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Building .NET Coverage Tool

, 25 Aug 2009
This article is a walkthrough for building a .NET coverage tool
Coverage.NET_demo.zip
TestApp
TestApp.exe
TestApp.pdb
Tool
Coverage.Counter.dll
Coverage.exe
Mono.Cecil.dll
Mono.Tools.Pdb2Mdb.dll
Coverage.NET_src.zip
Coverage
Common
Instrument
Properties
Report
Coverage.Counter
Properties
Mono.Cecil
src
AUTHORS
ChangeLog
CodeGen
cecil-gen-attributes.rb
cecil-gen-sources.rb
cecil-gen-tests.rb
cecil-gen-types.rb
cecil-gen.rb
cecil-mig.rb
cecil-update-rev
templates
configure
default.build
Makefile
mono-cecil.pc.in
Mono.Cecil
Mono.Cecil.Binary
Mono.Cecil.Cil
Mono.Cecil.dll.sources
Mono.Cecil.Metadata
Mono.Cecil.Signatures
Mono.Xml
ChangeLog
NEWS
README
standalone.make
TODO
Mono.Tools.Pdb2Mdb
Properties
src
ChangeLog
LICENSE
Makefile
pdb2mdb.exe.sources
//
// ImageWriter.cs
//
// Author:
//   Jb Evain (jbevain@gmail.com)
//
// (C) 2005 Jb Evain
//
// Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
// a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
// "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
// without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
// distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
// permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
// the following conditions:
//
// The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
// included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
//
// THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
// EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
// MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
// NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
// LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
// OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
// WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
//

namespace Mono.Cecil.Binary {

	using System.IO;
	using System.Text;

	using Mono.Cecil.Metadata;

	sealed class ImageWriter : BaseImageVisitor {

		Image m_img;
		AssemblyKind m_kind;
		MetadataWriter m_mdWriter;
		BinaryWriter m_binaryWriter;

		Section m_textSect;
		MemoryBinaryWriter m_textWriter;
		Section m_relocSect;
		MemoryBinaryWriter m_relocWriter;
		Section m_rsrcSect;
		MemoryBinaryWriter m_rsrcWriter;

		public ImageWriter (MetadataWriter writer, AssemblyKind kind, BinaryWriter bw)
		{
			m_mdWriter= writer;
			m_img = writer.GetMetadataRoot ().GetImage ();
			m_kind = kind;
			m_binaryWriter = bw;

			m_textWriter = new MemoryBinaryWriter ();
			m_textWriter.BaseStream.Position = 80;
			m_relocWriter = new MemoryBinaryWriter ();
		}

		public Image GetImage ()
		{
			return m_img;
		}

		public MemoryBinaryWriter GetTextWriter ()
		{
			return m_textWriter;
		}

		public uint GetAligned (uint integer, uint alignWith)
		{
			return (integer + alignWith - 1) & ~(alignWith - 1);
		}

		public void Initialize ()
		{
			Image img = m_img;
			ResourceWriter resWriter = null;

			uint sectAlign = img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.SectionAlignment;
			uint fileAlign = img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.FileAlignment;

			m_textSect = img.TextSection;
			foreach (Section s in img.Sections) {
				if (s.Name == Section.Relocs)
					m_relocSect = s;
				else if (s.Name == Section.Resources) {
					m_rsrcSect = s;
					m_rsrcWriter = new MemoryBinaryWriter ();

					resWriter = new ResourceWriter (img, m_rsrcSect, m_rsrcWriter);
					resWriter.Write ();
				}
			}

			// size computations, fields setting, etc.
			uint nbSects = (uint) img.Sections.Count;
			img.PEFileHeader.NumberOfSections = (ushort) nbSects;

			// build the reloc section data
			uint relocSize = 12;
			m_relocWriter.Write ((uint) 0);
			m_relocWriter.Write (relocSize);
			m_relocWriter.Write ((ushort) 0);
			m_relocWriter.Write ((ushort) 0);

			m_textSect.VirtualSize = (uint) m_textWriter.BaseStream.Length;
			m_relocSect.VirtualSize = (uint) m_relocWriter.BaseStream.Length;
			if (m_rsrcSect != null)
				m_rsrcSect.VirtualSize = (uint) m_rsrcWriter.BaseStream.Length;

			// start counting before sections headers
			// section start + section header sixe * number of sections
			uint headersEnd = 0x178 + 0x28 * nbSects;
			uint fileOffset = headersEnd;
			uint sectOffset = sectAlign;
			uint imageSize = 0;

			foreach (Section sect in img.Sections) {
				fileOffset = GetAligned (fileOffset, fileAlign);
				sectOffset = GetAligned (sectOffset, sectAlign);

				sect.PointerToRawData = new RVA (fileOffset);
				sect.VirtualAddress = new RVA (sectOffset);
				sect.SizeOfRawData = GetAligned (sect.VirtualSize, fileAlign);

				fileOffset += sect.SizeOfRawData;
				sectOffset += sect.SizeOfRawData;
				imageSize += GetAligned (sect.SizeOfRawData, sectAlign);
			}

			if (m_textSect.VirtualAddress.Value != 0x2000)
				throw new ImageFormatException ("Wrong RVA for .text section");

			if (resWriter != null)
				resWriter.Patch ();

			img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.CodeSize = GetAligned (
				m_textSect.SizeOfRawData, fileAlign);
			img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.InitializedDataSize = m_textSect.SizeOfRawData;
			if (m_rsrcSect != null)
				img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.InitializedDataSize += m_rsrcSect.SizeOfRawData;
			img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.BaseOfCode = m_textSect.VirtualAddress;
			img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.BaseOfData = m_relocSect.VirtualAddress;

			imageSize += headersEnd;
			img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.ImageSize = GetAligned (imageSize, sectAlign);

			img.PEOptionalHeader.DataDirectories.BaseRelocationTable = new DataDirectory (
				m_relocSect.VirtualAddress, m_relocSect.VirtualSize);
			if (m_rsrcSect != null)
				img.PEOptionalHeader.DataDirectories.ResourceTable = new DataDirectory (
					m_rsrcSect.VirtualAddress, (uint) m_rsrcWriter.BaseStream.Length);

			if (m_kind == AssemblyKind.Dll) {
				img.PEFileHeader.Characteristics = ImageCharacteristics.CILOnlyDll;
				img.HintNameTable.RuntimeMain = HintNameTable.RuntimeMainDll;
				img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.DLLFlags = 0x400;
			} else {
				img.PEFileHeader.Characteristics = ImageCharacteristics.CILOnlyExe;
				img.HintNameTable.RuntimeMain = HintNameTable.RuntimeMainExe;
			}

			switch (m_kind) {
			case AssemblyKind.Dll :
			case AssemblyKind.Console :
				img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.SubSystem = SubSystem.WindowsCui;
				break;
			case AssemblyKind.Windows :
				img.PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFields.SubSystem = SubSystem.WindowsGui;
				break;
			}

			RVA importTable = new RVA (img.TextSection.VirtualAddress + m_mdWriter.ImportTablePosition);

			img.PEOptionalHeader.DataDirectories.ImportTable = new DataDirectory (importTable, 0x57);

			img.ImportTable.ImportLookupTable = new RVA ((uint) importTable + 0x28);

			img.ImportLookupTable.HintNameRVA = img.ImportAddressTable.HintNameTableRVA =
				new RVA ((uint) img.ImportTable.ImportLookupTable + 0x14);
			img.ImportTable.Name = new RVA ((uint) img.ImportLookupTable.HintNameRVA + 0xe);
		}

		public override void VisitDOSHeader (DOSHeader header)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Start);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Lfanew);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.End);

			m_binaryWriter.Write ((ushort) 0x4550);
			m_binaryWriter.Write ((ushort) 0);
		}

		public override void VisitPEFileHeader (PEFileHeader header)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Machine);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.NumberOfSections);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.TimeDateStamp);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.PointerToSymbolTable);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.NumberOfSymbols);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.OptionalHeaderSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write ((ushort) header.Characteristics);
		}

		public override void VisitNTSpecificFieldsHeader (PEOptionalHeader.NTSpecificFieldsHeader header)
		{
			WriteIntOrLong (header.ImageBase);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.SectionAlignment);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.FileAlignment);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.OSMajor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.OSMinor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.UserMajor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.UserMinor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.SubSysMajor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.SubSysMinor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Reserved);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ImageSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.HeaderSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.FileChecksum);
			m_binaryWriter.Write ((ushort) header.SubSystem);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.DLLFlags);
			WriteIntOrLong (header.StackReserveSize);
			WriteIntOrLong (header.StackCommitSize);
			WriteIntOrLong (header.HeapReserveSize);
			WriteIntOrLong (header.HeapCommitSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.LoaderFlags);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.NumberOfDataDir);
		}

		public override void VisitStandardFieldsHeader (PEOptionalHeader.StandardFieldsHeader header)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Magic);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.LMajor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.LMinor);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.CodeSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.InitializedDataSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.UninitializedDataSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.EntryPointRVA.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BaseOfCode.Value);
			if (!header.IsPE64)
				m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BaseOfData.Value);
		}

		void WriteIntOrLong (ulong value)
		{
			if (m_img.PEOptionalHeader.StandardFields.IsPE64)
				m_binaryWriter.Write (value);
			else
				m_binaryWriter.Write ((uint) value);
		}

		public override void VisitDataDirectoriesHeader (PEOptionalHeader.DataDirectoriesHeader header)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ExportTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ExportTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ImportTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ImportTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ResourceTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ResourceTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ExceptionTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.ExceptionTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.CertificateTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.CertificateTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BaseRelocationTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BaseRelocationTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Debug.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Debug.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Copyright.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Copyright.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.GlobalPtr.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.GlobalPtr.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.TLSTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.TLSTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.LoadConfigTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.LoadConfigTable.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BoundImport.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.BoundImport.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.IAT.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.IAT.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.DelayImportDescriptor.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.DelayImportDescriptor.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.CLIHeader.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.CLIHeader.Size);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Reserved.VirtualAddress);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (header.Reserved.Size);
		}

		public override void VisitSection (Section sect)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.Write (Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes (sect.Name));
			int more = 8 - sect.Name.Length;
			for (int i = 0; i < more; i++)
				m_binaryWriter.Write ((byte) 0);

			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.VirtualSize);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.VirtualAddress.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.SizeOfRawData);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.PointerToRawData.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.PointerToRelocations.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.PointerToLineNumbers.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.NumberOfRelocations);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (sect.NumberOfLineNumbers);
			m_binaryWriter.Write ((uint) sect.Characteristics);
		}

		public override void VisitImportAddressTable (ImportAddressTable iat)
		{
			m_textWriter.BaseStream.Position = 0;
			m_textWriter.Write (iat.HintNameTableRVA.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (new byte [4]);
		}

		public override void VisitCLIHeader (CLIHeader header)
		{
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Cb);

			if (m_mdWriter.TargetRuntime >= TargetRuntime.NET_2_0) {
				m_textWriter.Write ((ushort) 2);
				m_textWriter.Write ((ushort) 5);
			} else {
				m_textWriter.Write ((ushort) 2);
				m_textWriter.Write ((ushort) 0);
			}

			m_textWriter.Write (header.Metadata.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Metadata.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write ((uint) header.Flags);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.EntryPointToken);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Resources.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Resources.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.StrongNameSignature.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.StrongNameSignature.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.CodeManagerTable.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.CodeManagerTable.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.VTableFixups.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.VTableFixups.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.ExportAddressTableJumps.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.ExportAddressTableJumps.Size);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.ManagedNativeHeader.VirtualAddress);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.ManagedNativeHeader.Size);
		}

		public override void VisitDebugHeader (DebugHeader header)
		{
			m_textWriter.BaseStream.Position = m_mdWriter.DebugHeaderPosition;
			uint sizeUntilData = 0x1c;
			header.AddressOfRawData = m_img.TextSection.VirtualAddress + m_mdWriter.DebugHeaderPosition + sizeUntilData;
			header.PointerToRawData = 0x200 + m_mdWriter.DebugHeaderPosition + sizeUntilData;
			header.SizeOfData = 0x18 + (uint) header.FileName.Length + 1;

			m_textWriter.Write (header.Characteristics);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.TimeDateStamp);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.MajorVersion);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.MinorVersion);
			m_textWriter.Write ((uint) header.Type);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.SizeOfData);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.AddressOfRawData.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.PointerToRawData);

			m_textWriter.Write (header.Magic);
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Signature.ToByteArray ());
			m_textWriter.Write (header.Age);
			m_textWriter.Write (Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes (header.FileName));
			m_textWriter.Write ((byte) 0);
		}

		public override void VisitImportTable (ImportTable it)
		{
			m_textWriter.BaseStream.Position = m_mdWriter.ImportTablePosition;
			m_textWriter.Write (it.ImportLookupTable.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (it.DateTimeStamp);
			m_textWriter.Write (it.ForwardChain);
			m_textWriter.Write (it.Name.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (it.ImportAddressTable.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (new byte [20]);
		}

		public override void VisitImportLookupTable (ImportLookupTable ilt)
		{
			m_textWriter.Write (ilt.HintNameRVA.Value);
			m_textWriter.Write (new byte [16]);
		}

		public override void VisitHintNameTable (HintNameTable hnt)
		{
			m_textWriter.Write (hnt.Hint);
			m_textWriter.Write (Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes (hnt.RuntimeMain));
			m_textWriter.Write ('\0');
			m_textWriter.Write (Encoding.ASCII.GetBytes (hnt.RuntimeLibrary));
			m_textWriter.Write ('\0');
			m_textWriter.Write (new byte [4]);

			// patch header with ep rva
			RVA ep = m_img.TextSection.VirtualAddress +
				(uint) m_textWriter.BaseStream.Position;
			long pos = m_binaryWriter.BaseStream.Position;
			m_binaryWriter.BaseStream.Position = 0xa8;
			m_binaryWriter.Write (ep.Value);
			m_binaryWriter.BaseStream.Position = pos;

			// patch reloc Sect with ep
			uint reloc = (ep.Value + 2) % 0x1000;
			uint rva = (ep.Value + 2) - reloc;

			m_relocWriter.BaseStream.Position = 0;
			m_relocWriter.Write (rva);
			m_relocWriter.BaseStream.Position = 8;
			m_relocWriter.Write ((ushort) ((3 << 12) | reloc));

			m_textWriter.Write (hnt.EntryPoint);
			m_textWriter.Write (hnt.RVA);
		}

		public override void TerminateImage (Image img)
		{
			m_binaryWriter.BaseStream.Position = 0x200;

			WriteSection (m_textSect, m_textWriter);
			WriteSection (m_relocSect, m_relocWriter);
			if (m_rsrcSect != null)
				WriteSection (m_rsrcSect, m_rsrcWriter);
		}

		void WriteSection (Section sect, MemoryBinaryWriter sectWriter)
		{
			sectWriter.MemoryStream.WriteTo (m_binaryWriter.BaseStream);
			m_binaryWriter.Write (new byte [
			                      	sect.SizeOfRawData - sectWriter.BaseStream.Length]);
		}
	}
}

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License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

About the Author

Sergiy Sakharov
Software Developer (Senior)
United Kingdom United Kingdom
No Biography provided

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