First of all: Windows Service itself have nothing to do with IIS at all. This is just a general-purpose Service hosted by OS in a special way — using Service Control Magager, see
]. With a managed platform (.NET) it can communicate with applications and other services on the same or remote machines using number of ways: WCF or remoting, low-level sockets, named pipes (on the same system) and more.
It is not clear what do you mean by "ADFS situation", most likely, you mean "Active Directory" (if disambiguation is still needed: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ADFS
]). So what? You can use it, too. "SVC" also needs disambiguation. Is it "Service cannot start" of what? Where is your code? How the problem is manifested? Please describe your problem with sufficient level of detail and… try to use less abbreviations.
If your want to find bugs in a Windows Service, you need to catch all exceptions at the top of stack of each thread and log them properly. The most reliable way of logging is the System Event Log.
Find some code samples of
How to create event log under a folder
MsBuild OutPut to the TextBox on the fly in Windows Application
Using debugger is also quite possible, you should be able to attach the debugger to existing already running process. Refer to debugger documentation. It need thorough planning of your debugging session, otherwise you will miss the problems if they occur in the very beginning of the Service start.