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A .NET State Machine Toolkit - Part III

, 26 Oct 2006
Using code generation with the .NET state machine toolkit.
statemachinetoolkitpartiii_demo.zip
StateMachineToolkit
StateMachineBuilderDemo
App.ico
StateMachineBuilderDemo.csproj.user
StateMachineDemo
App.ico
StateMachineDemo.csproj.user
StateMachineMaker
App.ico
StateMachineMaker.csproj.user
StateMachineToolkit
bin
Debug
LSCollections.dll
CodeGeneration
StateMachineBuilder
StateMachineToolkit.csproj.user
statemachinetoolkitpartiii_src.zip
StateMachineToolkitPartIII_src
CodeGeneration
/*
 * Created by: Leslie Sanford
 * 
 * Contact: jabberdabber@hotmail.com
 * 
 * Last modified: 08/27/2005
 */

using System;
using System.Collections;

namespace StateMachineToolkit
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Represents a transition from one state to another.
	/// </summary>
	public class Transition
	{
        #region Transition Members

        #region Fields

        // Target of the transition.
        private State target = null;

        // The guard to evaluate to determine whether the transition should 
        // fire.
        private GuardHandler guard = null;

        // The action to perform during the transition.
        private ActionHandler action = null;

        // The active state as a result of the transition.
        private State result = null;

        // Indicates whether or not the target State is in the path from the
        // source to the handler.
        private bool targetFound;

        #endregion

        #region Construction

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified target.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="target">
        /// The target state of the transition.
        /// </param>
        public Transition(State target)
        {
            this.target = target;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified action and target.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="action">
        /// The action to perform during the transition.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="target">
        /// The target state of the transition.
        /// </param>
        public Transition(ActionHandler action, State target)
        {      
            this.action = action;
            this.target = target;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified guard and target.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="guard">
        /// The guard to test to determine whether the transition should take 
        /// place.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="target">
        /// The target state of the transition.
        /// </param>
        public Transition(GuardHandler guard, State target)
        {
            this.guard = guard;
            this.target = target;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified guard and action.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="guard">
        /// The guard to test to determine whether the transition should take 
        /// place.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="action">
        /// The action to perform during the transition.
        /// </param>
        public Transition(GuardHandler guard, ActionHandler action)
        {
            this.guard = guard;            
            this.action = action;
        }
        
        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified action.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="action">
        /// The action to perform during the transition.
        /// </param>
        public Transition(ActionHandler action)
        {       
            this.action = action;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the Transition class with the 
        /// specified guard, action, and target.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="guard">
        /// The guard to test to determine whether the transition should take 
        /// place.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="action">
        /// The action to perform during the transition.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="target">
        /// The target state of the transition.
        /// </param>
		public Transition(GuardHandler guard, ActionHandler action, State target)
		{
            this.guard = guard;            
            this.action = action;
            this.target = target;
		}

        #endregion

        #region Methods

        /// <summary>
        /// Fires the transition.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="source">
        /// The State that originally received the event.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="handler">
        /// The State that handled the event.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="args">
        /// The data accompanying the event.
        /// </param>
        /// <returns>
        /// <b>true</b> if the Transitions fired; otherwise, <b>false</b>.
        /// </returns>
        public bool Fire(State source, State handler, object[] args)
        {
            if(!ShouldFire(args))
            {
                return false;
            }

            Queue exitQueue = new Queue();  
            Stack entryStack = new Stack(); 

            // If this is not an internal transition.
            if(Target != null)
            { 
                // Unwind from the source up to the handler.
                UnwindToHandler(source, handler, exitQueue, entryStack);

                // If the target State was not in the path from the source to 
                // the handler.
                if(!targetFound)
                {
                    // If the target and handler are at the same level in the 
                    // hierarchy. This works for self-transitions as well.
                    if(Target.Level == handler.Level)
                    {
                        // Exit handler and enter target.
                        exitQueue.Enqueue(handler);
                        entryStack.Push(Target);
                    }
                    // Else if the target is below the handler in the hierarcy.
                    else if(Target.Level > handler.Level)
                    {
                        State t = Target;

                        // Work up to the same level as the handler.
                        while(t.Level > handler.Level)
                        {
                            entryStack.Push(t);
                            t = t.Superstate;
                        }

                        UnwindToLeastCommonAncestor(handler, t, exitQueue, entryStack);                        
                    }
                    // Else the target is above the handler.
                    else
                    {
                        State h = handler;                       

                        // Work up to the same level as the target.
                        while(h.Level > Target.Level)
                        {
                            exitQueue.Enqueue(h);
                            h = h.Superstate;
                        }
                    
                        // If the target has been reached.
                        if(h == Target)
                        {
                            //
                            // The handler is a substate of the target, exit 
                            // and reenter target.
                            //

                            exitQueue.Enqueue(Target);
                            entryStack.Push(Target);
                        }
                        // Else the handler is not a substate of the target.
                        else
                        {
                            UnwindToLeastCommonAncestor(h, Target, exitQueue, entryStack);
                        }
                    }
                }
            }    

            ExitStates(exitQueue);
            PerformAction(args); 
            EnterStates(source, entryStack);

            return true;
        }

        // Indicates whether or not the transition should fire.
        private bool ShouldFire(object[] args)
        {
            bool result = true;

            // If there is a guard and it does not evaluate to true.
            if(Guard != null && !Guard(args))
            {
                // Guard must evaluate to true for transition to fire.
                result = false;
            }

            return result;
        }

        // Ascend up from source to handler.
        private void UnwindToHandler(State source, State handler, 
            Queue exitQueue, Stack entryStack)
        {
            State s = source;
            targetFound = false;

            //
            // Work up from the State that received the event to the State that 
            // handled the event.
            //

            while(s != handler)
            {
                exitQueue.Enqueue(s);                    
                    
                // If the target State has been found along the patch 
                // from the source to the handler.
                if(Target == s)
                {
                    // Indicate that the target is on this path.
                    targetFound = true;
                }     
               
                // If the target State is along the path from the source to 
                // the handler.
                if(targetFound)
                {
                    // Push State onto stack so that it can be entered 
                    // later.
                    entryStack.Push(s);
                }

                // Move up the hierarchy.
                s = s.Superstate;
            }
        }

        // Ascends up to the least common ancestor state.
        private void UnwindToLeastCommonAncestor(State ex, State en, 
            Queue exitQueue, Stack entryStack)
        {
            State a = ex;
            State b = en;

            // Work up to the least common ancestor.
            while(a != b)
            {
                exitQueue.Enqueue(a);
                a = a.Superstate;
                entryStack.Push(b);
                b = b.Superstate;
            }
        }

        // Exits states from bottom to top.
        private void ExitStates(Queue exitQueue)
        {
            while(exitQueue.Count > 0)
            {
                ((State)exitQueue.Dequeue()).Exit();
            }            
        }

        // Performs transition action.
        private void PerformAction(object[] args)
        {
            if(Action != null)
            {
                Action(args);
            }
        }

        // Enters the states from top to bottom.
        private void EnterStates(State source, Stack entryStack)
        {
            result = source;

            // Enter states leading to the target state.
            while(entryStack.Count > 1)
            {
                ((State)entryStack.Pop()).Entry();
            }

            // Get the result from entering into the target state. This will
            // be the new current state.
            if(entryStack.Count == 1)
            {
                result = ((State)entryStack.Pop()).EnterByHistory();
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the guard to test to determine if the transition should take 
        /// place.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// If no guard is necessary, this value may be null.
        /// </remarks>
        public GuardHandler Guard
        {
            get
            {
                return guard;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the action to perform during the transition.
        /// </summary>
        /// <remarks>
        /// If no action is necessary, this value may be null.
        /// </remarks>
        public ActionHandler Action
        {
            get
            {
                return action;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the target of the transition.
        /// </summary>
        public State Target
        {
            get
            {
                return target;
            }
        }      
  
        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the state that is active as a result of the transition.
        /// </summary>
        public State Result
        {
            get
            {
                return result;
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #endregion
    }
}

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About the Author

Leslie Sanford

United States United States
Aside from dabbling in BASIC on his old Atari 1040ST years ago, Leslie's programming experience didn't really begin until he discovered the Internet in the late 90s. There he found a treasure trove of information about two of his favorite interests: MIDI and sound synthesis.
 
After spending a good deal of time calculating formulas he found on the Internet for creating new sounds by hand, he decided that an easier way would be to program the computer to do the work for him. This led him to learn C. He discovered that beyond using programming as a tool for synthesizing sound, he loved programming in and of itself.
 
Eventually he taught himself C++ and C#, and along the way he immersed himself in the ideas of object oriented programming. Like many of us, he gotten bitten by the design patterns bug and a copy of GOF is never far from his hands.
 
Now his primary interest is in creating a complete MIDI toolkit using the C# language. He hopes to create something that will become an indispensable tool for those wanting to write MIDI applications for the .NET framework.
 
Besides programming, his other interests are photography and playing his Les Paul guitars.

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