancing can be achieved using many techniques. In my class here, I am using Red-Black Tree functions for the insertion in the tree. `Red-Black Tree` simply depends on keep tree height short as possible, as the search and the insertion operations time depend on the tree height. As in the following figure, if the sequence (C, A, B) is added to the tree, the height will be like case 1, but if we have an operation to change to the valid tree in case 3, it will be good as the tree height reduced.

So, I have included the functions `LeftRotate`, `RightRotate`, and `RBInsert` to can balance the tree functions.

## Sample Demo

The attached source zip file with article contains a sample that parse any folder in a recursive function and parse all its files with the extension specified in the extensions editor (any text files format), and it adds all files tokens to a binary tree. Then you can navigate all tree tokens through the tree control. You can test it in VC6 or 7.1, or just run the attached exe, and don't hesitate to mail me for any help.

## Source code files

1. BinaryTree.h: Binary Tree code.
2. RBTree.h: Red-Black Tree code.

## References

[1] Thomas H.Cormen, Charles E.Leiserson, Ronald L.Rivest, Algorithms 1990

## Thanks to...

I awe a lot to my colleagues for helping me in implementing and testing this code. (JAK)

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here

 Hatem Mostafa Other Egypt Member

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 Full Text Search Sunil Kumawat 11 Jun '12 - 1:50
 I have enable FILEStream and applying search on binary data field but counld not find out. Actually I am storing lots of pdf into my database in a VARBINARY(max) FILESTREAM format and applying search onto that column with the help of full text search. Sign In·View Thread·Permalink
 License? Vu H. Pham 25 Oct '10 - 4:20
 Re: License? Vu H. Pham 25 Oct '10 - 4:21
 Key update MKirkove 29 Jun '10 - 22:47
 First, thanks a lot for your code. It helps me a lot. I would like to ask you this question: "Have you planned the update of the nodes' key (in your example, a changing a 'C' to 'O' for example)?" For updating a key, I delete the corresponding node in the tree and I insert a new one with the new key value. Is there a faster means to do this? Sign In·View Thread·Permalink
 where is code? efvallejocando 20 Apr '10 - 7:11
 How to defined Root? Hoang Nam S 2 Jul '08 - 18:16
 I'm haved structure a class,with component follow: -class name. -fields: name:Dungnguyen,DOB:02/06/2005,....and a lot of other properties . I want to defined this structure and stored it with headerTable similar Root in BTree.Everyone can help to me!Thanks Everyone. Sign In·View Thread·Permalink
 urgent, need help right away ricky sam 1 May '08 - 10:49
 hi, i need help on my lab, can someone please send me the code for the following program and it needs to be done in c. i'm really frustated beacuse of it and i can't figure it out.   Definition: Design, develop and implement a software system that will allow a user to create and manipulate outlines. An outline is a set of statements that are hierarchically related; i.e. are related in a parent/child sense. Develop an Abstract Data Type that will allow the definition and manipulation of an outline; at a minimum the following outline operations should be provided by the ADT.   An unlimited size outline An unlimited number of outline elements at any level The ability to add and delete an outline element at any point in the outline The ability to move any subtree of elements to any be a child of any node Siblings of any parent will be ordered in some manner the aim being correct ordering of the outline when printed. The ability to print the outline contained in any subtree When printing the outline the elements should be indented and identified with a numbering scheme (like in the example). that could be used for manipulating the outline The user interface to the program should provide a rudimentty meny system that allows the user to:   insert an outline element delete an outline element (this implies that if the element has children, the user must be asked what to do with the children) move an outline element (and its children) to somewhere else in the outline display the outline save the outline to a file load a previously created outline from a file       AAAA ex 1 AAAA (main topic)   / | \ 1.1 BBBB (first child of main topic)   BBBB EEEE FFFF 1.1.1 CCCC (FC of FC of main topic)   | 1.1.2 DDDD (2C of FC of main topic)   +-----+ 1.2 EEEE (2C of main topic)   | | 1.3 FFFF (3C of main topic)     CCCC DDDD       ex. make 1.1 child of 1.2 would produce:   AAAA 1 AAAA (main topic)   / \ 1.1 EEEE (1C of main topic)   EEEE FFFFF 1.1.1 BBBB (1C of 1C of main topic)   \ 1.1.1.1 CCCC (1C of 1c of 1C of main topic)   BBBB 1.1.1.2 DDDD (2C of 1c of 1C of main topic)   / \ 1.2 FFFF (2C of main topic)   CCCC DDDD     (notice the renumbering caused by the move)   (also notice that the subtree whose head is BBBB has been moved intact to be a child of EEEE) Sign In·View Thread·Permalink
 Interesting article.. Fresric Bouemont 24 Feb '08 - 22:52
 5 worhty article, but I have a question, some of your routines use recursion, how does that affect the speed/running time of the routines in general? Sign In·View Thread·Permalink
 red black tree code in c++ jalalp 29 May '07 - 9:54