## Introduction

This article talks about the operator overloading in C#. What are the various types of operators that can be
overloaded. We will create a small dummy application to see how can we overload some basic operators.

## Background

In an object oriented programming language like C#, operator overloading provides a much more natural way of implementing
the operations on custom types. Suppose that we have a class created for Complex number and we want to perform all the
arithmetic operations on this type. One way to do this is by having functions like Add, Subtract inside the class and
have the functionality. Another way is to actually have the overloaded version of operators to act on this type.

Operator overloading provides a much natural abstraction for the types. When we think about possible operation on
some data type we can think of binary operators, unary operators, relational operators and perhaps some conversion operations
to and from the basic types. In C# achieving all this is possible using operator overloading.

## Using the code

Before looking at the implementation details, lets see what are the conventions that need to be followed if we want to
overload an operator.

- The operator function should be a member function of the containing type.
- The operator function must be
`static`

.
- The operator function must have the keyword operator followed by the operator to be overridden.
- The arguments of the function are the operands.
- The return value of the function is the result of the operation.

So to understand the above mentioned points more clearly we can visualize the operators getting invoked as function
calls (below code will not compile, it is only for understanding purpose).

class A
{
public static A operator+(A a1, A a2)
{
A temp;
return temp;
}
}
A a1 = new A();
A a2 = new A();
A result = a1 + a2;
A result = A.+(a1, a2);

So following the above guidelines, lets us see how we can implement operator overloading. We will create a small class `Rational `

representing a rational number and will implement some basic overloaded operators in it.

class Rational
{
int numerator;
int denominator;
public Rational(int num, int den)
{
numerator = num;
denominator = den;
}
public double Value
{
get
{
return ((double)numerator) / denominator;
}
}
}

#### Overloading the Binary operators

Binary operators function will take 2 arguments and return a new object of the Containing type. Let us try to implement the
binary operator `+`

for our `Rational `

class.

public static Rational operator +(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
int resultingDenominator = rational1.denominator * rational2.denominator;
int resultingNumerator = rational1.numerator * rational2.denominator +
rational1.denominator * rational2.numerator;
return new Rational(resultingNumerator, resultingDenominator);
}

Once we have the binary operator overloaded we can use it simply as

Rational r1 = new Rational(3, 2);
Rational r2 = new Rational(2, 3);
Rational result = null;
result = r1 + r2;

The important thing to note here is that once we have the binary operator `+`

implemented the compound
assignment operator for that operator i.e. `+=`

in this case also gets implemented in terms of this operator i.e.
`+`

in this case.

The other possibility could be that we may want to have mix mode arithmetic with our type i.e. we may want
to have the arithmetic operations to work with our `Rational `

type and some primitive type. So if we want to have the
possibility of having `Rational + int`

then we will have to implement an overloaded function for that too.

public static Rational operator +(Rational rational1, int num)
{
return new Rational(rational1.numerator +(rational1.denominator * num), rational1.denominator);
}
public static Rational operator +(int num, Rational rational1)
{
return rational1 + num;
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
result = r1 + 2;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = 3 + r1;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
}

#### Overloading the Unary operators

To overload the unary operators, we need a function taking only one argument of the containing type. The important thing
in case of overloading unary operators is that we should not create a new object but instead change the value of the
object being passed to us and return it. Let us implement the unary `++`

for our Rational type now.

public static Rational operator ++(Rational rational1)
{
rational1 += 1;
return rational1;
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
result = r1++;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = ++r1;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
}

The thing to notice in the above code snippet is that we overloaded `++`

and C# internally took care of using it
in pre-increment and post-increment scenario. So unlike C++ we need not implement the separate versions for prefix and post-fix
unary operators.

#### Overloading the Relational operators

Relational operators like `<`

and `>`

can also be overloaded as functions taking two arguments. The important thing to
note is that we need to overload relational operators in pairs i.e. if I am overloading `<`

operator than I will have
to overload `>`

operator too. Same is true for `(<=, >=) `

and `(==, !=) `

operators. So let us go ahead and implement the relational
operators in our `Rational `

class.

public static bool operator < (Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value < rational2.Value;
}
public static bool operator >(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value > rational2.Value;
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
Console.WriteLine(r1 > r2);
}

Other important thing to note is while implementing the equality i.e. `==`

operator. If we are overloading `==`

operator then
we need to implement```
!=
```

operator too(as discussed above). Also, we need to override the `Equals `

and `GetHashCode `

functions so that
if our object returns true for `==`

then it should return `true `

for Equals function too and should return the same value from `GetHashCode()`

.

public static bool operator ==(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value == rational2.Value;
}
public static bool operator !=(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value != rational2.Value;
}
public override bool Equals(object obj)
{
Rational r = obj as Rational;
if (r != null)
{
return r == this;
}
return false;
}
public override int GetHashCode()
{
return Value.GetHashCode();
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
Console.WriteLine(r1 == r2);
}

#### Overloading the Conversion operators

We might also need to implement conversion operators sometimes so that our type can safely be converted to and from
other types. We can define the conversion operators as `implicit `

or `explicit`

. In case of `implicit `

conversion the user will
not have to explicitly type cast our type to target type and our conversion operation will work. In case of ```
explicit
```

conversion the user will have to explicitly cast our type to target type to invoke our conversion operation. If the casting is not performed it will give a compile time error.

Let us go ahead and define the conversion operation for our Rational type. We will implicitly convert `integer `

types to
`Rational `

type but we will keep the conversion from `Rational `

to `double `

explicit.

public static implicit operator Rational(int i)
{
Rational rational = new Rational(i, 1);
return rational;
}
public static explicit operator double(Rational r)
{
double result = ((double)r.numerator) / r.denominator;
return result;
}
static void Main(string[] args)
{
Rational ri = 3;
double value = (double)ri;
}

Now with all the above operators overloaded the resulting class and the test code will look like:

class Rational
{
int numerator;
int denominator;
public Rational(int num, int den)
{
numerator = num;
denominator = den;
}
public double Value
{
get
{
return ((double)numerator) / denominator;
}
}
public static Rational operator +(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
int resultingDenominator = rational1.denominator * rational2.denominator;
int resultingNumerator = rational1.numerator * rational2.denominator +
rational1.denominator * rational2.numerator;
return new Rational(resultingNumerator, resultingDenominator);
}
public static Rational operator +(Rational rational1, int num)
{
return new Rational(rational1.numerator +(rational1.denominator * num), rational1.denominator);
}
public static Rational operator +(int num, Rational rational1)
{
return rational1 + num;
}
public static Rational operator ++(Rational rational1)
{
rational1 += 1;
return rational1;
}
public static bool operator < (Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value < rational2.Value;
}
public static bool operator >(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value > rational2.Value;
}
public static bool operator ==(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value == rational2.Value;
}
public static bool operator !=(Rational rational1, Rational rational2)
{
return rational1.Value != rational2.Value;
}
public override bool Equals(object obj)
{
Rational r = obj as Rational;
if (r != null)
{
return r == this;
}
return false;
}
public override int GetHashCode()
{
return Value.GetHashCode();
}
public static implicit operator Rational(int i)
{
Rational rational = new Rational(i, 1);
return rational;
}
public static explicit operator double(Rational r)
{
double result = ((double)r.numerator) / r.denominator;
return result;
}
}
class Program
{
static void Main(string[] args)
{
Rational r1 = new Rational(3, 2);
Rational r2 = new Rational(2, 3);
Rational result = null;
result = r1 + r2;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = r1 + 2;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = 3 + r1;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = r1++;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
result = ++r1;
Console.WriteLine(result.Value.ToString());
Console.WriteLine(r1 > r2);
Console.WriteLine(r1 == r2);
Rational ri = 3;
double value = (double)ri;
}
}

**Note:** We have implemented some of the operators in each category of operators, Rest of the operators can be overloaded
on same lines.

## Point of interest

This article is written as a walk-through tutorial on operator overloading in C# from a beginner's perspective. Most of
the veteran programmers are already aware of this basic stuff and find the information mundane, Still I hope this
has been informative.

## History

**04 September 2012**: First version.