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Signum Framework Tutorials Part 2 – Southwind Logic

, 15 Nov 2012 LGPL3
In this part, we will focus on writing business logic, LINQ queries and explain inheritance
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using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Data.SqlClient;
using System.Reflection;
using Signum.Utilities;
using Signum.Utilities.ExpressionTrees;
using Signum.Utilities.DataStructures;
using Signum.Entities;
using Signum.Utilities.Reflection;
using Signum.Engine.Properties;
using System.Data;
using Signum.Engine.Maps;
using Signum.Entities.DynamicQuery;

namespace Signum.Engine.Linq
{
    /// <summary>
    /// QueryFormatter is a visitor that converts an bound expression tree into SQL query text
    /// </summary>
    internal class QueryFormatter : DbExpressionVisitor
    {
        StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
        int indent = 2;
        int depth;

        ParameterExpression row = Expression.Parameter(typeof(IProjectionRow), "row");
        static PropertyInfo miReader = ReflectionTools.GetPropertyInfo((IProjectionRow row) => row.Reader);

        class ParameterInfo
        {
            internal MethodCallExpression Expression;
            internal string Name; 
        }

        Dictionary<Expression, ParameterInfo> parameterExpressions = new Dictionary<Expression, ParameterInfo>(); 

        int parameter = 0; 

        public string GetNextParamAlias()
        {
            return "@p" + (parameter++);
        }

        MethodInfo miUnsafeCreateParameter = ReflectionTools.GetMethodInfo(() => SqlParameterBuilder.UnsafeCreateParameter(null, SqlDbType.BigInt, false, null));

        ParameterInfo CreateParameter(Expression value)
        {
            string name = GetNextParamAlias();

            bool nullable = value.Type.IsClass || value.Type.IsNullable();
            Type clrType = value.Type.UnNullify();
            if (clrType.IsEnum)
                clrType = typeof(int);

            SqlDbType sqlDbType = Schema.Current.Settings.TypeValues.TryGetS(clrType) ?? SqlDbType.Variant;

            Expression valExpression = value.Type.IsNullable() ? 
                Expression.Coalesce(Expression.Convert(value, typeof(object)), Expression.Constant(DBNull.Value)) :
                (Expression)Expression.Convert(value, typeof(object));

            return new ParameterInfo
            {
                Expression = Expression.Call(null, miUnsafeCreateParameter,
                   Expression.Constant(name),
                   Expression.Constant(sqlDbType),
                   Expression.Constant(nullable),
                   valExpression),
                Name = name
            };
                
                
               
        }

        private QueryFormatter() { }


        static internal string Format(Expression expression, out Expression<Func<SqlParameter[]>> getParameters)
        {
            QueryFormatter qf = new QueryFormatter();
            qf.Visit(expression);

            getParameters = Expression.Lambda<Func<SqlParameter[]>>(
                Expression.NewArrayInit(typeof(SqlParameter), qf.parameterExpressions.Values.Select(pi=>pi.Expression).ToArray()));

            return qf.sb.ToString();
        }

        protected enum Indentation
        {
            Same,
            Inner,
            Outer
        }

        internal int IndentationWidth
        {
            get { return this.indent; }
            set { this.indent = value; }
        }

        private void AppendNewLine(Indentation style)
        {
            sb.AppendLine();
            this.Indent(style);
            for (int i = 0, n = this.depth * this.indent; i < n; i++)
            {
                sb.Append(" ");
            }
        }

        private void Indent(Indentation style)
        {
            if (style == Indentation.Inner)
            {
                this.depth++;
            }
            else if (style == Indentation.Outer)
            {
                this.depth--;
                System.Diagnostics.Debug.Assert(this.depth >= 0);
            }
        }

        protected override Expression VisitUnary(UnaryExpression u)
        {
            switch (u.NodeType)
            {
                case ExpressionType.Not:
                    sb.Append(" NOT ");
                    this.Visit(u.Operand);
                    break;
                case ExpressionType.Negate:
                    sb.Append(" - ");
                    this.Visit(u.Operand);
                    break;
                case ExpressionType.UnaryPlus:
                    sb.Append(" + ");
                    this.Visit(u.Operand);
                    break;
                case ExpressionType.Convert:
                    //Las unicas conversiones explicitas son a Binary y desde datetime a numeros
                    this.Visit(u.Operand);
                    break;
                default:
                    throw new NotSupportedException(string.Format("The unary perator {0} is not supported", u.NodeType));
            }
            return u;
        }

        bool IsNull(Expression exp)
        {
            return exp.NodeType == ExpressionType.Constant && ((ConstantExpression)exp).Value == null; 
        }

        protected override Expression VisitBinary(BinaryExpression b)
        {
            if (b.NodeType == ExpressionType.Coalesce)
            {
                sb.Append("IsNull(");
                Visit(b.Left);
                sb.Append(",");
                Visit(b.Right);
                sb.Append(")"); 
            }
            else if (b.NodeType == ExpressionType.Equal || b.NodeType == ExpressionType.NotEqual)
            {
                sb.Append("(");

                Visit(b.Left);
                sb.Append(b.NodeType == ExpressionType.Equal ? " = " : " <> ");
                Visit(b.Right);

                sb.Append(")");
            }
            else
            {
                sb.Append("(");
                this.Visit(b.Left);
                switch (b.NodeType)
                {
                    case ExpressionType.And:
                    case ExpressionType.AndAlso:
                        sb.Append(b.Type.UnNullify() == typeof(bool) ? " AND " : " & ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.Or:
                    case ExpressionType.OrElse:
                        sb.Append(b.Type.UnNullify() == typeof(bool) ? " OR " : " | ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.ExclusiveOr:
                        sb.Append(" ^ ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.LessThan:
                        sb.Append(" < ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.LessThanOrEqual:
                        sb.Append(" <= ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.GreaterThan:
                        sb.Append(" > ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.GreaterThanOrEqual:
                        sb.Append(" >= ");
                        break;

                    case ExpressionType.Add:
                    case ExpressionType.AddChecked:
                        sb.Append(" + ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.Subtract:
                    case ExpressionType.SubtractChecked:
                        sb.Append(" - ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.Multiply:
                    case ExpressionType.MultiplyChecked:
                        sb.Append(" * ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.Divide:
                        sb.Append(" / ");
                        break;
                    case ExpressionType.Modulo:
                        sb.Append(" % ");
                        break;
                    default:
                        throw new NotSupportedException(string.Format("The binary operator {0} is not supported", b.NodeType));
                }
                this.Visit(b.Right);
                sb.Append(")");
            }
            return b;
        }


        protected override Expression VisitRowNumber(RowNumberExpression rowNumber)
        {
            sb.Append("ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY ");
            for (int i = 0, n = rowNumber.OrderBy.Count; i < n; i++)
            {
                OrderExpression exp = rowNumber.OrderBy[i];
                if (i > 0)
                    sb.Append(", ");
                this.Visit(exp.Expression);
                if (exp.OrderType != OrderType.Ascending)
                    sb.Append(" DESC");
            }
            sb.Append(")"); 
            return rowNumber;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitCase(CaseExpression cex)
        {
            AppendNewLine(Indentation.Inner);
            sb.Append("CASE");
            AppendNewLine(Indentation.Inner);
            for (int i = 0, n = cex.Whens.Count; i < n; i++)
            {
                When when = cex.Whens[i]; 
                sb.Append("WHEN ");
                Visit(when.Condition);
                sb.Append(" THEN ");
                Visit(when.Value);
                AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same); 
            }
            if (cex.DefaultValue != null)
            {
                sb.Append("ELSE ");
                Visit(cex.DefaultValue);
                AppendNewLine(Indentation.Outer);
            }
            sb.Append("END");
            AppendNewLine(Indentation.Outer);

            return cex; 
        }

        protected override Expression VisitLike(LikeExpression like)
        {
            Visit(like.Expression);
            sb.Append(" LIKE ");
            Visit(like.Pattern);
            return like;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitExists(ExistsExpression exists)
        {
            sb.Append("EXISTS(");
            this.Visit(exists.Select);
            sb.Append(")");
            return exists;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitScalar(ScalarExpression exists)
        {
            sb.Append("(");
            this.Visit(exists.Select);
            sb.Append(")");
            return exists;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitIsNull(IsNullExpression isNull)
        {
            sb.Append("(");
            this.Visit(isNull.Expression);
            sb.Append(") IS NULL");
            return isNull;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitIsNotNull(IsNotNullExpression isNotNull)
        {
            sb.Append("(");
            this.Visit(isNotNull.Expression);
            sb.Append(") IS NOT NULL");
            return isNotNull;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitIn(InExpression inExpression)
        {
            Visit(inExpression.Expression);
            sb.Append(" IN (");
            if (inExpression.Select == null)
            {
                bool any = false;
                foreach (var obj in inExpression.Values)
                {
                    VisitConstant(Expression.Constant(obj));
                    sb.Append(",");
                    any = true;
                }
                if (any)
                    sb.Remove(sb.Length - 1, 1);
            }
            else
            {
                Visit(inExpression.Select);
            }
            sb.Append(" )");
            return inExpression;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitSqlEnum(SqlEnumExpression sqlEnum)
        {
            sb.Append(sqlEnum.Value);
            return sqlEnum;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitSqlCast(SqlCastExpression castExpr)
        {
            sb.Append("CAST(");
            Visit(castExpr.Expression);
            sb.Append(" as ");
            sb.Append(castExpr.SqlDbType.ToString().ToUpperInvariant());
            sb.Append(")");
            return castExpr;
        }

        internal static bool IsSupported(Type type)
        {
            return type == typeof(Guid) || Type.GetTypeCode(type) != TypeCode.Object;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitConstant(ConstantExpression c)
        {
            if (c.Value == null)
                sb.Append("NULL");
            else
            {
                if (!IsSupported(c.Value.GetType()))
                    throw new NotSupportedException(string.Format("The constant for {0} is not supported", c.Value));

                var pi = parameterExpressions.GetOrCreate(c, ()=> this.CreateParameter(c));

                sb.Append(pi.Name);
            }
            return c;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitSqlConstant(SqlConstantExpression c)
        {
            if (c.Value == null)
                sb.Append("NULL");
            else
            {
                if (!IsSupported(c.Value.GetType()))
                    throw new NotSupportedException(string.Format("The constant for {0} is not supported", c.Value));

                if (c.Value.Equals(true))
                    sb.Append("1");
                else if (c.Value.Equals(false))
                    sb.Append("0");
                else
                    sb.Append(c.ToString());
            }

            return c;
        }


        protected override Expression VisitColumn(ColumnExpression column)
        {
            sb.Append(column.Alias.Name.SqlScape());
            sb.Append(".");
            sb.Append(column.Name.SqlScape());

            return column;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitSelect(SelectExpression select)
        {
            bool isFirst = sb.Length == 0;
            if (!isFirst)
            {
                AppendNewLine(Indentation.Inner);
                sb.Append("(");
            }

            sb.Append("SELECT ");
            if (select.Distinct)
                sb.Append("DISTINCT ");

            if (select.Top != null)
            {
                sb.Append("TOP (");
                Visit(select.Top);
                sb.Append(") "); 
            }

            if (select.Columns.Count == 0)
                sb.Append("0 as Dummy"); 
            else
                for (int i = 0, n = select.Columns.Count; i < n; i++)
                {
                    ColumnDeclaration column = select.Columns[i];
                    if (i > 0)
                        sb.Append(", ");

                    AppendColumn(column);
                }

            if (select.From != null)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("FROM ");
                this.VisitSource(select.From);
            }
            if (select.Where != null)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("WHERE ");
                this.Visit(select.Where);
            }
            if (select.GroupBy != null && select.GroupBy.Count > 0)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("GROUP BY ");
                for (int i = 0, n = select.GroupBy.Count; i < n; i++)
                {
                    Expression exp = select.GroupBy[i];
                    if (i > 0)
                    {
                        sb.Append(", ");
                    }
                    this.Visit(exp);
                }
            }
            if (select.OrderBy != null && select.OrderBy.Count > 0)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("ORDER BY ");
                for (int i = 0, n = select.OrderBy.Count; i < n; i++)
                {
                    OrderExpression exp = select.OrderBy[i];
                    if (i > 0)
                    {
                        sb.Append(", ");
                    }
                    this.Visit(exp.Expression);
                    if (exp.OrderType != OrderType.Ascending)
                    {
                        sb.Append(" DESC");
                    }
                }
            }

            if (!isFirst)
            {
                sb.Append(")");
                AppendNewLine(Indentation.Outer);
            }

            return select;
        }

        Dictionary<AggregateFunction, string> dic = new Dictionary<AggregateFunction, string>
        {
            {AggregateFunction.Average, "AVG"},
            {AggregateFunction.Count, "COUNT"},
            {AggregateFunction.Max, "MAX"},
            {AggregateFunction.Min, "MIN"},
            {AggregateFunction.Sum, "SUM"}
        };

        protected override Expression VisitAggregate(AggregateExpression aggregate)
        {
            sb.Append(dic[aggregate.AggregateFunction]);
            sb.Append("(");
            if (aggregate.Source == null)
                sb.Append("*");
            else
                Visit(aggregate.Source);
            sb.Append(")");

            return aggregate; 
        }

        protected override Expression VisitSqlFunction(SqlFunctionExpression sqlFunction)
        {
            sb.Append(sqlFunction.SqlFunction);
            sb.Append("(");
            for (int i = 0, n = sqlFunction.Arguments.Count; i < n; i++)
            {
                Expression exp = sqlFunction.Arguments[i];
                if (i > 0)
                    sb.Append(", ");
                this.Visit(exp);
            }
            sb.Append(")");

            return sqlFunction;
        }

        private void AppendColumn(ColumnDeclaration column)
        {
            ColumnExpression c = this.Visit(column.Expression) as ColumnExpression;

            if (column.Name.HasText() && (c == null || c.Name != column.Name))
            {
                sb.Append(" AS ");
                sb.Append(column.Name.SqlScape());
            }
        }

        protected override Expression VisitTable(TableExpression table)
        {
            sb.Append(table.Name.SqlScape());
 
            return table;
        }

        protected override SourceExpression VisitSource(SourceExpression source)
        {
            if (source is SourceWithAliasExpression)
            {
                if (source is TableExpression)
                    Visit(source);
                else
                {
                    sb.Append("(");
                    Visit(source);
                    sb.Append(")");
                }

                sb.Append(" AS ");
                sb.Append(((SourceWithAliasExpression)source).Alias.Name.SqlScape());
            }
            else
                this.VisitJoin((JoinExpression)source);

            return source;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitJoin(JoinExpression join)
        {
            this.VisitSource(join.Left);
            this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
            switch (join.JoinType)
            {
                case JoinType.CrossJoin:
                    sb.Append("CROSS JOIN ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.InnerJoin:
                    sb.Append("INNER JOIN ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.LeftOuterJoin:
                case JoinType.SingleRowLeftOuterJoin:
                    sb.Append("LEFT OUTER JOIN ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.RightOuterJoin:
                    sb.Append("RIGHT OUTER JOIN ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.FullOuterJoin:
                    sb.Append("FULL OUTER JOIN ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.CrossApply:
                    sb.Append("CROSS APPLY ");
                    break;
                case JoinType.OuterApply:
                    sb.Append("OUTER APPLY ");
                    break;
            }

            bool needsMoreParenthesis = (join.JoinType == JoinType.CrossApply || join.JoinType == JoinType.OuterApply) && join.Right is JoinExpression;

            if (needsMoreParenthesis)
                sb.Append("(");

            this.VisitSource(join.Right);

            if (needsMoreParenthesis)
                sb.Append(")");

            if (join.Condition != null)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Inner);
                sb.Append("ON ");
                this.Visit(join.Condition);
                this.Indent(Indentation.Outer);
            }
            return join;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitDelete(DeleteExpression delete)
        {
            sb.Append("DELETE ");
            sb.Append(delete.Table.Name);
            this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
            sb.Append("FROM ");
            VisitSource(delete.Source);
            if (delete.Where != null)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("WHERE ");
                Visit(delete.Where);
            }
            return delete;
        }

        protected override Expression VisitUpdate(UpdateExpression update)
        {
            sb.Append("UPDATE ");
            sb.Append(update.Table.Name);
            sb.Append(" SET");
            this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Inner);
           
            for (int i = 0, n = update.Assigments.Count; i < n; i++)
            {
                ColumnAssignment assignment= update.Assigments[i];
                if (i > 0)
                {
                    sb.Append(",");
                    this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                }
                sb.Append(assignment.Column);
                sb.Append(" = ");
                this.Visit(assignment.Expression);
            }
            this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Outer);
            sb.Append("FROM ");
            VisitSource(update.Source);
            if (update.Where != null)
            {
                this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                sb.Append("WHERE ");
                Visit(update.Where);
            }
            return update; 

        }

        protected override Expression VisitSelectRowCount(SelectRowCountExpression src)
        {
            sb.Append("SELECT @@rowcount");
            return src; 
        }

        

        protected override Expression VisitCommandAggregate(CommandAggregateExpression cea)
        {
            for (int i = 0, n = cea.Commands.Count; i < n; i++)
            {
                CommandExpression command = cea.Commands[i];
                if (i > 0)
                {
                    sb.Append(";"); 
                    this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                    this.AppendNewLine(Indentation.Same);
                }
                this.Visit(command);
            }
            return cea;
        }

        
    }
}

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About the Author

Olmo del Corral
Software Developer (Senior) Signum Software
Spain Spain
I'm Computer Scientist, one of the founders of Signum Software, and the lead developer behind Signum Framework.
 
www.signumframework.com
 
I love programming in C#, Linq, Compilers, Algorithms, Functional Programming, Computer Graphics, Maths...

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