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The Windows Access Control Model: Part 2

, 27 Jun 2005 CPOL
This second part of the Access Control series will program with the basic Access Control structures.
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/*
 * Copyright (c) 1997
 * Silicon Graphics Computer Systems, Inc.
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, distribute and sell this software
 * and its documentation for any purpose is hereby granted without fee,
 * provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and
 * that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear
 * in supporting documentation.  Silicon Graphics makes no
 * representations about the suitability of this software for any
 * purpose.  It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.
 */

/* NOTE: This is not portable code.  Parts of numeric_limits<> are
 * inherently machine-dependent, and this file is written for the MIPS
 * architecture and the SGI MIPSpro C++ compiler.  Parts of it (in
 * particular, some of the characteristics of floating-point types)
 * are almost certainly incorrect for any other platform.
 */

/* The above comment is almost certainly out of date. This file works
 * on systems other than SGI MIPSpro C++ now.
 */

/*
 * Revision history:
 * 21 Sep 2001:
 *    Only include <cwchar> if BOOST_NO_CWCHAR is defined. (Darin Adler)
 * 10 Aug 2001:
 *    Added MIPS (big endian) to the big endian family. (Jens Maurer)
 * 13 Apr 2001:
 *    Added powerpc to the big endian family. (Jeremy Siek)
 * 5 Apr 2001:
 *    Added sparc (big endian) processor support (John Maddock).
 * Initial sub:
 *      Modified by Jens Maurer for gcc 2.95 on x86.
 */

#ifndef BOOST_SGI_CPP_LIMITS
#define BOOST_SGI_CPP_LIMITS

#include <climits>
#include <cfloat>
#include <boost/config.hpp>

#ifndef BOOST_NO_CWCHAR
#include <cwchar> // for WCHAR_MIN and WCHAR_MAX
#endif

// The macros are not named appropriately.  We don't care about integer
// bit layout, but about floating-point NaN (etc.) bit patterns.
#if defined(__sparc) || defined(__sparc__) || defined(__powerpc__) || defined(__ppc__) || defined(__hppa) || defined(_MIPSEB) || defined(_POWER)
#define BOOST_BIG_ENDIAN
#elif defined(__i386__) || defined(__alpha__) || defined(__ia64) || defined(__ia64__)
#define BOOST_LITTLE_ENDIAN
#else
#error The file boost/detail/limits.hpp needs to be set up for your CPU type.
#endif

namespace std {

enum float_round_style {
  round_indeterminate       = -1,
  round_toward_zero         =  0,
  round_to_nearest          =  1,
  round_toward_infinity     =  2,
  round_toward_neg_infinity =  3
};

enum float_denorm_style {
  denorm_indeterminate = -1,
  denorm_absent        =  0,
  denorm_present       =  1
};

// The C++ standard (section 18.2.1) requires that some of the members of
// numeric_limits be static const data members that are given constant-
// initializers within the class declaration.  On compilers where the
// BOOST_NO_INCLASS_MEMBER_INITIALIZATION macro is defined, it is impossible to write
// a standard-conforming numeric_limits class.
//
// There are two possible workarounds: either initialize the data
// members outside the class, or change them from data members to
// enums.  Neither workaround is satisfactory: the former makes it
// impossible to use the data members in constant-expressions, and the
// latter means they have the wrong type and that it is impossible to
// take their addresses.  We choose the former workaround.

#ifdef BOOST_NO_INCLASS_MEMBER_INITIALIZATION
# define BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(__mem_type, __mem_name, __mem_value) \
  enum { __mem_name = __mem_value }
#else /* BOOST_NO_INCLASS_MEMBER_INITIALIZATION */
# define BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(__mem_type, __mem_name, __mem_value) \
  static const __mem_type __mem_name = __mem_value
#endif /* BOOST_NO_INCLASS_MEMBER_INITIALIZATION */

// Deal with min/max for MinGW
#ifdef min
# undef min
#endif

#ifdef max
# undef max
#endif

// Base class for all specializations of numeric_limits.
template <class __number>
class _Numeric_limits_base {
public:
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_specialized, false);

  static __number min() throw() { return __number(); }
  static __number max() throw() { return __number(); }

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, digits,   0);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, digits10, 0);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_signed,  false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_integer, false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_exact,   false);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, radix, 0);

  static __number epsilon() throw()     { return __number(); }
  static __number round_error() throw() { return __number(); }

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, min_exponent,   0);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, min_exponent10, 0);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, max_exponent,   0);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, max_exponent10, 0);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_infinity,      false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_quiet_NaN,     false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_signaling_NaN, false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(float_denorm_style,
                              has_denorm,
                              denorm_absent);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_denorm_loss,   false);

  static __number infinity() throw()      { return __number(); }
  static __number quiet_NaN() throw()     { return __number(); }
  static __number signaling_NaN() throw() { return __number(); }
  static __number denorm_min() throw()    { return __number(); }

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_iec559,  false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_bounded, false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_modulo,  false);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, traps,            false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, tinyness_before,  false);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(float_round_style,
                              round_style,
                              round_toward_zero);
};

// Base class for integers.

template <class _Int,
          _Int __imin,
          _Int __imax,
          int __idigits = -1>
class _Integer_limits : public _Numeric_limits_base<_Int> 
{
public:
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_specialized, true);

  static _Int min() throw() { return __imin; }
  static _Int max() throw() { return __imax; }

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int,
                              digits,
                              (__idigits < 0) ? (int)(sizeof(_Int) * CHAR_BIT)
                                                   - (__imin == 0 ? 0 : 1) 
                                              : __idigits);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, digits10, (digits * 301) / 1000); 
                                // log 2 = 0.301029995664...

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_signed,  __imin != 0);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_integer, true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_exact,   true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int,  radix,      2);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_bounded, true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_modulo, true);
};

#if defined(BOOST_BIG_ENDIAN)

 template<class Number, unsigned int Word>
 struct float_helper{
  static Number get_word() throw() {
    // sizeof(long double) == 16
    const unsigned int _S_word[4] = { Word, 0, 0, 0 };
    return *reinterpret_cast<const Number*>(&_S_word);
  } 
};

#else

 template<class Number, unsigned int Word>
 struct float_helper{
  static Number get_word() throw() {
    // sizeof(long double) == 12, but only 10 bytes significant
    const unsigned int _S_word[4] = { 0, 0, 0, Word };
    return *reinterpret_cast<const Number*>(
        reinterpret_cast<const char *>(&_S_word)+16-
                (sizeof(Number) == 12 ? 10 : sizeof(Number)));
  } 
};

#endif

// Base class for floating-point numbers.
template <class __number,
         int __Digits, int __Digits10,
         int __MinExp, int __MaxExp,
         int __MinExp10, int __MaxExp10,
         unsigned int __InfinityWord,
         unsigned int __QNaNWord, unsigned int __SNaNWord,
         bool __IsIEC559,
         float_round_style __RoundStyle>
class _Floating_limits : public _Numeric_limits_base<__number>
{
public:
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_specialized, true);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, digits,   __Digits);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, digits10, __Digits10);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_signed, true);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, radix, 2);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, min_exponent,   __MinExp);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, max_exponent,   __MaxExp);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, min_exponent10, __MinExp10);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(int, max_exponent10, __MaxExp10);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_infinity,      true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_quiet_NaN,     true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_signaling_NaN, true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(float_denorm_style,
                              has_denorm,
                              denorm_indeterminate);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, has_denorm_loss,   false);

 
  static __number infinity() throw() {
    return float_helper<__number, __InfinityWord>::get_word();
  }
  static __number quiet_NaN() throw() {
    return float_helper<__number,__QNaNWord>::get_word();
  }
  static __number signaling_NaN() throw() {
    return float_helper<__number,__SNaNWord>::get_word();
  }

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_iec559,       __IsIEC559);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, is_bounded,      true);
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, traps,           false /* was: true */ );
  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(bool, tinyness_before, false);

  BOOST_STL_DECLARE_LIMITS_MEMBER(float_round_style, round_style, __RoundStyle);
};

// Class numeric_limits

// The unspecialized class.

template<class T> 
class numeric_limits : public _Numeric_limits_base<T> {};

// Specializations for all built-in integral types.

template<>
class numeric_limits<bool>
  : public _Integer_limits<bool, false, true, 0>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<char>
  : public _Integer_limits<char, CHAR_MIN, CHAR_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<signed char>
  : public _Integer_limits<signed char, SCHAR_MIN, SCHAR_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<unsigned char>
  : public _Integer_limits<unsigned char, 0, UCHAR_MAX>
{};

#ifndef BOOST_NO_INTRINSIC_WCHAR_T
template<>
class numeric_limits<wchar_t>
#if !defined(WCHAR_MAX) || !defined(WCHAR_MIN)
#if defined(_WIN32) || defined(__CYGWIN__)
  : public _Integer_limits<wchar_t, 0, USHRT_MAX>
#elif defined(__hppa)
// wchar_t has "unsigned int" as the underlying type
  : public _Integer_limits<wchar_t, 0, UINT_MAX>
#else
// assume that wchar_t has "int" as the underlying type
  : public _Integer_limits<wchar_t, INT_MIN, INT_MAX>
#endif
#else
// we have WCHAR_MIN and WCHAR_MAX defined, so use it
  : public _Integer_limits<wchar_t, WCHAR_MIN, WCHAR_MAX>
#endif
{};
#endif

template<>
class numeric_limits<short>
  : public _Integer_limits<short, SHRT_MIN, SHRT_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<unsigned short>
  : public _Integer_limits<unsigned short, 0, USHRT_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<int>
  : public _Integer_limits<int, INT_MIN, INT_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<unsigned int>
  : public _Integer_limits<unsigned int, 0, UINT_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<long>
  : public _Integer_limits<long, LONG_MIN, LONG_MAX>
{};

template<>
class numeric_limits<unsigned long>
  : public _Integer_limits<unsigned long, 0, ULONG_MAX>
{};

#ifdef __GNUC__

// Some compilers have long long, but don't define the
// LONGLONG_MIN and LONGLONG_MAX macros in limits.h.  This
// assumes that long long is 64 bits.
#if !defined(LONGLONG_MAX) && !defined(ULONGLONG_MAX)

# define ULONGLONG_MAX 0xffffffffffffffffLLU
# define LONGLONG_MAX 0x7fffffffffffffffLL

#endif

#if !defined(LONGLONG_MIN)
# define LONGLONG_MIN (-LONGLONG_MAX - 1)
#endif 


#if !defined(ULONGLONG_MIN)
# define ULONGLONG_MIN 0
#endif 

#endif /* __GNUC__ */

// Specializations for all built-in floating-point type.

template<> class numeric_limits<float>
  : public _Floating_limits<float, 
                            FLT_MANT_DIG,   // Binary digits of precision
                            FLT_DIG,        // Decimal digits of precision
                            FLT_MIN_EXP,    // Minimum exponent
                            FLT_MAX_EXP,    // Maximum exponent
                            FLT_MIN_10_EXP, // Minimum base 10 exponent
                            FLT_MAX_10_EXP, // Maximum base 10 exponent
#if defined(BOOST_BIG_ENDIAN)
                            0x7f80 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7f81 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7fc1 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of signaling NaN
#else
                            0x7f800000u,    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7f810000u,    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7fc10000u,    // Last word of signaling NaN
#endif
                            true,           // conforms to iec559
                            round_to_nearest>
{
public:
  static float min() throw() { return FLT_MIN; }
  static float denorm_min() throw() { return FLT_MIN; }
  static float max() throw() { return FLT_MAX; }
  static float epsilon() throw() { return FLT_EPSILON; }
  static float round_error() throw() { return 0.5f; } // Units: ulps.
};

template<> class numeric_limits<double>
  : public _Floating_limits<double, 
                            DBL_MANT_DIG,   // Binary digits of precision
                            DBL_DIG,        // Decimal digits of precision
                            DBL_MIN_EXP,    // Minimum exponent
                            DBL_MAX_EXP,    // Maximum exponent
                            DBL_MIN_10_EXP, // Minimum base 10 exponent
                            DBL_MAX_10_EXP, // Maximum base 10 exponent
#if defined(BOOST_BIG_ENDIAN)
                            0x7ff0 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7ff1 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7ff9 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of signaling NaN
#else
                            0x7ff00000u,    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7ff10000u,    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7ff90000u,    // Last word of signaling NaN
#endif
                            true,           // conforms to iec559
                            round_to_nearest>
{
public:
  static double min() throw() { return DBL_MIN; }
  static double denorm_min() throw() { return DBL_MIN; }
  static double max() throw() { return DBL_MAX; }
  static double epsilon() throw() { return DBL_EPSILON; }
  static double round_error() throw() { return 0.5; } // Units: ulps.
};

template<> class numeric_limits<long double>
  : public _Floating_limits<long double, 
                            LDBL_MANT_DIG,  // Binary digits of precision
                            LDBL_DIG,       // Decimal digits of precision
                            LDBL_MIN_EXP,   // Minimum exponent
                            LDBL_MAX_EXP,   // Maximum exponent
                            LDBL_MIN_10_EXP,// Minimum base 10 exponent
                            LDBL_MAX_10_EXP,// Maximum base 10 exponent
#if defined(BOOST_BIG_ENDIAN)
                            0x7ff0 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7ff1 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7ff9 << (sizeof(int)*CHAR_BIT-16),    // Last word of signaling NaN
#else
                            0x7fff8000u,    // Last word of +infinity
                            0x7fffc000u,    // Last word of quiet NaN
                            0x7fff9000u,    // Last word of signaling NaN
#endif
                            false,          // Doesn't conform to iec559
                            round_to_nearest>
{
public:
  static long double min() throw() { return LDBL_MIN; }
  static long double denorm_min() throw() { return LDBL_MIN; }
  static long double max() throw() { return LDBL_MAX; }
  static long double epsilon() throw() { return LDBL_EPSILON; }
  static long double round_error() throw() { return 4; } // Units: ulps.
};

} // namespace std

#endif /* BOOST_SGI_CPP_LIMITS */

// Local Variables:
// mode:C++
// End:



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About the Author

oshah
Web Developer
United States United States
Mr. Shah is a reclusive C++/C# developer lurking somewhere in the depths of the city of London. He learnt physics at Kings' College London and obtained a Master in Science there. Having earned an MCAD, he teeters on the brink of transitioning from C++ to C#, unsure of which language to jump to. Fortunately, he also knows how to use .NET interop to merge code between the two languages (which means he won't have to make the choice anytime soon).
 
His interests (apart from programming) are walking, football (the real one!), philosophy, history, retro-gaming, strategy gaming, and any good game in general.
 
He maintains a website / blog / FAQ / junk at shexec32.serveftp.net, where he places the best answers he's written to the questions you've asked. If you can find him, maybe you can hire Mr. Shah to help you with anything C++[/CLI]/C#/.NET related Smile | :) .

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