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Windows NT Shell Scripting - Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit

, 12 Feb 2001
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An introduction to the native Windows NT scripting language, including shell command syntax
Sample Image
Title Windows NT Shell Scripting
Authors Tim Hill
Publisher New Riders
Published Apr 1998
ISBN 1578700477
Price US 32.00
Pages 380

Chapter 5 - A Scripting Toolkit

  • Building scripts - Learn the tools and techniques needed to construct robust scripts.

  • Standard script skeleton - This section provides a complete script skeleton that can be used as the starting point for any new script project.

  • Standard library skeleton - Complete libraries of script procedures can be constructed using the library skeleton described in this section.

  • An example library - This sample library provides many useful procedures that are used by the other sample scripts in this book.

Building Scripts

This chapter provides guidelines for using tools to build scripts, and also provides two complete script skeletons:templates that can be used as starting points for customized scripts. In addition, the _MTPLIB.BAT script library source code is presented and described in detail. This library contains many useful procedures that can be accessed directly from custom scripts. The sample scripts of Chapter 6 and 7 also make extensive use of the _MTPLIB.BAT script library.

Because scripts are text files, the only real tool needed when developing a script is a good text file editor. However, certain special script requirements place two specific constraints on this editor:

  • First, some scripts require trailing spaces at the end of a line (for example, the PJCOUNT.BAT script of Chapter 6). Therefore, check that the editor does not automatically strip trailing white space from lines.
  • Second, a FOR command bug sometimes requires literal tab characters in the script (for example, the _MTPLIB.BAT script of this chapter). Therefore, make sure that any editor you use does not convert tab characters into spaces (or vice versa).

The Windows Notepad editor correctly handles both trailing spaces and literal tab characters.

The only other (and most important) tool needed to develop a script is good programming discipline. Scripts are often seen as “quick and dirty” solutions to one-off problems. Typically, however, the quick and dirty script takes on a life of its own and is modified and enhanced until it has far outgrown its humble origins. More robust and manageable scripts result when each script, however small, is treated as a simple programming project. The skeleton scripts in this chapter are good starting points for any script and encourage a structured approach to script creation.

The command shell does not offer any built-in script debug facilities, other than the capability to enable and disable script command echo (using the ECHO command). The following techniques may prove helpful when debugging scripts:

  • Use the standard preamble shown in the skeleton scripts in this chapter, and disable/enable script tracing using the ECHO variable.
  • Use the TRACE variable shown in the skeleton scripts in this chapter.
  • Add ECHO commands when developing a script to show intermediate variable values, control flow, and exit codes (via %ERRORLEVEL%). These can be removed when development is complete.
  • Add PAUSE commands before a critical part of a script, so that the script can be stopped if something appears to be wrong. These can be removed when development is complete.
  • Add ECHO commands to preview complex or “dangerous” commands (such as a command which deletes lots of files) before they are executed. Add a PAUSE command after the ECHO command but before the actual ­execution of the command.

Most of these techniques are highlighted in the sample script presented in this chapter.

Standard Script Skeleton

Figure 5.1 shows the SKELETON.BAT script. This script does not actually do anything, but instead provides a complete template for script development.

Follow these steps to create a new script based on the SKELETON.BAT template:

  1. Copy SKELETON.BAT to a new script file.

  2. Add ECHO commands to the HELP procedure to display brief on-line help information.

  3. Add the script program logic to the MAIN procedure. If necessary, call any external library INIT procedures following the call to the _MTPLIB.BAT INIT procedure.

  4. Create additional procedures used by MAIN following the end of the MAIN procedure and before the DOSEXIT label.

Although SKELETON.BAT does not do anything, it does bring together many of the structural suggestions mentioned in Part I of this book into a complete, ready-to-use script. After some initial setup, the script calls a procedure named MAIN at line 15, and passes to this procedure all of the command line arguments. The MAIN procedure should contain the program logic of the script. When the MAIN procedure exits, the entire script exits. Template code surrounding the MAIN procedure handles all of the logic needed to make the script a “good citizen”-a local scope for variables is created, and the current state is saved.

Before the MAIN procedure is called, the template logic checks to see if the first argument is either /? or /HELP (lines 13 and 14). In this case, the HELP procedure is called instead of MAIN. Typically, this procedure displays a short help message describing the use of the script.

The first two lines of SKELETON.BAT (shown in Figure 5.1) provide the command echo management discussed in Part I. When the script is executed, if the variable ECHO has the value ON, then script command echo is enabled. If the variable ECHO has the value OFF or is not defined, then script command echo is disabled.

The third line checks the operating system type. If the script is run on an OS other than Windows NT, the script jumps immediately to the DOSEXIT label. This label, located at the very end of the script, simply displays a warning message and then ends script execution by “falling off” the end of the file. Thus, if a script based on this skeleton is run on an OS other than Windows NT, it simply displays:

This script requires Windows NT

One implication of this code is that the first three lines of the script and all the lines following the DOSEXIT label must be syntax-compatible with MS-DOS, Windows 3.1, Windows 95, and OS/2. This is why, for example, there is no colon character preceding the DOSEXIT label on line 3. Once past that line, however, all of the syntax enhancements provided by Windows NT can be safely used.

Figure 5.1. The SKELETON.BAT script

Following the initial setup lines is the main script body. In outline, this is constructed as follows:

1. setlocal & pushd & set RET=   

2. .    

3. .   

4. popd & endlocal & set RET=%RET%

5. goto :EOF

The first line creates a local scope for variables as well as the current drive and directory (via the SETLOCAL and PUSHD commands). After the script body, a corresponding set of commands, ENDLOCAL and POPD, close the local scope. This makes the script “well behaved” and preserves the current drive and directory, as well as all environment variables. It also means that code within the script is free to alter any variable, as any changes made are automatically restored when the script completes.

The RET variable is also initialized by the script body code, and the variable tunneling technique described in Chapter 3 is used to pass the RET value back from the script (SET RET=%RET% on the same line as ENDLOCAL). Thus, after the script executes, the only change in the environment will be the RET value. This means that the SKELETON.BAT script can be used to develop complete script procedures that can be called from other scripts and return results via the RET variable.

The main script body between the local scope “brackets” described previously is as follows:

1. set SCRIPTNAME=%~n0

2. set SCRIPTPATH=%~f0

3. if “%DEBUG%”==”1” (set TRACE=echo) else (set TRACE=rem)

4. call _mtplib :INIT %SCRIPTPATH%

5. if /i {%1}=={/help} (call :HELP %2) & (goto :HELPEXIT)

6. if /i {%1}=={/?} (call :HELP %2) & (goto :HELPEXIT)

7. call :MAIN %*

8. :HELPEXIT

The first two lines set two standard variables: SCRIPTNAME and SCRIPTPATH. The SCRIPTNAME variable contains the name of the script (SKELETON, in this case). Uses for the script name include constructing data file names (see the ANIMAL.BAT script of Chapter 7), and choosing a Registry key name (see the REPL.BAT script of Chapter 7). The second variable, SCRIPTPATH, contains the full path to the script (even if the full path was not entered on the command line). These two variables are set because the program logic in the MAIN procedure does not have direct access to the script name. (The %0 parameter within the MAIN procedure has the value :MAIN, regardless of the script name.)

The third line in the main script body provides trace facilities. The variable TRACE is either set to echo or rem depending upon the value of the DEBUG variable. If the DEBUG variable has the value 1 before the script is executed, then TRACE is defined as echo. If the DEBUG variables has another value or is not defined, then TRACE is defined as rem.

The purpose of the TRACE variable is to provide automatic trace functionality within a script. Consider this script statement:

%TRACE% Computing total size...

If the DEBUG variable is not1, the TRACE variable is rem, and the statement expands to:

rem Computing total size...

Obviously, the REM command does nothing. If, however, the DEBUG variable is 1, the TRACE variable is echo, and the statement expands to:

echo Computing total size...

This displays the text in the console window. Thus, if DEBUG is 1, all %TRACE% prefixed commands display trace information. If DEBUG is not 1, no output is displayed. This allows script trace commands to be embedded throughout a script and enabled or disabled just by changing the DEBUG variable before running the script. All the sample scripts use this technique to display the names of called procedures. Each procedure starts with this line:

if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]

This displays the name of the procedure (%0) and all the procedure arguments. To ensure robustness, the line first checks that the variable TRACE is defined (using the IFDEFINED command) before executing the trace statement.

Following the TRACE setup command are one or more library initialization procedure calls. Only one script library, _MTPLIB.BAT, is initialized by the sample skeleton script. If the script uses other libraries, the INIT procedure for each library should be called here. The use of script libraries and the INIT procedure are discussed in Chapter 4.

Finally, when all libraries have been initialized, the main script logic is invoked. Depending upon the first argument, either the HELP or the MAIN procedure is called. The MAIN procedure is passed all script arguments. The HELP procedure is passed only the second argument, allowing a help context to be requested by passing an additional argument following the /? or /HELP switch.

Standard Library Skeleton

Figure 5.2 shows the _LIBSKEL.BAT library script. This library has no function other than to provide a complete template for script library development.

Follow these steps to create a new library based on the _LIBSKEL.BAT template:

  1. Copy _LIBSKEL.BAT to a new script file.
  2. Change the library name and version number in the first ECHO command after the preamble.
  3. Add any necessary library setup logic to the INIT procedure.
  4. Add all desired library procedures following the INIT procedure.
  5. Place the script library in a directory that is part of the system (not the user) PATH. This ensures that the library is available to all scripts, even if the script is run by the AT command.
  6. Document the library! Script logic is not easy to follow, and can be quite obscure even to the script author six months after it was written.

Like SKELETON.BAT, the _LIBSKEL.BAT library script does not do anything, but it does implement the suggestions for script libraries described in Chapter 4. The script contains a procedure dispatcher (lines 13 to 16), which automatically vectors to the correct procedure in the library. It also contains an empty INIT procedure, where library initialization code can be added. By convention, any script that makes use of the procedures in a script library should call the INIT procedure in that library first. This allows the library to initialize any resources it needs.

Creating procedures for script libraries is identical to creating procedures for regular scripts. However, as any other script can call the procedures in a script library, some care must be taken to ensure that library procedures are well behaved. Some things to watch out for include:

  • Avoid changing state information, such as the current drive or directory (unless that is a desired function of the library procedure). If it is necessary to alter these, use PUSHD and POPD to preserve the caller state.
  • Avoid changing global variables. Create a local scope using SETLOCAL and ENDLOCAL if extensive use is made of variables. If only one or two variables are needed, use names prefixed by the name of the library (such as _MYLIB_T1), so that the names do not collide with those used in the caller script.
  • Pass return results back to the calling procedure in the RET variable. Pass additional results in additional RET variables (such as RETX, RETV). Document the return results carefully. It is good practice to initialize the RET variable(s) to a default return value immediately upon entry to a procedure.
  • Pass arguments to the procedures as parameters. Avoid passing arguments in variables unless there is a special need (for example, if the argument contains a large amount of text). If arguments are passed in variables, document this carefully. Also document any standard variables used by the procedure (such as TEMP or PATH).
  • Define label names carefully. Labels are global within a script file, so using a label such as :LOOP isn’t particularly friendly, as it will quite likely collide with another label of the same name elsewhere in the library. Within a procedure, prefix all label names with the procedure name. (This advice applies equally to procedures in a regular script.)

The _LIBSKEL.BAT script begins with the same preamble lines as the SKELETON.BAT script, and ends with the same DOSEXIT label and code. The first line following the preamble checks to see if any arguments are present. If not, the script displays the library name and version information and then exits. If one or more arguments are present, the script falls through into the dispatch code.

As explained in Chapter 4, a library procedure is called using an indirect CALL command, which follows the CALL command with the library name, procedure name, and then procedure arguments. For example:

call _libskel :MYPROC arg1 arg2

Here, the procedure MYPROC in the _LIBSKEL.BAT library is called with arguments arg1 and arg2. The CALL command calls the _LIBSKEL.BAT library, passing :MYPROC, arg1 and arg2 as three arguments. Eventually, the dispatch code in _LIBSKEL.BAT is reached. This code is:

1. set _PROC=%1

2. shift /1

3. goto %_PROC%

The first line of the dispatch code saves the first argument (the procedure name, in this case :MYPROC) in the _PROC variable. The second line then shifts the arguments, discarding the procedure name and moving all other arguments down one place in the argument list. In the example above, this moves arg1 to %1 and arg2 to %2. This is where these arguments are expected by the procedure. Finally, the third line jumps to the label specified by the _PROC variable (that is, the procedure name specified in the original CALL command). The result of this processing is that the procedure specified in the original CALL command is called and passed the arguments specified.

The _LIBSKEL.BAT script provides one sample procedure, :CHECKX86, which sets the RET variable to 0 or 1 depending upon whether the script is run on an Intel x86 platform or not. This sample procedure also shows the use of the TRACE variable described previously.

Figure 5.2. The _LIBSKEL.BAT script.

An Example Library

The _MTPLIB.BAT script library shown in Figure 5.3 is a complete sample library based upon the _LIBSKEL.BAT script library described in the previous section. _MTPLIB.BAT contains a number of useful procedures that are used by many of the sample scripts in Chapters 6 and 7, and can also be used by other scripts as desired. To use this library, place it in a directory that is on the system PATH. The SKELETON.BAT script already contains code to call the INIT procedure of this library.

The _MTPLIB.BAT library contains procedures to assist in the following tasks:

  • Deleting multiple variables (by variable prefix).
  • Parsing a command line for switches and positional arguments.
  • Saving and restoring variables to/from the Registry.
  • Generating pseudo-random numbers.
  • Resolving recursive (nested and indirect) variable references.
  • Reading a line of user input to a variable.
  • Synchronizing scripts using lock files.
  • Generating unique temporary file names.

Tip

The REGGETM and REGGETU procedures in the _MTPLIB.BAT library must be entered carefully. The output of the REG command is tab-delimited, and (unfortunately) a bug in the FOR command means that the delims= value for the FOR command delimiters must be explicitly set to a tab character. To do this, enter the delims= text, and immediately follow the = sign with a literal Tab key. The Notepad editor correctly enters literal tab characters into the script file.

Should _MTPLIB.BAT ever be edited by an editor that converts tabs to spaces, the functionality of the REGGETM and REGGETU procedures will be damaged.

Figure 5.3. The _MTPLIB.BAT script library

Each procedure available in the _MTPLIB.BAT library is described in the following sections. The procedures are described in the same order that they appear in the script.

VARDEL

Deletes a set of variables by prefix.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :VARDEL prefix

Arguments

prefix Prefix of variables to be deleted.

Description

The VARDEL procedure deletes one or more environment variables sharing a common prefix. For example, specifying a prefix of JOB_ deletes all variables that begin with JOB_. One common use of VARDEL is deleting all members of an array by specifying the array name as the prefix.

Implementation

VARDEL executes a SET command (line 35) with the specified prefix without an equal sign following it. This command displays all variables that match this prefix (in the form name=value). The output of this SET command is captured by a FOR command and parsed. Each line is parsed for the first token, using = as the delimiter, which yields the variable name. The FOR command then executes the command SET name= for each parsed name, thus deleting each variable which matches the prefix.

The command error output of the first SET command is redirected to the NULL device (in other words, discarded). This takes care of the situation in which no variables match the specified prefix (in this case, the SET command displays an error message, which is captured and discarded by this redirection). Notice the use of the escape character (^) before the redirection symbol in the SET command. This ensures that the redirection is processed when the SET command is executed, not when the FOR command is executed.


PARSECMDLINE

Parses a command line(s).

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :PARSECMDLINE [append]

Arguments

CMDLINE Contains the text of the command line to parse.

append 0 (the default) to perform a new parse, 1 to append to existing parse.

Returns

RET Total number of arguments parsed.

CMDARGCOUNT Count of arguments in CMDARG_n array.

CMDARG_n Command arguments (CMDARG_1 contains first argument).

CMDSWCOUNT Count of switches in CMDSW_n array.

CMDSW_n Command switches (CMDSW_1 contains the first switch).


Description

The PARSECMDLINE procedure parses a command line, separating the arguments into switches and positional arguments. In most Windows NT commands, a switch is a command argument preceded by a / or - character. Switches can generally appear anywhere on a command line, intermixed with regular (positional) arguments. Switches can also contain optional values, which follow the switch and are separated by a colon. For example,

/SRC:\\transit\files

is the /SRC switch with the value \\transit\files.

The PARSECMDLINE procedure parses a command line and separates the arguments into two distinct arrays of arguments: switches and positional arguments. Once the command line has been parsed, the parsed arguments can be accessed directly in the arrays or indirectly via the GETARG, GETSWITCH, and ­FINDSWITCH procedures.

The command line to parse is passed in the CMDLINE variable, not as an argument. Typically, this variable is initialized with the %* parameter (which contains the entire command line). However, it can also be initialized from other variables or from the contents of a data file. This allows PARSECMDLINE to parse command text from many different sources.

PARSECMDLINE takes one optional argument. If this argument is 0 (the default), a new parse operation is performed, and any previous parse results are discarded. If this argument is 1, the new command line information is appended to any existing parse results. This allows multiple command lines to be merged together and processed as a single line.

Positional (that is, non-switch) arguments parsed by PARSECMDLINE are placed in the CMDARG_n array. The first argument is placed in CMDARG_1. A count of all positional arguments is stored in CMDARGCOUNT. Double quotes are stripped from arguments before they are stored in the array. (See Chapter 3 for a discussion of double quotes.) The arguments are stored in the array in the same order as they occurred in the command line.

Switch arguments parsed by PARSECMDLINE are placed in the CMDSW_n array. The first switch is placed in CMDSW_1. A count of all switches is stored in CMDSWCOUNT. Double quotes are stripped from switches before they are stored in the array. The switches are stored in the array in the same order as they occurred in the command line.

Implementation

After performing some variable initialization, PARSECMDLINE calls PARSECMDLINE1, passing it the contents of the CMDLINE variable as an argument. The normal command shell parsing mechanism thus performs most of the work of splitting the contents of the CMDLINE variable into individual arguments.

PARSECMDLINE1 then runs a loop to process each parameter (lines 61 to 75). After parameter %1 is processed, the SHIFT command (line 66) shifts the parameters down, and the loop repeats until parameter %1 is empty (line 62), and hence, all parameters have been processed.

Parameter processing begins by removing double quotes via string substitution (lines 63 and 64). The first character of the parameter is then compared to the switch characters / and - (lines 67 and 68). If a match occurs, the parameter is added to the switch array (lines 72 to 75). Otherwise, the parameter is added to the positional argument array (lines 69 to 71).

GETARG

Obtains a positional argument from a parsed command line, by index.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :GETARG index

Arguments

index Index of argument to fetch. The first argument is numbered 1.

Returns

RET Argument text, or empty if index is greater than CMDARGCOUNT.

Description

The GETARG procedure recovers a single positional argument from a command line that has been parsed by the PARSECMDLINE procedure. The single argument specifies the index of the argument to return, which must be between 1 and GETARGCOUNT. The argument is returned in the RET variable. The returned argument will not contain double quotes.

Implementation

After performing some basic error checking, the core of the GETARG procedure is a SET command (line 92):

set RET=%%CMDARG_%1%%

If the index specified is 3, for example, the RET variable contains %CMDARG_3%. This is the name of the variable containing the desired value. GETARG then calls the RESOLVE procedure (described later in this chapter) to convert the name of the variable into its value, which is the desired argument.

GETSWITCH

Obtains a switch argument from a parsed command line, by index.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :GETSWITCH index

Arguments

index Index of switch to fetch. The first switch is numbered 1.

Returns

RET Switch text (name), or empty if index is greater than CMDSWCOUNT.

RETV Switch value (text following colon) or empty if no value.

Description

The GETSWITCH procedure recovers a single switch and its value (if any) from a command line that has been parsed by the PARSECMDLINE procedure. The single argument, which must be between 1 and GETSWCOUNT, specifies the index of the switch to return.

The argument name is returned in the RET variable (including the / or - character) and the argument value (if any) in the RETV variable. The returned switch and value will not contain double quotes.

Implementation

GETSWITCH is similar in implementation to GETARG, except that it contains an additional step after the switch text has been recovered into the RET variable. This step uses a FOR command (line 113) to parse the text into the switch name and value. The name includes all text up to the first colon; the value includes all text after the first colon. Notice that the tokens value in the FOR command is tokens=1* and nottokens=1,2. This allows the switch value to contain any text, including additional colon characters.

FINDSWITCH

Finds a switch argument from a parsed command line by name.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :FINDSWITCH name [start-index]

Arguments

name Name of switch to locate (with leading / or - character).

start-index Starting index for search (the default is 1).

Returns

RET Index of switch, or 0 if not found.

RETV Switch value (text following colon), or empty if no value or not found.

Description

The FINDSWITCH procedure searches for a switch value by name in a command line that has been parsed by the PARSECMDLINE procedure. The first argument specifies the name of the switch to find (including the leading / or - character). The name is not case-sensitive. The search starts at the first switch unless start-index is present, in which case the search starts at the index specified (start-index must be less than or equal to CMDSWCOUNT). Using start-index allows multiple switches of the same name to be sequentially processed.

The switch index is returned in the RET variable. The value 0 is returned if the switch cannot be located. The value of the switch (if any) is returned in the RETV variable.

Implementation

FINDSWITCH is implemented as a simple loop (lines 129 to 134) that calls GETSWITCH for each index until a matching switch name is found or the end of the switch array is reached. The IF command (line 132), which compares the switch names, uses the /I switch to perform a case-insensitive comparison.

REGSETM and REGSETU

Sets Registry values from variables.

Syntax

1. CALL _MTPLIB :REGSETM contextprefix

2. CALL _MTPLIB :REGSETU contextprefix

Arguments

context Registry context (location). Typically the script name.

prefix Prefix of variables to be saved in Registry.

Description

The REGSETM and REGSETU procedures save one or more variables in the Registry. These procedures thus provide a way for a script to maintain persistent state information, even across system restarts. The REGSETM procedure stores the variables in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE portion of the Registry, while the REGSETU procedure stores the variables in the HKEY_CURRENT_USER portion of the Registry.

In order to distinguish one script’s state from another, each script must specify a context for the variables. This same context is used when restoring the variables via the REGETM and REGGETU procedures. Typically, the script uses the script name as the context value. If the script is based on the SKELETON.BAT template, the script name is available in the SCRIPTNAME variable.

The variables to save are specified by the prefix argument. Like the VARDEL procedure, the REGSETU/REGSETM procedures save all variables that have a prefix that matches prefix.

Each variable is stored as a REG_SZ registry value. The values are placed in the key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\MTPScriptContexts\context for REGSETM and HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\MTPScriptContexts\context for REGSETU.

Implementation

Both REGSETM and REGSETU are similar to the VARDEL procedure. They use a SET command in a FOR command to extract a list of all variables which match the specified prefix. The procedures then call the procedure REGSET1 for each matching variable, passing it the root key name (HKLM or HKCU), the name of the variable, and the variable value (in double quotes, as it can contain spaces). REGSET1 then executes a REG command (lines 157 and 158) to store the passed value into the appropriate registry key. Both a REG ADD and a REG UPDATE command are executed, as the procedure has no way of knowing if the variable already exists in the Registry.

The REG command has one undocumented peculiarity. In the value string passed, the backslash character is treated as an escape character to allow special values to be passed. Therefore, before the variable values are stored in the Registry, each backslash character is converted to a double backslash.

REGGETM and REGGETU

Gets variables from the Registry.

Syntax

1. CALL _MTPLIB :REGGETM context [variable]

2. CALL _MTPLIB :REGGETU context [variable]

Arguments

context Registry context (location). Typically the script name.

variable Name of variable to restore (optional; default restores entire context).

Returns

RET Value of last (or only) variable loaded.

Description

The REGGETM and REGGETU procedures reverse the actions of the REGSETM and REGSETU procedures, and restore one or more variables from the Registry. The REGGETM procedure restores the variables from the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE portion of the Registry, while the REGGETU procedure restores the variables from the HKEY_CURRENT_USER portion of the Registry.

The context specifies the context from which to restore the variables. It should be the same context name that was used to store the variables. Typically, the script uses the script name as the context value. If the script is based on the SKELETON.BAT template, the script name is available in the SCRIPTNAME variable.

To restore an individual variable, specify it using the variable argument. To restore all the variables from a context, omit the variable argument. When restoring a complete context, only variables that are found in the Registry are altered. Therefore, before calling REGGETM or REGGETU, preset all variables with default values.

Implementation

These procedures use a REG QUERY command (lines 177 and 181) to recover the contents of the variables. The output of this command is somewhat verbose, but by filtering the output by a FIND command, only those lines that actually define a variable are isolated. The entire REG/FIND command is captured by a FOR command and parsed to extract the variable name and value, which is then used in a SET command to restore the variable.

The procedures must also undo the doubled backslash processing performed by the REGSETM and REGSETU procedures. Double quotes are also removed from the variable values.

REGDELM and REGDELU

Delete saved Registry variables or entire context.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :REGDELM context [variable]

CALL _MTPLIB :REGDELU context [variable]

Arguments

context Registry context (location). Typically the script name.

variable Name of variable to delete (optional; the default deletes the entire context).

Description

The REGDELM and REGDELU procedures delete one or more variables from the Registry. The REGDELM procedure deletes the variables from the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE portion of the Registry, while the REGDELU procedure deletes the variables from the HKEY_CURRENT_USER portion of the Registry.

The context specifies the context from which to delete the variables. It should be the same context name that was used to store the variables. Typically, the script uses the script name as the context value. If the script is based on the SKELETON.BAT template, the script name is available in the SCRIPTNAME variable.

To delete an individual variable, specify it using the variable argument. To delete all the variables from a context, omit the variable argument.

Implementation

The core of these procedures is a REG DELETE command (lines 202 and 209). Since this command prompts for confirmation before proceeding with the delete operation, a temporary file is created containing the needed response, and the console input of the REG command is redirected to this file. Early versions of the REG command supported the /F switch to skip this confirmation, but newer versions do not, so these procedures avoid the use of this switch.

SRAND

Seeds the random number generator.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :SRAND value

Arguments

value New seed value.

Description

The SRAND procedure can be used to re-seed the random number generator used by the RAND procedure. This has the effect of changing the sequence of pseudo-random numbers generated by RAND.

Implementation

The RAND procedure keeps the current seed in the _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND variable. Therefore, all this procedure does is assign a new value to this variable.

RAND

Generates a pseudo-random number.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :RAND

Returns

RET Next pseudo-random number.

Description

The RAND procedure returns the next pseudo-random number in the pseudo-random sequence used by the generator. Each call to RAND returns a new value in the RET variable. These values are between 0 and 32767, inclusive.

Implementation

The algorithm used is based upon that recommended by ANSI for the standard C language library. The algorithm is fast and simple, and generates numbers with uniform distribution. It should not, however, be used for serious statistical analysis.

The RAND procedure stores the current seed in the _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND variable, which is updated each time RAND is called. If _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND is not defined, the procedure defines it with an initial value of 1 (line 233). This initialization could be performed by the INIT procedure of the _MTPLIB library, but placing the initialization within the procedure improves the localization and makes the procedure self-contained.

RESOLVE

Resolves recursive and nested variable substitution.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :RESOLVE

Arguments

RET Text containing variables to be resolved.

Returns

RET Text with all variable references resolved.

Description

The RESOLVE procedure implements the technique described in Chapter 3 to handle recursive and nested variable substitutions. The command shell scans all script commands for variable references to expand. However, if the value of a variable that is expanded contains additional variables to expand, these are not expanded. The RESOLVE procedure overcomes this limitation by providing a fully recursive variable expansion facility.

Before calling RESOLVE, the RET variable should contain the text to be processed. This text can contain any number of variable references (each surrounded by percent signs, as usual). In addition, the value of any of these variables can also contain variable references to resolve and so on to any nesting depth. After RESOLVE has been called, the RET variable contains the original text, with all variable substitutions fully resolved.

RESOLVE is particularly useful when variable information must be accessed indirectly (for example, when arrays of data are accessed), or a variable name must be composed from fragments and then resolved. It is used extensively in the _MTPLIB library and throughout the sample scripts.

Implementation

The key to the RESOLVE procedure is to execute the command ECHO %RET% and capture the output of this command back into the RET variable (line 251). In the process of executing the ECHO command, any variable substitutions within the text of the RET variable are resolved. The new text (with the variable substitutions made) is then stored back into the RET variable, thus resolving one layer of variable indirection.

The FOR command is used to capture the output of the ECHO command. No actual parsing is done, as the entire contents of the ECHO command output are assigned back to the RET variable. To allow any depth of nested substitution to occur, the FOR/ECHO commands are executed in a loop (lines 248 to 252). The loop terminates when the contents of the RET variable before and after the FOR/ECHO commands are unchanged. This indicates that no more variable substitution is required.

GETINPUTLINE

Reads a line of input.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :GETINPUTLINE

Returns

RET Line of text read (can be empty).

Description

The GETINPUTLINE procedure reads a single line of text from the keyboard and returns it in the RET variable. This allows a script to prompt for and receive interactive input. To terminate the input line and continue script execution, press Ctrl+Z followed by Enter (or the other way around).

Troubleshooting Tip

There is a bug in the CHOICE command that ships with the resource kit. After a CHOICE command executes, all subsequent COPY commands that read from the console do not echo typed characters. This therefore disables keyboard echo for the GETINPUTLINE procedure. To avoid this problem, execute the CHOICE command in a sub-shell (using CMD /C).

Implementation

GETINPUTLINE uses the COPY command (line 265) to capture keyboard input. This means that Ctrl+Z (in addition to Enter) must be typed to terminate the input line. The line is copied to a temporary file, and this file is then parsed by the FOR command to capture the file contents into the RET variable.

The FOR command (line 266) actually parses the results of a TYPE command, rather than parsing the temporary file directly. This is because the FOR command cannot correctly process a file name containing spaces (it mistakenly assumes that the spaces separate multiple file names). Instead, the TYPE command (which can correctly handle file names with spaces) is used, and its output is parsed.

GETSYNCFILE

Obtains the name of a synchronization file.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :GETSYNCFILE

Returns

RET Name of the file to use for synchronization.

Description

The GETSYNCFILE procedure returns the name of a file that can be used by the SETSYNCFILE, WAITSYNCFILE, and DELSYNFILE procedures for script synchronization purposes. The file name is returned in the RET variable.

Typically, GETSYNCFILE is called by the “master” script, which then passes the file name to the “slave” script either as a command line argument or in a ­variable.

Using files for script synchronization is described in Chapter 4.

Implementation

GETSYNCFILE is simply a wrapper procedure for the GETTEMPNAME procedure.

SETSYNCFILE

Sets a synchronization file.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :SETSYNCFILE filename

Arguments

filename Name of the file to set. Typically obtained from GETSYNCFILE.

Description

The SETSYNCFILE procedure “sets” the synchronization file. This causes any scripts which are waiting for the file to be set (via the WAITSYNCFILE procedure) to continue execution. A synchronization file is “set” by being created. A slave script typically sets a synchronization file to indicate to a master script(s) that it has completed processing.

The file to set is specified by filename, which is typically a name returned by the GETSYNCFILE procedure.

Using files for script synchronization is discussed in Chapter 4.

Implementation

A file is “set” by being created. Therefore, the procedure simply uses the ECHO command (line 290) to output a single period character to the file.

DELSYNCFILE

Deletes a synchronization file.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :DELSYNCFILE filename

Arguments

filename Name of the file to delete. Typically obtained from GETSYNCFILE.

Description

The DELSYNCFILE procedure deletes a synchronization file after it has been used. The file to delete is specified by the filename argument. Typically, this file name is obtained using the GETSYNCFILE procedure.

DELSYNCFILE should be called to delete the synchronization file after it has been used. Otherwise, the Windows temporary directory will gradually fill with old synchronization files. After DELSYNCFILE has been called, it is possible to use the same file again for another synchronization event.

Using files for script synchronization is discussed in Chapter 4.

Implementation

DELSYNCFILE is simply a wrapper for the DEL command.

WAITSYNCFILE

Waits for a synchronization file.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :WAITSYNCFILE filename [timeout]

Arguments

filename Name of the file to wait for. Typically obtained from GETSYNCFILE.

timeout Timeout period, in seconds (the default is 60).

Returns

RET Timeout remaining, or 0 if a timeout occurred.

Description

The WAITSYNCFILE procedure waits for a synchronization file to set. The file upon which to wait is specified by the filename argument. The procedure waits for up to timeout seconds (the default is 60 seconds) before failing with a timeout. Typically, a master script waits for a slave script to complete by using the WAITSYNCFILE procedure.

Using files for script synchronization is discussed in Chapter 4.

Implementation

WAITSYNCFILE contains a simple loop (lines 317 to 320) that checks for the existence of the specified synchronization file. The loop (and procedure) exits as soon as the file exists. While the file does not exist, the loop continues. Each pass through the loop contains a SLEEP 1 command, which suspends execution for 1 second. Thus, the file is polled every second until it exists. Forcing the script to sleep for one second also yields the CPU while the script is waiting, and the loop thus consumes almost no CPU time while waiting.

Since the loop executes once per second (approximately), the timeout code simply counts down until the timeout reaches zero, at which time the loop executes regardless of the state of the synchronization file. Notice the use of the double IF command (line 320) to create an AND condition. This can be interpreted as “if the timeout has not expired and the synchronization file does not exist, continue looping.”

GETTEMPNAME

Creates a unique temporary file name.

Syntax

CALL _MTPLIB :GETTEMPNAME

Returns

RET Temporary file name (can contain spaces).

Description

The GETTEMPNAME procedure creates a temporary file name that can be used for temporary storage of data. The file name is guaranteed not to exist and to be in a location where unrestricted read/write access is permitted.

Implementation

The temporary file name is formed from the prefix ~SH, a pseudo-random number, and the suffix .TMP. The pseudo-random number uses the same algorithm as the RAND procedure, though it uses an independent seed value. If the TEMP variable exists, it is used as the path name for the file. Otherwise, if the TMP variable exists, it is used as the path name. Otherwise, the %SYSTEMROOT% directory is used.

Chapter 5 - A Scripting Toolkit Part II: Real-World Scripting

01. @echo OFF
02. @if not “%ECHO%”==”” echo %ECHO%
03. @if not “%OS%”==”Windows_NT” goto DOSEXIT
04. rem $Workfile: skeleton.bat $ $Revision: 2 $ $Date: 12/04/97 9:51a $
05. rem $Archive: /TimH/Pubs/Books/Macmillan/Windows NT 
                  Scripting/Scripts/skeleton.bat $
06.
07. rem Set local scope and call MAIN procedure
08. setlocal & pushd & set RET=
09.     set SCRIPTNAME=%~n0
10.     set SCRIPTPATH=%~f0
11.     if “%DEBUG%”==”1” (set TRACE=echo) else (set TRACE=rem)
12.     call _mtplib :INIT %SCRIPTPATH%
13.     if /i {%1}=={/help} (call :HELP %2) & (goto :HELPEXIT)
14.     if /i {%1}=={/?} (call :HELP %2) & (goto :HELPEXIT)
15.     call :MAIN %*
16.     :HELPEXIT
17. popd & endlocal & set RET=%RET%
18. goto :EOF
19.
20. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
21. rem HELP procedure
22. rem Display brief on-line help message
23. rem
24. :HELP
25. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
26.     rem Put help message here...
27.
28. goto :EOF
29.
30. rem ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
31. rem MAIN procedure
32. rem  Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit
33. :MAIN
34. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
35.     rem Put main script code here...
36.
37. goto :EOF
38.
39. rem ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
40. rem Additional procedures go here...
41.
42. rem These must be the FINAL LINES in the script...
43. :DOSEXIT
44. echo This script requires Windows NT
45.
46. rem ////////////////////Chapter 5  -  A Scripting Toolkit Part II: 
                                          Real-World Scripting
01. @echo OFF
02. @if not “%ECHO%”==”” echo %ECHO%
03. @if not “%OS%”==”Windows_NT” goto DOSEXIT
04. rem $Workfile: _libskel.bat $ $Revision: 2 $ $Date: 12/04/97 9:51a $
05. rem $Archive: /TimH/Pubs/Books/Macmillan/Windows NT 
                  Scripting/Scripts/_libskel.bat $
06.
07. rem If no arguments, show version information and exit
08. if “%1”==”” (
09.     (echo Script Library Skeleton [%0] $Revision: 2 $)
10.     (goto :EOF)
11. )
12.
13. rem At least one argument, so dispatch to procedure
14. set _PROC=%1
15. shift /1
16. goto %_PROC%
17.
18. rem ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
19. rem INIT procedure
20. rem Must be called in local state before other procs are used
21. rem
22. :INIT
23. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
24.
25. goto :EOF
26.
27. rem //////////////////////////////////////Part II: Real-World Scripting
28. rem CHECKX86 procedure
29. rem Sample procedure verifies that we are running on an Intel CPU
30. rem
31. rem Returns:    RET=1 if on x86, else RET=0
32. rem
33. :CHECKX86
34. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
35.     if /i “%PROCESSOR_ARCHITECTURE%”==”x86” (set RET=1) else (set RET=0)
36. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 returns {%RET%}]
37. goto :EOF
38.
39. rem ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
40. rem Additional procedures go here...
41.
42. rem These must be the FINAL LINES in the script...
43. :DOSEXIT
44. echo This script requires Windows NT
45.
46. rem ////////////////////////////////////////Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit
001. @echo OFF
002. @if not “%ECHO%”==”” echo %ECHO%
003. @if not “%OS%”==”Windows_NT” goto DOSEXIT
004. rem $Workfile: _mtplib.bat $ $Revision: 2 $ $Date: 12/04/97 9:51a $
005. ‑rem $Archive: 
       /TimH/Pubs/Books/Macmillan/Windows NT Scripting/Scripts/_mtplib.bat $
006.
007. rem If no arguments, show version information and exit
008. if “%1”==”” (
009.     (echo Script MTP Script Library [%0] $Revision: 2 $)
010.     (goto :EOF)
011.)
012.
013. rem At least one argument, so dispatch to procedure
014. set _PROC=%1
015. shift /1
016. goto %_PROC%
017.
018. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
019. rem INIT procedure
020. rem Must be called in local state before other procs are used
021. rem
022. :INIT
023. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
024.
025. goto :EOF
026.
027. rem /////////////////////////////////////////Part II: Real-World Scripting
028. rem VARDEL procedure
029. rem Delete multiple variables by prefix
030. rem
031. rem Arguments:    %1=variable name prefix
032. rem
033. :VARDEL
034. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
035.     for /f “tokens=1 delims==” %%I in (‘set %1 2^>nul’) do set %%I=
036. goto :EOF
037.
038. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
039. rem PARSECMDLINE procedure
040. rem Parse a command line into switches and args
041. rem
042. rem Arguments:    CMDLINE=command text to parse
043. rem        %1=0 for new parse (def) or 1 to append to existing
044. rem
045. rem Returns:    CMDARG_n=arguments, CMDSW_n=switches
046. rem        CMDARGCOUNT=arg count, CMDSWCOUNT=switch count
047. rem        RET=total number of args processed
048. rem
049. :PARSECMDLINE
050. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
051.     if not {%1}=={1} (
052.         (call :VARDEL CMDARG_)
053.         (call :VARDEL CMDSW_)
054.         (set /a CMDARGCOUNT=0)
055.         (set /a CMDSWCOUNT=0)
056.     )
057.     set /a RET=0
058.     call :PARSECMDLINE1 %CMDLINE%
059.     set _MTPLIB_T1=
060. goto :EOF
061. :PARSECMDLINE1
062.     if {%1}=={} goto :EOF
063.     set _MTPLIB_T1=%1
064.     set _MTPLIB_T1=%_MTPLIB_T1:”=%
065.     set /a RET+=1
066.     shift /1
067.     if “%_MTPLIB_T1:~0,1%”==”/” goto :PARSECMDLINESW
068.     if “%_MTPLIB_T1:~0,1%”==”-” goto :PARSECMDLINESW
069.     set /a CMDARGCOUNT+=1
070.     set CMDARG_%CMDARGCOUNT%=%_MTPLIB_T1%
071.     goto :PARSECMDLINE1
072.     :PARSECMDLINESW
073.     set /a CMDSWCOUNT+=1
074.     set CMDSW_%CMDSWCOUNT%=%_MTPLIB_T1%
075.     goto :PARSECMDLINE1
076. goto :EOF  Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit
077.
078. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
079. rem GETARG procedure
080. rem Get a parsed argument by index
081. rem
082. rem Arguments:    %1=argument index (1st arg has index 1)
083. rem
084. rem Returns:    RET=argument text or empty if no argument
085. rem
086. :GETARG
087. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
088.     set RET=
089.     if %1 GTR %CMDARGCOUNT% goto :EOF
090.     if %1 EQU 0 goto :EOF
091.     if not defined CMDARG_%1 goto :EOF
092.     set RET=%%CMDARG_%1%%
093.     call :RESOLVE
094. goto :EOF
095.
096. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
097. rem GETSWITCH procedure
098. rem Get a switch argument by index
099. rem
100. rem Arguments:    %1=switch index (1st switch has index 1)
101. rem
102. rem Returns:    RET=switch text or empty if none
103. rem        RETV=switch value (after colon char) or empty
104. rem
105. :GETSWITCH
106. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
107.     (set RET=) & (set RETV=)
108.     if %1 GTR %CMDSWCOUNT% goto :EOF
109.     if %1 EQU 0 goto :EOF
110.     if not defined CMDSW_%1 goto :EOF
111.     set RET=%%CMDSW_%1%%
112.     call :RESOLVE
113.     for /f “tokens=1* delims=:” %%I in (“%RET%”) do (set RET=%%I) & 
         (set RETV=%%J)
114. goto :EOF
115.
116. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
117. rem FINDSWITCH procedure
118. rem Finds the index of the named switch
119. rem
120. rem Arguments:    %1=switch name
121. rem        %2=search start index (def: 1)
122. rem
123. rem Returns:    RET=index (0 if not found)
124. rem        RETV=switch value (text after colon) Part II: Real-World 
                     Scripting
125. rem
126. :FINDSWITCH
127. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
128.     if {%2}=={} (set /a _MTPLIB_T4=1) else (set /a _MTPLIB_T4=%2)
129.     :FINDSWITCHLOOP
130.         call :GETSWITCH %_MTPLIB_T4%
131.         if “%RET%”==”” (set RET=0) & (goto :FINDSWITCHEND)
132.         ‑if /i “%RET%”==”%1” (set RET=%_MTPLIB_T4%) & (goto :FINDSWITCHEND)
133.         set /a _MTPLIB_T4+=1
134.     goto :FINDSWITCHLOOP
135.     :FINDSWITCHEND
136.     set _MTPLIB_T4=
137. goto :EOF
138.
139. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
140. rem REGSETM and REGSETU procedures
141. rem Set registry values from variables
142. rem
143. rem Arguments:    %1=reg context (usually script name)
144. rem        %2=variable to save (or prefix to save set of vars)
145. rem
146. :REGSETM
147. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
148.     for /f “tokens=1* delims==” %%I in (‘set %2 2^>nul’) 
         do call :REGSET1 HKLM %1 %%I “%%J”
149. goto :EOF
150. :REGSETU
151. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
152.     ‑for /f “tokens=1* delims==” %%I in (‘set %2 2^>nul’) 
          do call :REGSET1 HKCU %1 %%I “%%J”
153. goto :EOF
154. :REGSET1
155.     set _MTPLIB_T10=%4
156.     set _MTPLIB_T10=%_MTPLIB_T10:\=\\%
157.     reg add %1\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%2\%3=%_MTPLIB_T10% >nul
158.     ‑reg update %1\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%2\%3=%_MTPLIB_T10% >nul
159. goto :EOF
160.
161. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
162. rem REGGETM and REGGETU procedures
163. rem Get registry value or values to variables
164. rem
165. rem Arguments:    %1=reg context (usually script name)
166. rem        %2=variable to restore (def: restore entire context)
167. rem
168. rem Returns:    RET=value of last variable loaded
169. rem
170. rem WARNING:    The “delims” value in the FOR commands below is a TAB  
                     Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit
171. rem        character, followed by a space. If this file is edited by
172. rem        an editor which converts tabs to spaces, this procedure
173. rem        will break!!!!!
174. rem
175. :REGGETM
176. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
177.     for /f “delims=     tokens=2*” %%I in 
        (‘reg query HKLM\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%1\%2 ^|find “REG_SZ”’) 
         do call :REGGETM1 %%I “%%J”
178. goto :EOF
179. :REGGETU
180. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
181.     for /f “delims=     tokens=2*” %%I in 
        (‘reg query HKCU\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%1\%2 ^|find “REG_SZ”’) 
         do call :REGGETM1 %%I “%%J”
182. goto :EOF
183. :REGGETM1
184.     set _MTPLIB_T10=%2
185.     set _MTPLIB_T10=%_MTPLIB_T10:\\=\%
186.     set _MTPLIB_T10=%_MTPLIB_T10:”=%
187.     set %1=%_MTPLIB_T10%
188.     set RET=%_MTPLIB_T10%
189. goto :EOF
190.
191. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
192. rem REGDELM and REGDELU procedures
193. rem Delete registry values
194. rem
195. rem Arguments:    %1=reg context (usually script name)
196. rem        %2=variable to delete (def: delete entire context)
197. rem
198. :REGDELM
199. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
200.     call :GETTEMPNAME
201.     echo y >%RET%
202.     reg delete HKLM\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%1\%2 <%RET% >nul
203.     del %RET%
204. goto :EOF
205. :REGDELU
206. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
207.     call :GETTEMPNAME
208.     echo y >%RET%
209.     reg delete HKCU\Software\MTPScriptContexts\%1\%2 <%RET% >nul
210.     del %RET%
211. goto :EOF
212.
213.
214. rem ////////////////////////////////////////Part II: Real-World Scripting
215. rem SRAND procedure
216. rem Seed the random number generator
217. rem
218. rem Arguments:    %1=new seed value
219. rem
220. :SRAND
221. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
222.     set /a _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND=%1
223. goto :EOF
224.
225. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
226. rem RAND procedure
227. rem Get next random number (0 to 32767)
228. rem
229. rem Returns:    RET=next random number
230. rem
231. :RAND
232. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
233.     if not defined _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND set /a _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND=1
234.     set /a _MTPLIB_NEXTRAND=_MTPLIB_NEXTRAND * 214013 + 2531011
235.     set /a RET=_MTPLIB_NEXTRAND ^>^> 16 ^& 0x7FFF
236. goto :EOF
237.
238. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
239. rem RESOLVE procedure
240. rem Fully resolve all indirect variable references in RET variable
241. rem
242. rem Arguments:    RET=value to resolve
243. rem
244. rem Returns:    RET=as passed in, with references resolved
245. rem
246. :RESOLVE
247. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
248.     :RESOLVELOOP
249.         if “%RET%”==”” goto :EOF
250.         set RET1=%RET%
251.         for /f “tokens=*” %%I in (‘echo %RET%’) do set RET=%%I
252.     if not “%RET%”==”%RET1%” goto :RESOLVELOOP
253. goto :EOF
254.
255. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
256. rem GETINPUTLINE procedure
257. rem Get a single line of keyboard input
258. rem
259. rem Returns:    RET=Entered line
260. rem
261. :GETINPUTLINE
262. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]Chapter 5: A Scripting Toolkit
263.     call :GETTEMPNAME
264.     set _MTPLIB_T1=%RET%
265.     copy con “%_MTPLIB_T1%” >nul
266.     for /f “tokens=*” %%I in (‘type “%_MTPLIB_T1%”’) do set RET=%%I
267.     if exist “%_MTPLIB_T1%” del “%_MTPLIB_T1%”
268.     set _MTPLIB_T1=
269. goto :EOF
270.
271. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
272. rem GETSYNCFILE procedure
273. rem Get a sync file name (file will not exist)
274. rem
275. rem Returns:    RET=Name of sync file to use
276. rem
277. :GETSYNCFILE
278. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
279.     call :GETTEMPNAME
280. goto :EOF
281.
282. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
283. rem SETSYNCFILE procedure
284. rem Flag sync event (creates the file)
285. rem
286. rem Arguments:    %1=sync filename to flag
287. rem
288. :SETSYNCFILE
289. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
290.     echo . >%1
291. goto :EOF
292.
293. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
294. rem DELSYNCFILE procedure
295. rem Delete sync file
296. rem
297. rem Arguments:    %1=sync filename
298. rem
299. :DELSYNCFILE
300. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
301.     if exist %1 del %1
302. goto :EOF
303.
304. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
305. rem WAITSYNCFILE
306. rem Wait for sync file to flag
307. rem
308. rem Arguments:    %1=sync filename
309. rem        %2=timeout in seconds (def: 60)
310. rem   Part II: Real-World Scripting
311. rem Returns:    RET=Timeout remaining, or 0 if timeout
312. rem
313. :WAITSYNCFILE
314. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
315.     if {%2}=={} (set /a RET=60) else (set /a RET=%2)
316.     if exist %1 goto :EOF
317.     :WAITSYNCFILELOOP
318.         sleep 1
319.         set /a RET-=1
320.     if %RET% GTR 0 if not exist %1 goto :WAITSYNCFILELOOP
321. goto :EOF
322.
323. rem //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
324. rem GETTEMPNAME procedure
325. rem Create a temporary file name
326. rem
327. rem Returns:    RET=Temporary file name
328. rem
329. :GETTEMPNAME
330. if defined TRACE %TRACE% [proc %0 %*]
331.     if not defined _MTPLIB_NEXTTEMP set /a _MTPLIB_NEXTTEMP=1
332.     if defined TEMP (
333.         (set RET=%TEMP%)
334.     ) else if defined TMP (
335.         (set RET=%TMP%)
336.     ) else (set RET=%SystemRoot%)
337.     :GETTEMPNAMELOOP
338.         set /a _MTPLIB_NEXTTEMP=_MTPLIB_NEXTTEMP * 214013 + 2531011
339.         set /a _MTPLIB_T1=_MTPLIB_NEXTTEMP ^>^> 16 ^& 0x7FFF
340.         set RET=%RET%\~SH%_MTPLIB_T1%.tmp
341.     if exist “%RET%” goto :GETTEMPNAMELOOP
342.     set _MTPLIB_T1=
343. goto :EOF
344.
345. rem These must be the FINAL LINES in the script...
346. :DOSEXIT
347. echo This script requires Windows NT
348.
349. rem /////////////////////Chapter 5: A Scripting ToolkitPart II: 
                                         Real-World Scripting
Copyright © 2000 New Riders Publishing

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Comments and Discussions

 
GeneralFine thing PinmemberMLoibl13-Feb-01 22:00 
QuestionIs this a joke? PinmemberKastellanos Nikos13-Feb-01 20:53 
AnswerRe: Is this a joke? PinsussAnonymous23-Jun-03 8:57 
don't know the number but I STILL have important production systems using 'em.
AnswerRe: Is this a joke? PinmemberAssarbad8-Jun-06 2:25 
GeneralRe: Is this a joke? PinmemberKastellanos Nikos8-Jun-06 5:21 
GeneralBatch scripting will outlive us all. Pinmemberthe ops guy9-Mar-08 16:55 
GeneralHahaha PinmemberPascal Binggeli13-Feb-01 20:38 
GeneralRe: Hahaha PinmemberAnonymous13-Feb-01 21:16 
GeneralRe: Heu sorry PinmemberPascal Binggeli14-Feb-01 4:16 
GeneralRe: Heu sorry PinmemberMLoibl14-Feb-01 7:42 
GeneralRe: Heu sorry PinmemberAnonymous19-Feb-01 21:15 
GeneralRe: Heu sorry PinmemberAssarbad8-Jun-06 2:17 
GeneralRe: Hahaha PinmemberJohn Hamlin1-Jan-02 9:15 
GeneralScript file to shut down server at a certain time PinmemberSAI30-May-01 18:49 
GeneralRe: Script file to shut down server at a certain time PinmemberAnonymous14-Aug-01 14:00 

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