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Neural Networks on C#

, 19 Nov 2006 GPL3
The articles describes a C# library for neural network computations, and their application for several problem solving.
neuro_demo.zip
neuro_demo
Back Propagation
Approximation
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Approximation.exe
Data Samples
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
TimeSeries
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Data Samples
exponent.csv
growing sinusoid.csv
parabola.csv
sigmoid.csv
sinusoid.csv
TimeSeries.exe
XORProblem
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
XORProblem.exe
Simple
Delta Rule Learning
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Classifier.exe
Data Samples
and.csv
cube.csv
or.csv
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
One-Layer Perceptron Classifier
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Classifier.exe
Data Samples
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
Perceptron Classifier
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Classifier.exe
Data Samples
and.csv
cube.csv
or.csv
SOM
2DOrganizing
2DOrganizing.exe
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Color
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Color.exe
TSP
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
TSP.exe
neuro_src.zip
neuro_src
Docs
AForge.Core.chm
AForge.Neuro.chm
Release
AForge.Controls.dll
AForge.dll
AForge.Neuro.dll
Samples
Neuro
Back Propagation
Approximation
App.ico
Data Samples
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
TimeSeries
App.ico
Data Samples
exponent.csv
growing sinusoid.csv
parabola.csv
sigmoid.csv
sinusoid.csv
XORProblem
App.ico
Simple
Delta Rule Learning
App.ico
Data Samples
and.csv
cube.csv
or.csv
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
One-Layer Perceptron Classifier
App.ico
Data Samples
sample1.csv
sample2.csv
Perceptron Classifier
App.ico
Data Samples
and.csv
cube.csv
or.csv
SOM
2DOrganizing
App.ico
Color
App.ico
TSP
App.ico
Sources
Controls
Core
Neuro
Activation Functions
Images
sigmoid.bmp
sigmoid_bipolar.bmp
threshold.bmp
Layers
Learning
Networks
Neurons
// AForge Framework
// XOR Problem solution using Multi-Layer Neural Network
//
// Copyright � Andrew Kirillov, 2006
// andrew.kirillov@gmail.com
//

using System;
using System.Drawing;
using System.Collections;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Windows.Forms;
using System.Data;
using System.Threading;
using System.IO;

using AForge;
using AForge.Neuro;
using AForge.Neuro.Learning;
using AForge.Controls;

namespace XORProblem
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Summary description for Form1.
	/// </summary>
	public class MainForm : System.Windows.Forms.Form
	{
		private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox1;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label1;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox learningRateBox;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label2;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox alphaBox;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label3;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox errorLimitBox;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label4;
		private System.Windows.Forms.ComboBox sigmoidTypeCombo;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox currentErrorBox;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label11;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox currentIterationBox;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label8;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label7;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label5;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Button stopButton;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Button startButton;
		private System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox groupBox2;
		private AForge.Controls.Chart errorChart;
		private System.Windows.Forms.CheckBox saveFilesCheck;
		private System.Windows.Forms.Label label6;
		private System.Windows.Forms.TextBox momentumBox;
		/// <summary>
		/// Required designer variable.
		/// </summary>
		private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null;

		private double		learningRate = 0.1;
		private double		momentum = 0.0;
		private double		sigmoidAlphaValue = 2.0;
		private double		learningErrorLimit = 0.1;
		private int			sigmoidType = 0;
		private bool		saveStatisticsToFiles = false;

		private Thread	workerThread = null;
		private bool	needToStop = false;


		// Constructor
		public MainForm( )
		{
			//
			// Required for Windows Form Designer support
			//
			InitializeComponent();

			// update controls
			UpdateSettings();

			// initialize charts
			errorChart.AddDataSeries( "error", Color.Red, Chart.SeriesType.Line, 1 );
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Clean up any resources being used.
		/// </summary>
		protected override void Dispose( bool disposing )
		{
			if( disposing )
			{
				if (components != null) 
				{
					components.Dispose();
				}
			}
			base.Dispose( disposing );
		}

		#region Windows Form Designer generated code
		/// <summary>
		/// Required method for Designer support - do not modify
		/// the contents of this method with the code editor.
		/// </summary>
		private void InitializeComponent()
		{
			this.groupBox1 = new System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox();
			this.stopButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
			this.startButton = new System.Windows.Forms.Button();
			this.label5 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.currentErrorBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.label11 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.currentIterationBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.label8 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.label7 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo = new System.Windows.Forms.ComboBox();
			this.errorLimitBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.label3 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.alphaBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.label2 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.learningRateBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.label1 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.label4 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.groupBox2 = new System.Windows.Forms.GroupBox();
			this.errorChart = new AForge.Controls.Chart();
			this.saveFilesCheck = new System.Windows.Forms.CheckBox();
			this.label6 = new System.Windows.Forms.Label();
			this.momentumBox = new System.Windows.Forms.TextBox();
			this.groupBox1.SuspendLayout();
			this.groupBox2.SuspendLayout();
			this.SuspendLayout();
			// 
			// groupBox1
			// 
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.momentumBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label6);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.stopButton);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.startButton);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label5);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.currentErrorBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label11);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.currentIterationBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label8);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label7);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.sigmoidTypeCombo);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.errorLimitBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label3);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.alphaBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label2);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.learningRateBox);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label1);
			this.groupBox1.Controls.Add(this.label4);
			this.groupBox1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 10);
			this.groupBox1.Name = "groupBox1";
			this.groupBox1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(195, 260);
			this.groupBox1.TabIndex = 0;
			this.groupBox1.TabStop = false;
			this.groupBox1.Text = "Neural Network";
			// 
			// stopButton
			// 
			this.stopButton.Enabled = false;
			this.stopButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(110, 225);
			this.stopButton.Name = "stopButton";
			this.stopButton.TabIndex = 28;
			this.stopButton.Text = "S&top";
			this.stopButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.stopButton_Click);
			// 
			// startButton
			// 
			this.startButton.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(25, 225);
			this.startButton.Name = "startButton";
			this.startButton.TabIndex = 27;
			this.startButton.Text = "&Start";
			this.startButton.Click += new System.EventHandler(this.startButton_Click);
			// 
			// label5
			// 
			this.label5.BorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.FixedSingle;
			this.label5.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 211);
			this.label5.Name = "label5";
			this.label5.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(175, 2);
			this.label5.TabIndex = 26;
			// 
			// currentErrorBox
			// 
			this.currentErrorBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 185);
			this.currentErrorBox.Name = "currentErrorBox";
			this.currentErrorBox.ReadOnly = true;
			this.currentErrorBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.currentErrorBox.TabIndex = 25;
			this.currentErrorBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// label11
			// 
			this.label11.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 187);
			this.label11.Name = "label11";
			this.label11.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(121, 14);
			this.label11.TabIndex = 24;
			this.label11.Text = "Current average error:";
			// 
			// currentIterationBox
			// 
			this.currentIterationBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 160);
			this.currentIterationBox.Name = "currentIterationBox";
			this.currentIterationBox.ReadOnly = true;
			this.currentIterationBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.currentIterationBox.TabIndex = 23;
			this.currentIterationBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// label8
			// 
			this.label8.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 162);
			this.label8.Name = "label8";
			this.label8.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(98, 16);
			this.label8.TabIndex = 22;
			this.label8.Text = "Current iteration:";
			// 
			// label7
			// 
			this.label7.BorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.BorderStyle.FixedSingle;
			this.label7.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 150);
			this.label7.Name = "label7";
			this.label7.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(175, 2);
			this.label7.TabIndex = 21;
			// 
			// sigmoidTypeCombo
			// 
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.DropDownStyle = System.Windows.Forms.ComboBoxStyle.DropDownList;
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.Items.AddRange(new object[] {
																  "Unipolar",
																  "Bipolar"});
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 120);
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.Name = "sigmoidTypeCombo";
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 21);
			this.sigmoidTypeCombo.TabIndex = 9;
			// 
			// errorLimitBox
			// 
			this.errorLimitBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 95);
			this.errorLimitBox.Name = "errorLimitBox";
			this.errorLimitBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.errorLimitBox.TabIndex = 7;
			this.errorLimitBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// label3
			// 
			this.label3.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 97);
			this.label3.Name = "label3";
			this.label3.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(110, 15);
			this.label3.TabIndex = 6;
			this.label3.Text = "Learning error limit:";
			// 
			// alphaBox
			// 
			this.alphaBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 70);
			this.alphaBox.Name = "alphaBox";
			this.alphaBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.alphaBox.TabIndex = 5;
			this.alphaBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// label2
			// 
			this.label2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 72);
			this.label2.Name = "label2";
			this.label2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(120, 15);
			this.label2.TabIndex = 4;
			this.label2.Text = "Sigmoid\'s alpha value:";
			// 
			// learningRateBox
			// 
			this.learningRateBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 20);
			this.learningRateBox.Name = "learningRateBox";
			this.learningRateBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.learningRateBox.TabIndex = 1;
			this.learningRateBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// label1
			// 
			this.label1.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 22);
			this.label1.Name = "label1";
			this.label1.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(78, 14);
			this.label1.TabIndex = 0;
			this.label1.Text = "Learning rate:";
			// 
			// label4
			// 
			this.label4.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 122);
			this.label4.Name = "label4";
			this.label4.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(100, 15);
			this.label4.TabIndex = 8;
			this.label4.Text = "Sigmoid\'s type:";
			// 
			// groupBox2
			// 
			this.groupBox2.Controls.Add(this.saveFilesCheck);
			this.groupBox2.Controls.Add(this.errorChart);
			this.groupBox2.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(215, 10);
			this.groupBox2.Name = "groupBox2";
			this.groupBox2.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(220, 260);
			this.groupBox2.TabIndex = 1;
			this.groupBox2.TabStop = false;
			this.groupBox2.Text = "Error\'s dynamics";
			// 
			// errorChart
			// 
			this.errorChart.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 20);
			this.errorChart.Name = "errorChart";
			this.errorChart.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(200, 205);
			this.errorChart.TabIndex = 0;
			this.errorChart.Text = "chart1";
			// 
			// saveFilesCheck
			// 
			this.saveFilesCheck.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 233);
			this.saveFilesCheck.Name = "saveFilesCheck";
			this.saveFilesCheck.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(200, 18);
			this.saveFilesCheck.TabIndex = 1;
			this.saveFilesCheck.Text = "Save errors to files";
			// 
			// label6
			// 
			this.label6.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(10, 47);
			this.label6.Name = "label6";
			this.label6.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(82, 17);
			this.label6.TabIndex = 2;
			this.label6.Text = "Momentum:";
			// 
			// momentumBox
			// 
			this.momentumBox.Location = new System.Drawing.Point(125, 45);
			this.momentumBox.Name = "momentumBox";
			this.momentumBox.Size = new System.Drawing.Size(60, 20);
			this.momentumBox.TabIndex = 3;
			this.momentumBox.Text = "";
			// 
			// MainForm
			// 
			this.AutoScaleBaseSize = new System.Drawing.Size(5, 13);
			this.ClientSize = new System.Drawing.Size(452, 278);
			this.Controls.Add(this.groupBox2);
			this.Controls.Add(this.groupBox1);
			this.FormBorderStyle = System.Windows.Forms.FormBorderStyle.FixedDialog;
			this.MaximizeBox = false;
			this.Name = "MainForm";
			this.Text = "XOR Problem";
			this.Closing += new System.ComponentModel.CancelEventHandler(this.MainForm_Closing);
			this.groupBox1.ResumeLayout(false);
			this.groupBox2.ResumeLayout(false);
			this.ResumeLayout(false);

		}
		#endregion

		/// <summary>
		/// The main entry point for the application.
		/// </summary>
		[STAThread]
		static void Main( ) 
		{
			Application.Run( new MainForm( ) );
		}

		// On main form closing
		private void MainForm_Closing(object sender, System.ComponentModel.CancelEventArgs e)
		{
			// check if worker thread is running
			if ( ( workerThread != null ) && ( workerThread.IsAlive ) )
			{
				needToStop = true;
				workerThread.Join( );
			}
		}

		// Update settings controls
		private void UpdateSettings( )
		{
			learningRateBox.Text	= learningRate.ToString( );
			momentumBox.Text		= momentum.ToString( );
			alphaBox.Text			= sigmoidAlphaValue.ToString( );
			errorLimitBox.Text		= learningErrorLimit.ToString( );
			sigmoidTypeCombo.SelectedIndex = sigmoidType;

			saveFilesCheck.Checked = saveStatisticsToFiles;
		}

		// Enable/disale controls
		private void EnableControls( bool enable )
		{
			learningRateBox.Enabled		= enable;
			momentumBox.Enabled			= enable;
			alphaBox.Enabled			= enable;
			errorLimitBox.Enabled		= enable;
			sigmoidTypeCombo.Enabled	= enable;
			saveFilesCheck.Enabled		= enable;

			startButton.Enabled			= enable;
			stopButton.Enabled			= !enable;
		}

		// On "Start" button click
		private void startButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
		{
			// get learning rate
			try
			{
				learningRate = Math.Max( 0.00001, Math.Min( 1, double.Parse( learningRateBox.Text ) ) );
			}
			catch
			{
				learningRate = 0.1;
			}
			// get momentum
			try
			{
				momentum = Math.Max( 0, Math.Min( 0.5, double.Parse( momentumBox.Text ) ) );
			}
			catch
			{
				momentum = 0;
			}
			// get sigmoid's alpha value
			try
			{
				sigmoidAlphaValue = Math.Max( 0.01, Math.Min( 100, double.Parse( alphaBox.Text ) ) );
			}
			catch
			{
				sigmoidAlphaValue = 2;
			}
			// get learning error limit
			try
			{
				learningErrorLimit = Math.Max( 0, double.Parse( errorLimitBox.Text ) );
			}
			catch
			{
				learningErrorLimit = 0.1;
			}
			// get sigmoid's type
			sigmoidType = sigmoidTypeCombo.SelectedIndex;

			saveStatisticsToFiles = saveFilesCheck.Checked;

			// update settings controls
			UpdateSettings( );

			// disable all settings controls
			EnableControls( false );

			// run worker thread
			needToStop = false;
			workerThread = new Thread( new ThreadStart( SearchSolution ) );
			workerThread.Start( );
		}

		// On "Stop" button click
		private void stopButton_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
		{
			// stop worker thread
			needToStop = true;
			workerThread.Join( );
			workerThread = null;
		}

		// Worker thread
		void SearchSolution( )
		{
			// initialize input and output values
			double[][] input = null;
			double[][] output = null;

			if ( sigmoidType == 0 )
			{
				// unipolar data
				input = new double[4][] {
											new double[] {0, 0},
											new double[] {0, 1},
											new double[] {1, 0},
											new double[] {1, 1}
										};
				output = new double[4][] {
											 new double[] {0},
											 new double[] {1},
											 new double[] {1},
											 new double[] {0}
										 };
			}
			else
			{
				// biipolar data
				input = new double[4][] {
											new double[] {-1, -1},
											new double[] {-1,  1},
											new double[] { 1, -1},
											new double[] { 1,  1}
										};
				output = new double[4][] {
											 new double[] {-1},
											 new double[] { 1},
											 new double[] { 1},
											 new double[] {-1}
										 };
			}

			// create perceptron
			ActivationNetwork	network = new ActivationNetwork(
				( sigmoidType == 0 ) ? 
					(IActivationFunction) new SigmoidFunction( sigmoidAlphaValue ) :
					(IActivationFunction) new BipolarSigmoidFunction( sigmoidAlphaValue ),
				2, 2, 1 );
			// create teacher
			BackPropagationLearning teacher = new BackPropagationLearning( network );
			// set learning rate and momentum
			teacher.LearningRate	= learningRate;
			teacher.Momentum		= momentum;

			// iterations
			int iteration = 1;

			// statistic files
			StreamWriter errorsFile = null;

			try
			{
				// check if we need to save statistics to files
				if ( saveStatisticsToFiles )
				{
					// open files
					errorsFile	= File.CreateText( "errors.csv" );
				}
				
				// erros list
				ArrayList errorsList = new ArrayList( );

				// loop
				while ( !needToStop )
				{
					// run epoch of learning procedure
					double error = teacher.RunEpoch( input, output );
					errorsList.Add( error );

					// save current error
					if ( errorsFile != null )
					{
						errorsFile.WriteLine( error );
					}				

					// show current iteration & error
					currentIterationBox.Text = iteration.ToString( );
					currentErrorBox.Text = error.ToString( );
					iteration++;

					// check if we need to stop
					if ( error <= learningErrorLimit )
						break;
				}

				// show error's dynamics
				double[,] errors = new double[errorsList.Count, 2];

				for ( int i = 0, n = errorsList.Count; i < n; i++ )
				{
					errors[i, 0] = i;
					errors[i, 1] = (double) errorsList[i];
				}

				errorChart.RangeX = new DoubleRange( 0, errorsList.Count - 1 );
				errorChart.UpdateDataSeries( "error", errors );
			}
			catch ( IOException )
			{
				MessageBox.Show( "Failed writing file", "Error", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error );
			}
			finally
			{
				// close files
				if ( errorsFile != null )
					errorsFile.Close( );
			}

			// enable settings controls
			EnableControls( true );
		}
	}
}

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About the Author

Andrew Kirillov
Software Developer (Senior) Cisco Systems
United Kingdom United Kingdom
Started software development at about 15 years old and it seems like now it lasts most part of my life. Fortunately did not spend too much time with Z80 and BK0010 and switched to 8086 and further. Similar with programming languages – luckily managed to get away from BASIC and Pascal to things like Assembler, C, C++ and then C#. Apart from daily programming for food, do it also for hobby, where mostly enjoy areas like Computer Vision, Robotics and AI. This led to some open source stuff like AForge.NET.
 
Going out of computers I am just a man loving his family, enjoying traveling, a bit of books, a bit of movies and a mixture of everything else. Always wanted to learn playing guitar, but it seems like 6 strings are much harder than few dozens of keyboard’s keys. Will keep progressing ...

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