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Coco Custom Tool for Visual Studio.NET

, 29 Oct 2005 CPOL
Use the award winning Coco compiler's compiler directly from within Visual Studio
vscoco.zip
vsCoco
bin
VsCoco.dll
vsCoco.tlb
vsCocoRegistration.exe
Calculator
App.ico
Calc.atg
Calculator.csproj.user
Calculator.suo
VsCoCo
vsCoco.png
Coco
Coco.atg
Parser.frame
Scanner.frame
CustomToolGenerator
vsCoco
VsCoco.csproj.user
vsCocoRegistration
reg.ico
Thumbs.db
vsCocoRegistration.csproj.user
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<h2>Coco/R for Visual Studio.Net</h2>
<p>by Pascal GANAYE</p>
<p><img src="vsCoco.png" alt="Sample Image - maximum width is 600 pixels" width=639 height=453></p>


<!-------------------------------     STEP 3      --------------------------->
<!--  Add the article text. Please use simple formatting (<h2>, <p> etc)   --> 

<h2>Introduction</h2>

<p>I have been publishing one or two article about formula evaluation, and so 
  far all programs were written manually. For a recent project I need to parse 
  far more complex grammars and I really needed some help.<br>

<p>I had a look on the internet and I found a project called <a href="http://www.ssw.uni-linz.ac.at/Research/Projects/Coco/">Coco/R</a> 
  from the Johannes Kepler Universit&auml;t Linz. This is how they discribe their 
  product : &quot;Coco/R takes a compiler description in the form of an attributed 
  grammar (EBNF syntax with attributes and semantic actions) and translates it 
  into a scanner and a recursive descent parser.... Coco/R has been used successfully 
  in academia and industry. It combines the functionality of the well-known Unix 
  tools Lex and Yacc&quot;.
<p>I used Coco for a while and despite being extremely good I found working with 
  it rapidly frustrating because I had to run it manually and it was not really 
  well integrated with Visual Studio.
<h2>Background</h2>

<p>Anyone wanting to use this tool should be familiar with EBNF grammars. There 
  is several good introduction available on the internet.
<p>I also particularly recommend the reading of <a href="http://www.ssw.uni-linz.ac.at/Research/Projects/Coco/Doc/UserManual.pdf">the 
  Compiler Generator Coco/R User Manual</a> 
<h2>Installing vsCoco</h2>
<p>You need to download and run the file <code>vsCocoRegistration.exe</code>. The 
  registration should work fine with Visual Studio 2003. </p>
<p>If it doesn't work with your version, please post in the forum below. If you 
  are able to fix the vsCoCoRegistration please 
  <script language="JavaScript" >// <!-- Encryption www.ganaye.com v1.0
document.write("<a href=\"mailto:\160asc\x61\x6cc\160\100\147a\x6e\141y\x65\56c\157m?subject=[vsCoco] ...\">write to me</a>"); //-->
</script>
  the updated source.</p>
<h2>Using vsCoco</h2>

<p>To start with you can try to play with the Calculator sample I provided in 
  the download. 
<p>The calculator calculates formula like <code>12+34*55/2</code> . 
<p>The sample contains only 5 lines of csharp code.
<pre>private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)<br>{<br>		Parser p = new Parser(comboBox1.Text);<br>		p.Parse();<br>		textBox1.AppendText(&quot;&gt;&quot; + comboBox1.Text + &quot;\r\n&quot; <br>				+ p.result.ToString() + &quot;\r\n&quot;);<br>}
</pre>
<p>As you can see most of the login must be in the Parser Object.</p>
<p>The parser is created automatically from this grammar:</p>
<pre>COMPILER calc

	public double result = 0;
 
IGNORECASE 
// The $L option let you compile directly within your grammar
// You can comment and uncomment the line to fit your development requirements.
$L

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
CHARACTERS
	digit = "0123456789".
	cr  = '\r'.
	lf  = '\n'.  
	tab = '\t'.

TOKENS
	number = digit {digit} ['.' {digit}].
	
// We don't use comments here but this is only a sample
COMMENTS FROM "//" TO cr lf 

IGNORE cr + lf + tab 

PRODUCTIONS


/*------------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*------------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
OPERAND<out double val>		
=							(.  val = 0; .)
  (
  number 					(.	val = Double.Parse(t.val,
									System.Globalization.NumberStyles.Float, 
									System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture); 
							.)
  | "(" EXPR<out val> ")"	
  ).
 
// Priorities in FGL 
//
//   	()		(Parenthesis)
// 10	-		(Unary neg)
// 09	* /		(Multiply and Divide)
// 07	+ -		(Add and Substract)

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
EXPR10<out double val>
=                       (.	bool neg=false; .) 
	{					
		( '-'			(.	neg=!neg; .)
		| '+'			(.	/*nothing to do*/ .)
		)
	}
	OPERAND<out val>	(.	if (neg) val*=-1; .)
	.

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
EXPR09<out double val>	
= 
	EXPR10<out val>		
	{						(.	double val2; .)
		( '*' 
		EXPR10<out val2>	(.	val*=val2; .)
		| '/' 
		EXPR10<out val2>	(.	val/=val2; .)
		)
	}						
	.

/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
EXPR<out double val>	
= 
	EXPR09<out val>
	{						(.	double val2; .)			
		( '+'				
		EXPR09<out val2>	(.	val+=val2; .)				
		| '-'				
		EXPR09<out val2>	(.	val-=val2; .)				
		)
	}						 
	.
  
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
/*--------------------------------------------------------------------------*/
calc
=					
	EXPR<out result>.

END calc.

</pre>
<p>This grammar is fairly standard one. </p>
<p>If I try to read it in English it would say:</p>
<ul>
  <li>This grammar will produce a parser called calc.</li>
  <li>Calc parser return expressions</li>
  <li>An expression can be a sum or if not a product of signed numbers.</li>
  <li>The multiplication should be done before the additions however the minus 
    and plus sign have more priority if they are signs.</li>
</ul>
<p>As you can see there is more complexity than it looks.</p>
<p>This is a bit hard for me to describe what this grammar does and how it works 
  and this is not my goal.</p>
<p>What I would like to share with you is this tool and hopefully raise an interest 
  for Compiler's compilers if you are new in this subject.</p>
<h2>How does it work ?</h2>
<h2>Coco Modifications - 1 : the #line</h2>
<p>I made several major modifications to Coco/R</p>
<p>First I wanted to trace within the grammar.</p>
<p>This was the easy part, I modified Coco source file and added the $L option.</p>
<p>If you insert $L in the beginning of your grammar, Coco compiler wil add many 
  #line in your code.</p>
<p>For example:</p>
<pre>
COMPILER calc

	public double result = 0;
 
IGNORECASE 
// The $L option let you compile directly within your grammar
// You can comment and uncomment the line to fit your development requirements.
$L
</pre>
...
<pre>
OPERAND<out double val>		
=							(.  val = 0; .)
  (
  number 					(.	val = Double.Parse(t.val,
									System.Globalization.NumberStyles.Float, 
									System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture); 
							.)
  | "(" EXPR<out val> ")"	
  ).
</pre>
<p>Will generate:</p>
<pre>	void OPERAND(
#line 31 "C:\dotnet\vsCoco\Calculator\Calc.atg"
        out double val
#line hidden
) {

#line 32 "C:\dotnet\vsCoco\Calculator\Calc.atg"
            val = 0; 
#line hidden

		if (la.kind == 1) {
			Get();

#line 34 "C:\dotnet\vsCoco\Calculator\Calc.atg"
                 val = Double.Parse(t.val,
									System.Globalization.NumberStyles.Float, 
									System.Globalization.CultureInfo.InvariantCulture); 
							
#line hidden

		} else if (la.kind == 2) {
			Get();
			EXPR(
#line 38 "C:\dotnet\vsCoco\Calculator\Calc.atg"
             out val
#line hidden
);
			Expect(3);
		} else SynErr(9);
	}
</pre>
<p>This <code>#line</code> are very helpful, the Visual Studio IDE understand 
  it well and let you debug your generated program using the original source grammar.</p>
<p>I find it very useful; you can comment and uncomment the $L line to fit your 
  development requirements .</p>
<h2>Coco Modifications - 2 : A real Visual Studio Custom tool</h2>
<p>My second goal was to run Coco directly from Visual Studio as a custom tool, 
  rather than having to use batch files.</p>
<p>The main advantage of a custom tool is that it will be automatically called 
  when the source grammar changes and not at each compile.</p>
<p>Visual studio publishes an interface called <code>IVsSingleFileGenerator</code>.</p>
<p>This interface defines two methods: </p>
<ul>
  <li><code>int DefaultExtension(out string)</code></li>
  <li><code>int Generate(string, string, string, System.IntPtr[], out uint, Microsoft.VisualStudio.Shell.Interop.IVsGeneratorProgress)</code></li>
</ul>
<p>Providing this two interface is the base of the work needed to make a visual 
  Studio Custom tool.</p>
<h3>Coco Modifications - 3 : An installer for the Visual Studio Custom tool</h3>
<p>With the good information, this is after all fairly straight forward. I used 
  and modified the GotDotNet User Sample: <a href="http://www.gotdotnet.com/Community/UserSamples/Details.aspx?SampleGuid=4AA14341-24D5-45AB-AB18-B72351D0371C">BaseCodeGeneratorWithSite</a>.</p>
<p>Now that we have a dll which can be a Visual Studio plugin, you need to register 
  it. This could prove a lot harder than expected. Fortunately I read a excellent 
  article called <a href="http://www.codeproject.com/dotnet/Custom_Tool_Registration.asp">Automated 
  Registration of Visual Studio Custom Tools</a> by <a href="http://www.codeproject.com/script/profile/whos_who.asp?id=1113856">Michael 
  McKechney</a>.</p>
<p>I butchered his sample program and produced vsCocoRegistration.exe.</p>
<h2>Known bugs</h2>

<p>vsCocoRegistration does not yet works with all version of Visual Studio.net. 
  This is just a question of changing the Registry GUIDs but I don't have that 
  many version to test it with. So feel free to ask in the forum below.
<h2>Links</h2>

<p><a href="http://www.ssw.uni-linz.ac.at/Research/Projects/Coco/">The Compiler 
  Generator Coco/R</a> by Hanspeter M&ouml;ssenb&ouml;ck, Albrecht W&ouml;&szlig;, 
  Markus L&ouml;berbauer, University of Linz </p>
<p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LL_parser">LL parser</a>  From Wikipedia, 
  the free encyclopedia.</p>
<p>GotDotNet User Sample: <a href="http://www.gotdotnet.com/Community/UserSamples/Details.aspx?SampleGuid=4AA14341-24D5-45AB-AB18-B72351D0371C">BaseCodeGeneratorWithSite</a> 
</p>
<p><a href="http://www.codeproject.com/dotnet/Custom_Tool_Registration.asp">Automated 
  Registration of Visual Studio Custom Tools</a> article from by <a href="http://www.codeproject.com/script/profile/whos_who.asp?id=1113856">Michael 
  McKechney</a>. </p>
<h2>History</h2>

<p>October 29th 2005 - First release. 
  <!-------------------------------    That's it!   --------------------------->
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About the Author

Pascal Ganaye
Software Developer (Senior)
United Kingdom United Kingdom
I am a French programmer.
These days I spend most of my time with the .NET framework, JavaScript and html.

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