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A Smart Card Framework for .NET

, 20 Feb 2013
Describes a framework to use the PCSC Smart Card API with .NET.
smartcardapi_demo.zip
smartcardapi_doc.zip
smartcardapi_doc
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GemCard
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Smartcard_API
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GemCardEx
GemCardEx.aps
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GemCardEx.suo
GemCardEx.vcproj.CORUSCANT.han.user
GemCardEx.vcproj.vspscc
GemCardExps.def
Release
GemCardEx.dll
SCardDatabaseEx.rgs
Smartcard Framework 2005.suo
GemCard
GemCard.csproj.user
SmartcardFrameworkWithWCFSCardService.zip
SmartcardFramework
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Service References
SCardNPService
configuration.svcinfo
configuration91.svcinfo
DemoSCardService.SCardNPService.APDUResponse.datasource
Reference.svcmap
service.wsdl
SCardService
configuration.svcinfo
configuration91.svcinfo
DemoSCardService.SCardService.APDUResponse.datasource
Reference.svcmap
service.wsdl
SCardServiceHost
bin
obj
Properties
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Smartcard Framework 2010.suo
Smartcard Framework 2010.v11.suo
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DemoSCFmwk
bin
x86
obj
x86
Properties
GemCard
bin
x64
x86
GemCard.csproj.user
obj
x64
x86
SmartCardPlayer
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obj
x86
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Smartcard_Test
ApduExchange
ApduExchange.csproj.user
App.ico
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x86
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x86
Thumbs.db
GSMHelper
bin
x86
obj
x86
Properties
ReadPhonebook
bin
x86
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x86
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Settings.settings
ReadPhonebook.csproj.user
SmartcardService
bin
obj
Properties
SmartcardService.csproj.user
Smartcard_Framework_2010.zip
Smartcard_Framework_2010
Smartcard Framework 2010.suo
Smartcard_API
DemoSCFmwk
DemoSCFmwk.csproj.user
Properties
GemCard
GemCard.csproj.user
SmartCardPlayer
Properties
Smartcard_Test
ApduExchange
ApduExchange.csproj.user
App.ico
GSMHelper
Properties
ReadPhonebook
Properties
Settings.settings
ReadPhonebook.csproj.user
Smartcard_Framework_64.zip
Smartcard_Framework
Smartcard_API
DemoSCFmwk
Properties
GemCard
GemCard.csproj.user
SmartCardPlayer
Properties
Smartcard_Test
ApduExchange
ApduExchange.csproj.user
App.ico
GSMHelper
Properties
ReadPhonebook
Properties
Settings.settings
ReadPhonebook.csproj.user
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
using System.Text;
using System.Threading;

namespace GemCard
{
    /// <summary>
    /// CARD_STATE enumeration, used by the PC/SC function SCardGetStatusChanged
    /// </summary>
    enum CARD_STATE
    {
        UNAWARE = 0x00000000,
        IGNORE = 0x00000001,
        CHANGED = 0x00000002,
        UNKNOWN = 0x00000004,
        UNAVAILABLE = 0x00000008,
        EMPTY = 0x00000010,
        PRESENT = 0x00000020,
        ATRMATCH = 0x00000040,
        EXCLUSIVE = 0x00000080,
        INUSE = 0x00000100,
        MUTE = 0x00000200,
        UNPOWERED = 0x00000400
    }

	/// <summary>
	/// Wraps the SCARD_IO_STRUCTURE
    ///  
	/// </summary>
	[StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential)]
	public struct	SCard_IO_Request
	{
		public UInt32	m_dwProtocol;
		public UInt32	m_cbPciLength;
	}


    /// <summary>
    /// Wraps theSCARD_READERSTATE structure of PC/SC
    /// </summary>
    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet = CharSet.Ansi)]
    public struct SCard_ReaderState
    {
        public string m_szReader;
        public IntPtr m_pvUserData;
        public UInt32 m_dwCurrentState;
        public UInt32 m_dwEventState;
        public UInt32 m_cbAtr;
        [MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.ByValArray, SizeConst=32)]
        public byte[] m_rgbAtr;
    }
    
	/// <summary>
	/// Implementation of ICard using native (P/Invoke) interoperability for PC/SC
	/// </summary>
	public class CardNative : CardBase, IDisposable
	{
        private IntPtr m_hContext = IntPtr.Zero;
        private IntPtr m_hCard = IntPtr.Zero;
		private	UInt32	m_nProtocol = (uint) PROTOCOL.T0;
		private	int	m_nLastError = 0;
        const int SCARD_S_SUCCESS = 0;

		#region PCSC_FUNCTIONS
        /// <summary>
        /// Native SCardGetStatusChanged from winscard.dll
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hContext"></param>
        /// <param name="dwTimeout"></param>
        /// <param name="rgReaderStates"></param>
        /// <param name="cReaders"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        internal static extern int SCardGetStatusChange(IntPtr hContext,
            UInt32 dwTimeout,
            [In,Out] SCard_ReaderState[] rgReaderStates,
            UInt32 cReaders);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardListReaders function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="hContext"></param>
		/// <param name="mszGroups"></param>
		/// <param name="mszReaders"></param>
		/// <param name="pcchReaders"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true)]
        internal static extern int SCardListReaders(IntPtr hContext,
			[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPTStr)] string mszGroups,
			IntPtr mszReaders,
            out UInt32 pcchReaders);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardEstablishContext function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="dwScope"></param>
		/// <param name="pvReserved1"></param>
		/// <param name="pvReserved2"></param>
		/// <param name="phContext"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true)]
		internal	static	extern	int	SCardEstablishContext(UInt32 dwScope,
			IntPtr pvReserved1,
			IntPtr pvReserved2,
			IntPtr phContext);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardReleaseContext function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="hContext"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true)]
        internal static extern int SCardReleaseContext(IntPtr hContext);

        /// <summary>
        /// Native SCardIsValidContext function from winscard.dll
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hContext"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        internal static extern int SCardIsValidContext(IntPtr hContext);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardConnect function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="hContext"></param>
		/// <param name="szReader"></param>
		/// <param name="dwShareMode"></param>
		/// <param name="dwPreferredProtocols"></param>
		/// <param name="phCard"></param>
		/// <param name="pdwActiveProtocol"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true, CharSet=CharSet.Auto)]
        internal static extern int SCardConnect(IntPtr hContext,
			[MarshalAs(UnmanagedType.LPTStr)] string szReader,
			UInt32	dwShareMode, 
			UInt32	dwPreferredProtocols,
			IntPtr	phCard, 
			IntPtr	pdwActiveProtocol);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardDisconnect function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="hCard"></param>
		/// <param name="dwDisposition"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true)]
        internal static extern int SCardDisconnect(IntPtr hCard,
			UInt32 dwDisposition);

		/// <summary>
		/// Native SCardTransmit function from winscard.dll
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="hCard"></param>
		/// <param name="pioSendPci"></param>
		/// <param name="pbSendBuffer"></param>
		/// <param name="cbSendLength"></param>
		/// <param name="pioRecvPci"></param>
		/// <param name="pbRecvBuffer"></param>
		/// <param name="pcbRecvLength"></param>
		/// <returns></returns>
		[DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError=true)]
        internal static extern int SCardTransmit(IntPtr hCard,
			[In] ref SCard_IO_Request pioSendPci,
			byte[] pbSendBuffer,
			UInt32 cbSendLength,
			IntPtr pioRecvPci,
			[Out] byte[] pbRecvBuffer,
			out UInt32 pcbRecvLength
			);

        /// <summary>
        /// Native SCardBeginTransaction function of winscard.dll
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hContext"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        internal static extern int SCardBeginTransaction(IntPtr hContext);

        /// <summary>
        /// Native SCardEndTransaction function of winscard.dll
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="hContext"></param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        [DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        internal static extern int SCardEndTransaction(IntPtr hContext, UInt32 dwDisposition);

        [DllImport("winscard.dll", SetLastError = true)]
        internal static extern int SCardGetAttrib(IntPtr hCard,
            UInt32 dwAttribId,
            [Out] byte[] pbAttr,
            out UInt32 pcbAttrLen);

        #endregion WINSCARD_FUNCTIONS

		/// <summary>
		/// Default constructor
		/// </summary>
		public CardNative()
		{
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Object destruction
		/// </summary>
		~CardNative()
		{
			Disconnect(DISCONNECT.Unpower);

			ReleaseContext();
		}

		#region ICard Members

		/// <summary>
		/// Wraps the PCSC function
		/// LONG SCardListReaders(SCARDCONTEXT hContext, 
		///		LPCTSTR mszGroups, 
		///		LPTSTR mszReaders, 
		///		LPDWORD pcchReaders 
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		/// <returns>A string array of the readers</returns>
		public	override string[]	ListReaders()
		{
			EstablishContext(SCOPE.User);

			string[]	sListReaders = null;
            UInt32 pchReaders = 0;
			IntPtr	szListReaders = IntPtr.Zero;

			m_nLastError = SCardListReaders(m_hContext, null, szListReaders, out pchReaders);
			if (m_nLastError == 0)
			{
				szListReaders = Marshal.AllocHGlobal((int) pchReaders);
				m_nLastError = SCardListReaders(m_hContext, null, szListReaders, out pchReaders);
				if (m_nLastError == 0)
				{
					char[] caReadersData = new char[pchReaders];
					int	nbReaders = 0;
					for (int nI = 0; nI < pchReaders; nI++)
					{
						caReadersData[nI] = (char) Marshal.ReadByte(szListReaders, nI);

						if (caReadersData[nI] == 0)
							nbReaders++;
					}

					// Remove last 0
					--nbReaders;

					if (nbReaders != 0)
					{
						sListReaders = new string[nbReaders];
						char[] caReader = new char[pchReaders];
						int	nIdx = 0;
						int	nIdy = 0;
						int	nIdz = 0;
						// Get the nJ string from the multi-string

						while(nIdx < pchReaders - 1)
						{
							caReader[nIdy] = caReadersData[nIdx];
							if (caReader[nIdy] == 0)
							{
								sListReaders[nIdz] = new string(caReader, 0, nIdy);
								++nIdz;
								nIdy = 0;
								caReader = new char[pchReaders];
							}
							else
								++nIdy;

							++nIdx;
						}
					}

				}

				Marshal.FreeHGlobal(szListReaders);
			}

			ReleaseContext();

            ThrowSmartcardException("SCardListReaders", m_nLastError);

			return sListReaders;
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Wraps the PCSC function 
		/// LONG SCardEstablishContext(
		///		IN DWORD dwScope,
		///		IN LPCVOID pvReserved1,
		///		IN LPCVOID pvReserved2,
		///		OUT LPSCARDCONTEXT phContext
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="Scope"></param>
		public void EstablishContext(SCOPE Scope)
		{
			IntPtr hContext = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(m_hContext));

			m_nLastError = SCardEstablishContext((uint) Scope, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero, hContext);
			if (m_nLastError != 0)
			{
				Marshal.FreeHGlobal(hContext);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardEstablishContext", m_nLastError);
			}

            m_hContext = Marshal.ReadIntPtr(hContext);

			Marshal.FreeHGlobal(hContext);
		}


		/// <summary>
		/// Wraps the PCSC function
		/// LONG SCardReleaseContext(
		///		IN SCARDCONTEXT hContext
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		public void ReleaseContext()
		{
			if (SCardIsValidContext(m_hContext) == SCARD_S_SUCCESS)
			{
				m_nLastError = SCardReleaseContext(m_hContext);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardReleaseContext", m_nLastError);

                m_hContext = IntPtr.Zero;
			}
		}

		/// <summary>
		///  Wraps the PCSC function
		///  LONG SCardConnect(
		///		IN SCARDCONTEXT hContext,
		///		IN LPCTSTR szReader,
		///		IN DWORD dwShareMode,
		///		IN DWORD dwPreferredProtocols,
		///		OUT LPSCARDHANDLE phCard,
		///		OUT LPDWORD pdwActiveProtocol
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="Reader"></param>
		/// <param name="ShareMode"></param>
		/// <param name="PreferredProtocols"></param>
		public override void Connect(string Reader, SHARE ShareMode, PROTOCOL PreferredProtocols)
		{
			EstablishContext(SCOPE.User);

			IntPtr	hCard = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(m_hCard));
			IntPtr	pProtocol = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(m_nProtocol));

			m_nLastError = SCardConnect(m_hContext, 
				Reader, 
				(uint) ShareMode, 
				(uint) PreferredProtocols, 
				hCard,
				pProtocol);

			if (m_nLastError != 0)
			{
				Marshal.FreeHGlobal(hCard);
				Marshal.FreeHGlobal(pProtocol);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardConnect", m_nLastError);
			}

            m_hCard = Marshal.ReadIntPtr(hCard);
			m_nProtocol = (uint) Marshal.ReadInt32(pProtocol);

			Marshal.FreeHGlobal(hCard);
			Marshal.FreeHGlobal(pProtocol);
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Wraps the PCSC function
		///	LONG SCardDisconnect(
		///		IN SCARDHANDLE hCard,
		///		IN DWORD dwDisposition
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="Disposition"></param>
		public override void Disconnect(DISCONNECT Disposition)
		{
            if (SCardIsValidContext(m_hContext) == SCARD_S_SUCCESS)
			{
				m_nLastError = SCardDisconnect(m_hCard, (uint) Disposition);
                m_hCard = IntPtr.Zero;

                try
                {
                    ThrowSmartcardException("SCardDisconnect", m_nLastError);
                }
                finally
                {
                    ReleaseContext();
                }
			}
		}

		/// <summary>
		/// Wraps the PCSC function
		/// LONG SCardTransmit(
		///		SCARDHANDLE hCard,
		///		LPCSCARD_I0_REQUEST pioSendPci,
		///		LPCBYTE pbSendBuffer,
		///		DWORD cbSendLength,
		///		LPSCARD_IO_REQUEST pioRecvPci,
		///		LPBYTE pbRecvBuffer,
		///		LPDWORD pcbRecvLength
		///	);
		/// </summary>
		/// <param name="ApduCmd">APDUCommand object with the APDU to send to the card</param>
		/// <returns>An APDUResponse object with the response from the card</returns>
		public override APDUResponse Transmit(APDUCommand ApduCmd)
		{
			uint	RecvLength = (uint) (ApduCmd.Le + APDUResponse.SW_LENGTH);
			byte[]	ApduBuffer = null;
			byte[]	ApduResponse = new byte[ApduCmd.Le + APDUResponse.SW_LENGTH];
			SCard_IO_Request	ioRequest = new SCard_IO_Request();
			ioRequest.m_dwProtocol = m_nProtocol;
			ioRequest.m_cbPciLength = 8;

			// Build the command APDU
			if (ApduCmd.Data == null)
			{
				ApduBuffer = new byte[APDUCommand.APDU_MIN_LENGTH + ((ApduCmd.Le != 0) ? 1 : 0)];

                if (ApduCmd.Le != 0)
                {
                    ApduBuffer[4] = (byte)ApduCmd.Le;
                }
			}
			else
			{
				ApduBuffer = new byte[APDUCommand.APDU_MIN_LENGTH + 1 + ApduCmd.Data.Length];
                Buffer.BlockCopy(ApduCmd.Data, 0, ApduBuffer, APDUCommand.APDU_MIN_LENGTH + 1, ApduCmd.Data.Length);
				ApduBuffer[APDUCommand.APDU_MIN_LENGTH] = (byte) ApduCmd.Data.Length;
			}

			ApduBuffer[0] = ApduCmd.Class;
			ApduBuffer[1] = ApduCmd.Ins;
			ApduBuffer[2] = ApduCmd.P1;
			ApduBuffer[3] = ApduCmd.P2;

			m_nLastError = SCardTransmit(m_hCard, ref ioRequest, ApduBuffer, (uint) ApduBuffer.Length, IntPtr.Zero, ApduResponse, out RecvLength);
            ThrowSmartcardException("SCardTransmit", m_nLastError);
			
			byte[] ApduData = new byte[RecvLength];
            Buffer.BlockCopy(ApduResponse, 0, ApduData, 0, (int)RecvLength); 

			return new APDUResponse(ApduData);
		}


        /// <summary>
        /// Wraps the PSCS function
        /// LONG SCardBeginTransaction(
        ///     SCARDHANDLE hCard
        //  );
        /// </summary>
        public override void BeginTransaction()
        {
            if (SCardIsValidContext(m_hContext) == SCARD_S_SUCCESS)
            {
                m_nLastError = SCardBeginTransaction(m_hCard);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardBeginTransaction", m_nLastError);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Wraps the PCSC function
        /// LONG SCardEndTransaction(
        ///     SCARDHANDLE hCard,
        ///     DWORD dwDisposition
        /// );
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="Disposition">A value from DISCONNECT enum</param>
        public override void EndTransaction(DISCONNECT Disposition)
        {
            if (SCardIsValidContext(m_hContext) == SCARD_S_SUCCESS)
            {
                m_nLastError = SCardEndTransaction(m_hCard, (UInt32)Disposition);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardEndTransaction", m_nLastError);
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the attributes of the card
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="AttribId">Identifier for the Attribute to get</param>
        /// <returns>Attribute content</returns>
        public override byte[] GetAttribute(UInt32 AttribId)
        {
            byte[] attr = null;
            UInt32 attrLen = 0;

            m_nLastError = SCardGetAttrib(m_hCard, AttribId, attr, out attrLen);
            ThrowSmartcardException("SCardGetAttr", m_nLastError);

            if (attrLen != 0)
            {
                attr = new byte[attrLen];
                m_nLastError = SCardGetAttrib(m_hCard, AttribId, attr, out attrLen);
                ThrowSmartcardException("SCardGetAttr", m_nLastError);
            }

            return attr;
        }
        #endregion

        /// <summary>
        /// This function must implement a card detection mechanism.
        /// 
        /// When card insertion is detected, it must call the method CardInserted()
        /// When card removal is detected, it must call the method CardRemoved()
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        protected override void RunCardDetection(object Reader)
        {
            bool bFirstLoop = true;
            IntPtr hContext = IntPtr.Zero;    // Local context
            IntPtr phContext;

            phContext = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(Marshal.SizeOf(hContext));

            if (SCardEstablishContext((uint) SCOPE.User, IntPtr.Zero, IntPtr.Zero, phContext) == 0)
            {
                hContext = Marshal.ReadIntPtr(phContext);
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(phContext);

                UInt32 nbReaders = 1;
                SCard_ReaderState[] readerState = new SCard_ReaderState[nbReaders];

                readerState[0].m_dwCurrentState = (UInt32) CARD_STATE.UNAWARE;
                readerState[0].m_szReader = (string)Reader;

                UInt32 eventState;
                UInt32 currentState = readerState[0].m_dwCurrentState;

                // Card detection loop
                do
                {
                    if (SCardGetStatusChange(hContext, WAIT_TIME
                        , readerState, nbReaders) == 0)
                    {
                        eventState = readerState[0].m_dwEventState;
                        currentState = readerState[0].m_dwCurrentState;

                        // Check state
                        if (((eventState & (uint) CARD_STATE.CHANGED) == (uint) CARD_STATE.CHANGED) && !bFirstLoop)    
                        {
                            // State has changed
                            if ((eventState & (uint) CARD_STATE.EMPTY) == (uint) CARD_STATE.EMPTY)
                            {
                                // There is no card, card has been removed -> Fire CardRemoved event
                                CardRemoved((string)Reader);
                            }

                            if (((eventState & (uint)CARD_STATE.PRESENT) == (uint)CARD_STATE.PRESENT) && 
                                ((eventState & (uint) CARD_STATE.PRESENT) != (currentState & (uint) CARD_STATE.PRESENT)))
                            {
                                // There is a card in the reader -> Fire CardInserted event
                                CardInserted((string)Reader);
                            }

                            if ((eventState & (uint) CARD_STATE.ATRMATCH) == (uint) CARD_STATE.ATRMATCH)
                            {
                                // There is a card in the reader and it matches the ATR we were expecting-> Fire CardInserted event
                                CardInserted((string)Reader);
                            }
                        }

                        // The current stateis now the event state
                        readerState[0].m_dwCurrentState = eventState;

                        bFirstLoop = false;
                    }

                    Thread.Sleep(100);

                    if (m_bRunCardDetection == false)
                        break;
                }
                while (true);    // Exit on request
            }
            else
            {
                Marshal.FreeHGlobal(phContext);
                throw new Exception("PC/SC error");
            }

            SCardReleaseContext(hContext);
        }

        public void Dispose()
        {
            Disconnect(DISCONNECT.Unpower);

            ReleaseContext();
        }

        private void ThrowSmartcardException(string methodName, long errCode)
        {
            if (errCode != 0)
            {
                throw new SmartCardException(string.Format("{0} error: {1:X02}", methodName, errCode));
            }
        }
    }
}

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License

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About the Author

orouit
Architect Consistel - Singapore
Singapore Singapore
Software Architect, COM, .NET and Smartcard based security specialist.
 
I've been working in the software industry since I graduated in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. I chose software because I preferred digital to analog.
 
I started to program with 6802 machine code and evolved to the current .NET technologies... that was a long way.
 
For more than 20 years I have always worked in technical positions as I simply like to get my hands dirty and crack my brain when things don't go right!
 
After 12 years in the smart card industry I can claim a strong knowledge in security solutions based on those really small computers! I'm currently back in the business to design the licensing system for the enterprise solution I'm currenly working on, using a .NET smart card (yes they can run .NET CLR!)
 
View my profile on LinkedIn
 
You can contact me for professional consulting by using the forum.

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