The answer is a qualified "No".
There is MonoDroid - Mono for Android - which should
let .NET applications work on Android, just like Mono lets .NET applications work on Linux.
But, it only went into Beta testing last august or so, and I haven't heard it is ready for release to the wide world yet.
See the roadmap here
For the moment, I wouldn't consider it. Use Java instead: How to Program Google Android