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Writing a Multiplayer Game (in WPF)

, 16 Mar 2012 CPOL
This article will explain some concepts of game development and how to apply and adapt them for multiplayer development.
RemoteGameSampleSource.zip
RemoteGameSample
Pfz.ClassLibraries
Pfz
Caching
Collections
DataTypes
DynamicObjects
Internal
Extensions
Factoring
Pfz.csproj.user
Pfz.ruleset
Pfz.snk
Properties
Remoting
Instructions
Serialization
Threading
Contexts
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf
Extensions
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf.csproj.user
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf.snk
Properties
Pfz.RemoteGaming
Properties
Pfz.WpfControls
Extensions
Pfz.WpfControls.csproj.user
Pfz.WpfControls.snk
Properties
themes
TypeConverters
ValueControls
RemoteGameSample
RemoteGameSample
Properties
Settings.settings
RemoteGameSample.csproj.user
RemoteGameSample.Common
Properties
Requests
RemoteGameSample.Server
Data
Cars
BlueCar
1.png
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GreenCar
1.png
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RedCar
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YellowCar
1.png
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2.png
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29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
Maps
BigMap
background.jpg
foreground.jpg
map.png
SmallMap
background.jpg
map.png
Properties
RemoteGameSample.Server.csproj.user
RemoteGameSample_Release.zip
RemoteGameSample_Release
Data
Cars
BlueCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
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23.png
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25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
GreenCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
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25.png
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27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
RedCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
YellowCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
Maps
BigMap
background.jpg
foreground.jpg
map.png
SmallMap
background.jpg
map.png
Pfz.dll
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf.dll
Pfz.RemoteGaming.dll
Pfz.WpfControls.dll
RemoteGameSample.Common.dll
RemoteGameSample.exe
RemoteGameSample.Server.exe
RemoteGameSample_Source.zip
RemoteGameSample_Source
Pfz.ClassLibraries
Pfz
Caching
Collections
DataTypes
DynamicObjects
Internal
Extensions
Factoring
Pfz.csproj.user
Pfz.ruleset
Pfz.snk
Pfz.suo
Properties
Remoting
Instructions
Internal
Udp
Serialization
Threading
Contexts
Disposers
Unsafe
Pfz.ClassLibraries.suo
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf
Extensions
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf.csproj.user
Pfz.Drawing.Wpf.snk
Properties
Pfz.RemoteGaming
Internal
Pfz.RemoteGaming.snk
Pfz.RemoteGaming.suo
Properties
Pfz.WpfControls
Extensions
Pfz.WpfControls.csproj.user
Pfz.WpfControls.snk
Properties
themes
TypeConverters
ValueControls
RemoteGameSample
AppIcon.ico
Properties
Settings.settings
RemoteGameSample.csproj.user
RemoteGameSample.suo
RemoteGameSample.Common
Properties
Requests
RemoteGameSample.Server
AppIcon.ico
Data
Cars
BlueCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
GreenCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
RedCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
YellowCar
1.png
10.png
11.png
12.png
13.png
14.png
15.png
16.png
17.png
18.png
19.png
2.png
20.png
21.png
22.png
23.png
24.png
25.png
26.png
27.png
28.png
29.png
3.png
30.png
31.png
32.png
33.png
34.png
35.png
36.png
4.png
5.png
6.png
7.png
8.png
9.png
Maps
BigMap
background.jpg
foreground.jpg
map.png
SmallMap
background.jpg
map.png
Properties
RemoteGameSample.Server.csproj.user
RemoteGameSample.Server.suo
using System;
using System.Runtime.InteropServices;

namespace Pfz.Drawing.Wpf
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Structure that holds a color in Argb (Bgr32) format.
    /// </summary>
	[Serializable]
    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Explicit)]
    public struct Argb:
        IEquatable<Argb>,
        IComparable<Argb>,
        IComparable
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new Argb setting all its components.
        /// </summary>
        public Argb(byte alpha, byte red, byte green, byte blue)
        {
            _alpha = alpha;
            _red = red;
            _green = green;
            _blue = blue;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Creates a new Argb setting only red, green and blue values. The Alpha value is set to 255.
        /// </summary>
        public Argb(byte red, byte green, byte blue)
        {
            _alpha = 255;
            _red = red;
            _green = green;
            _blue = blue;
        }

        [FieldOffset(3)]
        private readonly byte _alpha;

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the Alpha (opacity) value.
        /// </summary>
        public byte Alpha
        {
            get
            {
                return _alpha;
            }
        }

        [FieldOffset(2)]
        private readonly byte _red;

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the Red color element.
        /// </summary>
        public byte Red
        {
            get
            {
                return _red;
            }
        }

        [FieldOffset(1)]
        private readonly byte _green;

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the Green color element.
        /// </summary>
        public byte Green
        {
            get
            {
                return _green;
            }
        }

        [FieldOffset(0)]
        private readonly byte _blue;

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the Blue color element.
        /// </summary>
        public byte Blue
        {
            get
            {
                return _blue;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the combination of this color with an "old color".
        /// This will only work if Alpha is different than 255. If not, the actual color will be returned.
        /// </summary>
        public Argb CombineOver(Argb oldColor)
        {
            byte sourceAlpha = _alpha;
            if (sourceAlpha == 255)
                return this;

            int remainingAlpha = 255 - sourceAlpha;

            byte oldAlpha = oldColor._alpha;
            byte combinedAlpha = 255;

            if (oldAlpha != 255)
            {
                remainingAlpha = (remainingAlpha * oldAlpha) / 255;
                combinedAlpha = (byte)(sourceAlpha + remainingAlpha);
                sourceAlpha = (byte)(255 - remainingAlpha);
            }

            int red = ((_red * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._red * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            int green = ((_green * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._green * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            int blue = ((_blue * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._blue * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            Argb combinedColor = new Argb(combinedAlpha, (byte)red, (byte)green, (byte)blue);
            return combinedColor;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Combines this color with another color.
        /// The highest alpha is kept.
        /// </summary>
        public Argb CombineIn(Argb oldColor)
        {
            byte sourceAlpha = _alpha;
            if (sourceAlpha == 255)
                return this;

            int remainingAlpha = 255 - sourceAlpha;
            int red = ((_red * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._red * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            int green = ((_green * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._green * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            int blue = ((_blue * sourceAlpha) + (oldColor._blue * remainingAlpha)) / 255;
            Argb combinedColor = new Argb(oldColor._alpha, (byte)red, (byte)green, (byte)blue);
            return combinedColor;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Combines this color with an old color using the given combineMode.
        /// </summary>
        public Argb Combine(Argb oldColor, ColorCombineMode combineMode)
        {
            switch (combineMode)
            {
                case ColorCombineMode.Replace: return this;
                case ColorCombineMode.CombineIn: return CombineIn(oldColor);
                case ColorCombineMode.CombineOver: return CombineOver(oldColor);
            }

            throw new ArgumentException("Unknown value for combineMode.", "combineMode");
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets the HashCode of this color.
        /// </summary>
        public override int GetHashCode()
        {
            return (_alpha << 24) | (_red << 16) | (_green << 8) | _blue;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Compares this Argb color with another object.
        /// </summary>
        public override bool Equals(object obj)
        {
            if (obj is Argb)
            {
                Argb other = (Argb)obj;
                return Equals(other);
            }

            return false;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Compares this Argb color with another one.
        /// </summary>
        public bool Equals(Argb other)
        {
            return _alpha == other._alpha && _red == other._red && _green == other._green && _blue == other._blue;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Compares two Argb instances for Equality.
        /// </summary>
        public static bool operator == (Argb a, Argb b)
        {
            return a.Equals(b);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Compares two Argb instances for Inequality.
        /// </summary>
        public static bool operator !=(Argb a, Argb b)
        {
            return !a.Equals(b);
        }

        private int _ApplyDifference(int oldDifference, int firstValue, int secondValue)
        {
            int newDifference = firstValue - secondValue;
            if (oldDifference == 0)
                return newDifference;

            if (oldDifference < 0)
                return oldDifference - Math.Abs(newDifference);

            return oldDifference + Math.Abs(newDifference);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Compares two colors and returns their numeric difference.
        /// </summary>
        public int CompareTo(Argb other)
        {
            int difference = 0;

            difference = _alpha - other._alpha;
            difference = _ApplyDifference(difference, _red, other._red);
            difference = _ApplyDifference(difference, _green, other._green);
            difference = _ApplyDifference(difference, _blue, other._blue);

            return difference;
        }

        #region IComparable Members
            int IComparable.CompareTo(object obj)
            {
                return CompareTo((Argb)obj);
            }
        #endregion
    }
}

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About the Author

Paulo Zemek
Engineer Microsoft Corporation
United States United States
I started to program computers when I was 11 years old, as a hobbist, programming in AMOS Basic and Blitz Basic for Amiga.
At 12 I had my first try with assembler, but it was too difficult at the time. Then, in the same year, I learned C and, after learning C, I was finally able to learn assembler (for Motorola 680x0).
Not sure, but probably between 12 and 13, I started to learn C++. I always programmed "in an object oriented way", but using function pointers instead of virtual methods.
 
At 15 I started to learn Pascal at school and to use Delphi. At 16 I started my first internship (using Delphi). At 18 I started to work professionally using C++ and since then I've developed my programming skills as a professional developer in C++ and C#, generally creating libraries that help other developers do they work easier, faster and with less errors.
 
Now I just started working as a Senior Software Engineer at Microsoft.
 
Want more info or simply want to contact me?
Take a look at: http://paulozemek.azurewebsites.net/
Or e-mail me at: paulozemek@outlook.com
 
Codeproject MVP 2012
Microsoft MVP 2013-2014

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