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Anatomy of HTML5/JavaScript Single Page Application in Samples (basics, navigation, composition, communications with the server)

, 20 Dec 2012 CPOL
Describes Single Page Applications and a new BPF Framework that helps to develop SPAs.
BPF
bpf.js.bundle
bpf.min.js.map
UsefulBPFPlugins
SPA_ARTICLE_CODE
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample.csproj.user
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample.v11.suo
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ComplexProductNavigationTest
ComplexProductNavigationTest.csproj.user
ComplexProductNavigationTest.v11.suo
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
CompositionAndNavigationSample
CompositionAndNavigationSample.csproj.user
CompositionAndNavigationSample.v11.suo
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HTML
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation.csproj.user
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation.v11.suo
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ParameterizedPluginSample
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
ParameterizedPluginSample.sln~
ParameterizedPluginSample.v11.suo
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ParamNavigationTest
ParamNavigationTest.v11.suo
ParamNavigationTest
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HTML
ParamNavigationTest.csproj.user
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ViewModels
TestResults
SilverlightPluginSample
ClientBin
AnimatedBanner.xap
MultiplePointPathAnimation.xap
RunningLetters.xap
HTML
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SilverlightPluginSample.csproj.user
SilverlightPluginSample.v11.suo
SimpleCompositionSample
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SimpleCompositionSample.csproj.user
SimpleCompositionSample.v11.suo
SimpleProductNavigationTest
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SimpleProductNavigationTest.csproj.user
SimpleProductNavigationTest.v11.suo
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Models
Properties
Scripts
Service References
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer.suo
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer.v11.suo
SPAComplexObjectGetter
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Models
Properties
Scripts
SPAComplexObjectGetter.csproj.user
SPAComplexObjectGetter.sln~
SPAComplexObjectGetter.suo
SPAComplexObjectGetter.v11.suo
SPAServerStringCommunications
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Properties
Scripts
SPAServerStringCommunications.csproj.user
SPAServerStringCommunications.suo
SPAServerStringCommunications.v11.suo
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp
Properties
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp.csproj.user
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp.suo
TwoPageSPA
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
TwoPageSPA.csproj.user
TwoPageSPA.suo
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation.csproj.user
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation.v11.suo
TwoPageSPAWithTabs
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
TwoPageSPAWithTabs.csproj.user
TwoPageSPAWithTabs.suo
// Knockout JavaScript library v2.1.0
// (c) Steven Sanderson - http://knockoutjs.com/
// License: MIT (http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php)

(function(window,document,navigator,undefined){
var DEBUG=true;
!function(factory) {
    // Support three module loading scenarios
    if (typeof require === 'function' && typeof exports === 'object' && typeof module === 'object') {
        // [1] CommonJS/Node.js
        var target = module['exports'] || exports; // module.exports is for Node.js
        factory(target);
    } else if (typeof define === 'function' && define['amd']) {
        // [2] AMD anonymous module
        define(['exports'], factory);
    } else {
        // [3] No module loader (plain <script> tag) - put directly in global namespace
        factory(window['ko'] = {});
    }
}(function(koExports){
// Internally, all KO objects are attached to koExports (even the non-exported ones whose names will be minified by the closure compiler).
// In the future, the following "ko" variable may be made distinct from "koExports" so that private objects are not externally reachable.
var ko = typeof koExports !== 'undefined' ? koExports : {};
// Google Closure Compiler helpers (used only to make the minified file smaller)
ko.exportSymbol = function(koPath, object) {
	var tokens = koPath.split(".");

	// In the future, "ko" may become distinct from "koExports" (so that non-exported objects are not reachable)
	// At that point, "target" would be set to: (typeof koExports !== "undefined" ? koExports : ko)
	var target = ko;

	for (var i = 0; i < tokens.length - 1; i++)
		target = target[tokens[i]];
	target[tokens[tokens.length - 1]] = object;
};
ko.exportProperty = function(owner, publicName, object) {
  owner[publicName] = object;
};
ko.version = "2.1.0";

ko.exportSymbol('version', ko.version);
ko.utils = new (function () {
    var stringTrimRegex = /^(\s|\u00A0)+|(\s|\u00A0)+$/g;

    // Represent the known event types in a compact way, then at runtime transform it into a hash with event name as key (for fast lookup)
    var knownEvents = {}, knownEventTypesByEventName = {};
    var keyEventTypeName = /Firefox\/2/i.test(navigator.userAgent) ? 'KeyboardEvent' : 'UIEvents';
    knownEvents[keyEventTypeName] = ['keyup', 'keydown', 'keypress'];
    knownEvents['MouseEvents'] = ['click', 'dblclick', 'mousedown', 'mouseup', 'mousemove', 'mouseover', 'mouseout', 'mouseenter', 'mouseleave'];
    for (var eventType in knownEvents) {
        var knownEventsForType = knownEvents[eventType];
        if (knownEventsForType.length) {
            for (var i = 0, j = knownEventsForType.length; i < j; i++)
                knownEventTypesByEventName[knownEventsForType[i]] = eventType;
        }
    }
    var eventsThatMustBeRegisteredUsingAttachEvent = { 'propertychange': true }; // Workaround for an IE9 issue - https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/406

    // Detect IE versions for bug workarounds (uses IE conditionals, not UA string, for robustness)
    var ieVersion = (function() {
        var version = 3, div = document.createElement('div'), iElems = div.getElementsByTagName('i');

        // Keep constructing conditional HTML blocks until we hit one that resolves to an empty fragment
        while (
            div.innerHTML = '<!--[if gt IE ' + (++version) + ']><i></i><![endif]-->',
            iElems[0]
        );
        return version > 4 ? version : undefined;
    }());
    var isIe6 = ieVersion === 6,
        isIe7 = ieVersion === 7;

    function isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType) {
        if ((ko.utils.tagNameLower(element) !== "input") || !element.type) return false;
        if (eventType.toLowerCase() != "click") return false;
        var inputType = element.type;
        return (inputType == "checkbox") || (inputType == "radio");
    }

    return {
        fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost: ['authenticity_token', /^__RequestVerificationToken(_.*)?$/],

        arrayForEach: function (array, action) {
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                action(array[i]);
        },

        arrayIndexOf: function (array, item) {
            if (typeof Array.prototype.indexOf == "function")
                return Array.prototype.indexOf.call(array, item);
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (array[i] === item)
                    return i;
            return -1;
        },

        arrayFirst: function (array, predicate, predicateOwner) {
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (predicate.call(predicateOwner, array[i]))
                    return array[i];
            return null;
        },

        arrayRemoveItem: function (array, itemToRemove) {
            var index = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(array, itemToRemove);
            if (index >= 0)
                array.splice(index, 1);
        },

        arrayGetDistinctValues: function (array) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++) {
                if (ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(result, array[i]) < 0)
                    result.push(array[i]);
            }
            return result;
        },

        arrayMap: function (array, mapping) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                result.push(mapping(array[i]));
            return result;
        },

        arrayFilter: function (array, predicate) {
            array = array || [];
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = array.length; i < j; i++)
                if (predicate(array[i]))
                    result.push(array[i]);
            return result;
        },

        arrayPushAll: function (array, valuesToPush) {
            if (valuesToPush instanceof Array)
                array.push.apply(array, valuesToPush);
            else
                for (var i = 0, j = valuesToPush.length; i < j; i++)
                    array.push(valuesToPush[i]);
            return array;
        },

        extend: function (target, source) {
            if (source) {
                for(var prop in source) {
                    if(source.hasOwnProperty(prop)) {
                        target[prop] = source[prop];
                    }
                }
            }
            return target;
        },

        emptyDomNode: function (domNode) {
            while (domNode.firstChild) {
                ko.removeNode(domNode.firstChild);
            }
        },

        moveCleanedNodesToContainerElement: function(nodes) {
            // Ensure it's a real array, as we're about to reparent the nodes and
            // we don't want the underlying collection to change while we're doing that.
            var nodesArray = ko.utils.makeArray(nodes);

            var container = document.createElement('div');
            for (var i = 0, j = nodesArray.length; i < j; i++) {
                ko.cleanNode(nodesArray[i]);
                container.appendChild(nodesArray[i]);
            }
            return container;
        },

        setDomNodeChildren: function (domNode, childNodes) {
            ko.utils.emptyDomNode(domNode);
            if (childNodes) {
                for (var i = 0, j = childNodes.length; i < j; i++)
                    domNode.appendChild(childNodes[i]);
            }
        },

        replaceDomNodes: function (nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray, newNodesArray) {
            var nodesToReplaceArray = nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray.nodeType ? [nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray] : nodeToReplaceOrNodeArray;
            if (nodesToReplaceArray.length > 0) {
                var insertionPoint = nodesToReplaceArray[0];
                var parent = insertionPoint.parentNode;
                for (var i = 0, j = newNodesArray.length; i < j; i++)
                    parent.insertBefore(newNodesArray[i], insertionPoint);
                for (var i = 0, j = nodesToReplaceArray.length; i < j; i++) {
                    ko.removeNode(nodesToReplaceArray[i]);
                }
            }
        },

        setOptionNodeSelectionState: function (optionNode, isSelected) {
            // IE6 sometimes throws "unknown error" if you try to write to .selected directly, whereas Firefox struggles with setAttribute. Pick one based on browser.
            if (navigator.userAgent.indexOf("MSIE 6") >= 0)
                optionNode.setAttribute("selected", isSelected);
            else
                optionNode.selected = isSelected;
        },

        stringTrim: function (string) {
            return (string || "").replace(stringTrimRegex, "");
        },

        stringTokenize: function (string, delimiter) {
            var result = [];
            var tokens = (string || "").split(delimiter);
            for (var i = 0, j = tokens.length; i < j; i++) {
                var trimmed = ko.utils.stringTrim(tokens[i]);
                if (trimmed !== "")
                    result.push(trimmed);
            }
            return result;
        },

        stringStartsWith: function (string, startsWith) {
            string = string || "";
            if (startsWith.length > string.length)
                return false;
            return string.substring(0, startsWith.length) === startsWith;
        },

        buildEvalWithinScopeFunction: function (expression, scopeLevels) {
            // Build the source for a function that evaluates "expression"
            // For each scope variable, add an extra level of "with" nesting
            // Example result: with(sc[1]) { with(sc[0]) { return (expression) } }
            var functionBody = "return (" + expression + ")";
            for (var i = 0; i < scopeLevels; i++) {
                functionBody = "with(sc[" + i + "]) { " + functionBody + " } ";
            }
            return new Function("sc", functionBody);
        },

        domNodeIsContainedBy: function (node, containedByNode) {
            if (containedByNode.compareDocumentPosition)
                return (containedByNode.compareDocumentPosition(node) & 16) == 16;
            while (node != null) {
                if (node == containedByNode)
                    return true;
                node = node.parentNode;
            }
            return false;
        },

        domNodeIsAttachedToDocument: function (node) {
            return ko.utils.domNodeIsContainedBy(node, node.ownerDocument);
        },

        tagNameLower: function(element) {
            // For HTML elements, tagName will always be upper case; for XHTML elements, it'll be lower case.
            // Possible future optimization: If we know it's an element from an XHTML document (not HTML),
            // we don't need to do the .toLowerCase() as it will always be lower case anyway.
            return element && element.tagName && element.tagName.toLowerCase();
        },

        registerEventHandler: function (element, eventType, handler) {
            var mustUseAttachEvent = ieVersion && eventsThatMustBeRegisteredUsingAttachEvent[eventType];
            if (!mustUseAttachEvent && typeof jQuery != "undefined") {
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType)) {
                    // For click events on checkboxes, jQuery interferes with the event handling in an awkward way:
                    // it toggles the element checked state *after* the click event handlers run, whereas native
                    // click events toggle the checked state *before* the event handler.
                    // Fix this by intecepting the handler and applying the correct checkedness before it runs.
                    var originalHandler = handler;
                    handler = function(event, eventData) {
                        var jQuerySuppliedCheckedState = this.checked;
                        if (eventData)
                            this.checked = eventData.checkedStateBeforeEvent !== true;
                        originalHandler.call(this, event);
                        this.checked = jQuerySuppliedCheckedState; // Restore the state jQuery applied
                    };
                }
                jQuery(element)['bind'](eventType, handler);
            } else if (!mustUseAttachEvent && typeof element.addEventListener == "function")
                element.addEventListener(eventType, handler, false);
            else if (typeof element.attachEvent != "undefined")
                element.attachEvent("on" + eventType, function (event) {
                    handler.call(element, event);
                });
            else
                throw new Error("Browser doesn't support addEventListener or attachEvent");
        },

        triggerEvent: function (element, eventType) {
            if (!(element && element.nodeType))
                throw new Error("element must be a DOM node when calling triggerEvent");

            if (typeof jQuery != "undefined") {
                var eventData = [];
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType)) {
                    // Work around the jQuery "click events on checkboxes" issue described above by storing the original checked state before triggering the handler
                    eventData.push({ checkedStateBeforeEvent: element.checked });
                }
                jQuery(element)['trigger'](eventType, eventData);
            } else if (typeof document.createEvent == "function") {
                if (typeof element.dispatchEvent == "function") {
                    var eventCategory = knownEventTypesByEventName[eventType] || "HTMLEvents";
                    var event = document.createEvent(eventCategory);
                    event.initEvent(eventType, true, true, window, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, false, false, false, false, 0, element);
                    element.dispatchEvent(event);
                }
                else
                    throw new Error("The supplied element doesn't support dispatchEvent");
            } else if (typeof element.fireEvent != "undefined") {
                // Unlike other browsers, IE doesn't change the checked state of checkboxes/radiobuttons when you trigger their "click" event
                // so to make it consistent, we'll do it manually here
                if (isClickOnCheckableElement(element, eventType))
                    element.checked = element.checked !== true;
                element.fireEvent("on" + eventType);
            }
            else
                throw new Error("Browser doesn't support triggering events");
        },

        unwrapObservable: function (value) {
            return ko.isObservable(value) ? value() : value;
        },

        toggleDomNodeCssClass: function (node, className, shouldHaveClass) {
            var currentClassNames = (node.className || "").split(/\s+/);
            var hasClass = ko.utils.arrayIndexOf(currentClassNames, className) >= 0;

            if (shouldHaveClass && !hasClass) {
                node.className += (currentClassNames[0] ? " " : "") + className;
            } else if (hasClass && !shouldHaveClass) {
                var newClassName = "";
                for (var i = 0; i < currentClassNames.length; i++)
                    if (currentClassNames[i] != className)
                        newClassName += currentClassNames[i] + " ";
                node.className = ko.utils.stringTrim(newClassName);
            }
        },

        setTextContent: function(element, textContent) {
            var value = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(textContent);
            if ((value === null) || (value === undefined))
                value = "";

            'innerText' in element ? element.innerText = value
                                   : element.textContent = value;

            if (ieVersion >= 9) {
                // Believe it or not, this actually fixes an IE9 rendering bug
                // (See https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/209)
                element.style.display = element.style.display;
            }
        },

        ensureSelectElementIsRenderedCorrectly: function(selectElement) {
            // Workaround for IE9 rendering bug - it doesn't reliably display all the text in dynamically-added select boxes unless you force it to re-render by updating the width.
            // (See https://github.com/SteveSanderson/knockout/issues/312, http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5908494/select-only-shows-first-char-of-selected-option)
            if (ieVersion >= 9) {
                var originalWidth = selectElement.style.width;
                selectElement.style.width = 0;
                selectElement.style.width = originalWidth;
            }
        },

        range: function (min, max) {
            min = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(min);
            max = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(max);
            var result = [];
            for (var i = min; i <= max; i++)
                result.push(i);
            return result;
        },

        makeArray: function(arrayLikeObject) {
            var result = [];
            for (var i = 0, j = arrayLikeObject.length; i < j; i++) {
                result.push(arrayLikeObject[i]);
            };
            return result;
        },

        isIe6 : isIe6,
        isIe7 : isIe7,
        ieVersion : ieVersion,

        getFormFields: function(form, fieldName) {
            var fields = ko.utils.makeArray(form.getElementsByTagName("input")).concat(ko.utils.makeArray(form.getElementsByTagName("textarea")));
            var isMatchingField = (typeof fieldName == 'string')
                ? function(field) { return field.name === fieldName }
                : function(field) { return fieldName.test(field.name) }; // Treat fieldName as regex or object containing predicate
            var matches = [];
            for (var i = fields.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                if (isMatchingField(fields[i]))
                    matches.push(fields[i]);
            };
            return matches;
        },

        parseJson: function (jsonString) {
            if (typeof jsonString == "string") {
                jsonString = ko.utils.stringTrim(jsonString);
                if (jsonString) {
                    if (window.JSON && window.JSON.parse) // Use native parsing where available
                        return window.JSON.parse(jsonString);
                    return (new Function("return " + jsonString))(); // Fallback on less safe parsing for older browsers
                }
            }
            return null;
        },

        stringifyJson: function (data, replacer, space) {   // replacer and space are optional
            if ((typeof JSON == "undefined") || (typeof JSON.stringify == "undefined"))
                throw new Error("Cannot find JSON.stringify(). Some browsers (e.g., IE < 8) don't support it natively, but you can overcome this by adding a script reference to json2.js, downloadable from http://www.json.org/json2.js");
            return JSON.stringify(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data), replacer, space);
        },

        postJson: function (urlOrForm, data, options) {
            options = options || {};
            var params = options['params'] || {};
            var includeFields = options['includeFields'] || this.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost;
            var url = urlOrForm;

            // If we were given a form, use its 'action' URL and pick out any requested field values
            if((typeof urlOrForm == 'object') && (ko.utils.tagNameLower(urlOrForm) === "form")) {
                var originalForm = urlOrForm;
                url = originalForm.action;
                for (var i = includeFields.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
                    var fields = ko.utils.getFormFields(originalForm, includeFields[i]);
                    for (var j = fields.length - 1; j >= 0; j--)
                        params[fields[j].name] = fields[j].value;
                }
            }

            data = ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data);
            var form = document.createElement("form");
            form.style.display = "none";
            form.action = url;
            form.method = "post";
            for (var key in data) {
                var input = document.createElement("input");
                input.name = key;
                input.value = ko.utils.stringifyJson(ko.utils.unwrapObservable(data[key]));
                form.appendChild(input);
            }
            for (var key in params) {
                var input = document.createElement("input");
                input.name = key;
                input.value = params[key];
                form.appendChild(input);
            }
            document.body.appendChild(form);
            options['submitter'] ? options['submitter'](form) : form.submit();
            setTimeout(function () { form.parentNode.removeChild(form); }, 0);
        }
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils', ko.utils);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayForEach', ko.utils.arrayForEach);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayFirst', ko.utils.arrayFirst);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayFilter', ko.utils.arrayFilter);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayGetDistinctValues', ko.utils.arrayGetDistinctValues);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayIndexOf', ko.utils.arrayIndexOf);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayMap', ko.utils.arrayMap);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayPushAll', ko.utils.arrayPushAll);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.arrayRemoveItem', ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.extend', ko.utils.extend);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost', ko.utils.fieldsIncludedWithJsonPost);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.getFormFields', ko.utils.getFormFields);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.postJson', ko.utils.postJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.parseJson', ko.utils.parseJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.registerEventHandler', ko.utils.registerEventHandler);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.stringifyJson', ko.utils.stringifyJson);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.range', ko.utils.range);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.toggleDomNodeCssClass', ko.utils.toggleDomNodeCssClass);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.triggerEvent', ko.utils.triggerEvent);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.unwrapObservable', ko.utils.unwrapObservable);

if (!Function.prototype['bind']) {
    // Function.prototype.bind is a standard part of ECMAScript 5th Edition (December 2009, http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-262.pdf)
    // In case the browser doesn't implement it natively, provide a JavaScript implementation. This implementation is based on the one in prototype.js
    Function.prototype['bind'] = function (object) {
        var originalFunction = this, args = Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments), object = args.shift();
        return function () {
            return originalFunction.apply(object, args.concat(Array.prototype.slice.call(arguments)));
        };
    };
}

ko.utils.domData = new (function () {
    var uniqueId = 0;
    var dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName = "__ko__" + (new Date).getTime();
    var dataStore = {};
    return {
        get: function (node, key) {
            var allDataForNode = ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, false);
            return allDataForNode === undefined ? undefined : allDataForNode[key];
        },
        set: function (node, key, value) {
            if (value === undefined) {
                // Make sure we don't actually create a new domData key if we are actually deleting a value
                if (ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, false) === undefined)
                    return;
            }
            var allDataForNode = ko.utils.domData.getAll(node, true);
            allDataForNode[key] = value;
        },
        getAll: function (node, createIfNotFound) {
            var dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName];
            var hasExistingDataStore = dataStoreKey && (dataStoreKey !== "null");
            if (!hasExistingDataStore) {
                if (!createIfNotFound)
                    return undefined;
                dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName] = "ko" + uniqueId++;
                dataStore[dataStoreKey] = {};
            }
            return dataStore[dataStoreKey];
        },
        clear: function (node) {
            var dataStoreKey = node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName];
            if (dataStoreKey) {
                delete dataStore[dataStoreKey];
                node[dataStoreKeyExpandoPropertyName] = null;
            }
        }
    }
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.domData', ko.utils.domData);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domData.clear', ko.utils.domData.clear); // Exporting only so specs can clear up after themselves fully

ko.utils.domNodeDisposal = new (function () {
    var domDataKey = "__ko_domNodeDisposal__" + (new Date).getTime();
    var cleanableNodeTypes = { 1: true, 8: true, 9: true };       // Element, Comment, Document
    var cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants = { 1: true, 9: true }; // Element, Document

    function getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, createIfNotFound) {
        var allDisposeCallbacks = ko.utils.domData.get(node, domDataKey);
        if ((allDisposeCallbacks === undefined) && createIfNotFound) {
            allDisposeCallbacks = [];
            ko.utils.domData.set(node, domDataKey, allDisposeCallbacks);
        }
        return allDisposeCallbacks;
    }
    function destroyCallbacksCollection(node) {
        ko.utils.domData.set(node, domDataKey, undefined);
    }

    function cleanSingleNode(node) {
        // Run all the dispose callbacks
        var callbacks = getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, false);
        if (callbacks) {
            callbacks = callbacks.slice(0); // Clone, as the array may be modified during iteration (typically, callbacks will remove themselves)
            for (var i = 0; i < callbacks.length; i++)
                callbacks[i](node);
        }

        // Also erase the DOM data
        ko.utils.domData.clear(node);

        // Special support for jQuery here because it's so commonly used.
        // Many jQuery plugins (including jquery.tmpl) store data using jQuery's equivalent of domData
        // so notify it to tear down any resources associated with the node & descendants here.
        if ((typeof jQuery == "function") && (typeof jQuery['cleanData'] == "function"))
            jQuery['cleanData']([node]);

        // Also clear any immediate-child comment nodes, as these wouldn't have been found by
        // node.getElementsByTagName("*") in cleanNode() (comment nodes aren't elements)
        if (cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants[node.nodeType])
            cleanImmediateCommentTypeChildren(node);
    }

    function cleanImmediateCommentTypeChildren(nodeWithChildren) {
        var child, nextChild = nodeWithChildren.firstChild;
        while (child = nextChild) {
            nextChild = child.nextSibling;
            if (child.nodeType === 8)
                cleanSingleNode(child);
        }
    }

    return {
        addDisposeCallback : function(node, callback) {
            if (typeof callback != "function")
                throw new Error("Callback must be a function");
            getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, true).push(callback);
        },

        removeDisposeCallback : function(node, callback) {
            var callbacksCollection = getDisposeCallbacksCollection(node, false);
            if (callbacksCollection) {
                ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem(callbacksCollection, callback);
                if (callbacksCollection.length == 0)
                    destroyCallbacksCollection(node);
            }
        },

        cleanNode : function(node) {
            // First clean this node, where applicable
            if (cleanableNodeTypes[node.nodeType]) {
                cleanSingleNode(node);

                // ... then its descendants, where applicable
                if (cleanableNodeTypesWithDescendants[node.nodeType]) {
                    // Clone the descendants list in case it changes during iteration
                    var descendants = [];
                    ko.utils.arrayPushAll(descendants, node.getElementsByTagName("*"));
                    for (var i = 0, j = descendants.length; i < j; i++)
                        cleanSingleNode(descendants[i]);
                }
            }
        },

        removeNode : function(node) {
            ko.cleanNode(node);
            if (node.parentNode)
                node.parentNode.removeChild(node);
        }
    }
})();
ko.cleanNode = ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.cleanNode; // Shorthand name for convenience
ko.removeNode = ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.removeNode; // Shorthand name for convenience
ko.exportSymbol('cleanNode', ko.cleanNode);
ko.exportSymbol('removeNode', ko.removeNode);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal.addDisposeCallback', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.addDisposeCallback);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.domNodeDisposal.removeDisposeCallback', ko.utils.domNodeDisposal.removeDisposeCallback);
(function () {
    var leadingCommentRegex = /^(\s*)<!--(.*?)-->/;

    function simpleHtmlParse(html) {
        // Based on jQuery's "clean" function, but only accounting for table-related elements.
        // If you have referenced jQuery, this won't be used anyway - KO will use jQuery's "clean" function directly

        // Note that there's still an issue in IE < 9 whereby it will discard comment nodes that are the first child of
        // a descendant node. For example: "<div><!-- mycomment -->abc</div>" will get parsed as "<div>abc</div>"
        // This won't affect anyone who has referenced jQuery, and there's always the workaround of inserting a dummy node
        // (possibly a text node) in front of the comment. So, KO does not attempt to workaround this IE issue automatically at present.

        // Trim whitespace, otherwise indexOf won't work as expected
        var tags = ko.utils.stringTrim(html).toLowerCase(), div = document.createElement("div");

        // Finds the first match from the left column, and returns the corresponding "wrap" data from the right column
        var wrap = tags.match(/^<(thead|tbody|tfoot)/)              && [1, "<table>", "</table>"] ||
                   !tags.indexOf("<tr")                             && [2, "<table><tbody>", "</tbody></table>"] ||
                   (!tags.indexOf("<td") || !tags.indexOf("<th"))   && [3, "<table><tbody><tr>", "</tr></tbody></table>"] ||
                   /* anything else */                                 [0, "", ""];

        // Go to html and back, then peel off extra wrappers
        // Note that we always prefix with some dummy text, because otherwise, IE<9 will strip out leading comment nodes in descendants. Total madness.
        var markup = "ignored<div>" + wrap[1] + html + wrap[2] + "</div>";
        if (typeof window['innerShiv'] == "function") {
            div.appendChild(window['innerShiv'](markup));
        } else {
            div.innerHTML = markup;
        }

        // Move to the right depth
        while (wrap[0]--)
            div = div.lastChild;

        return ko.utils.makeArray(div.lastChild.childNodes);
    }

    function jQueryHtmlParse(html) {
        var elems = jQuery['clean']([html]);

        // As of jQuery 1.7.1, jQuery parses the HTML by appending it to some dummy parent nodes held in an in-memory document fragment.
        // Unfortunately, it never clears the dummy parent nodes from the document fragment, so it leaks memory over time.
        // Fix this by finding the top-most dummy parent element, and detaching it from its owner fragment.
        if (elems && elems[0]) {
            // Find the top-most parent element that's a direct child of a document fragment
            var elem = elems[0];
            while (elem.parentNode && elem.parentNode.nodeType !== 11 /* i.e., DocumentFragment */)
                elem = elem.parentNode;
            // ... then detach it
            if (elem.parentNode)
                elem.parentNode.removeChild(elem);
        }

        return elems;
    }

    ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment = function(html) {
        return typeof jQuery != 'undefined' ? jQueryHtmlParse(html)   // As below, benefit from jQuery's optimisations where possible
                                            : simpleHtmlParse(html);  // ... otherwise, this simple logic will do in most common cases.
    };

    ko.utils.setHtml = function(node, html) {
        ko.utils.emptyDomNode(node);

        if ((html !== null) && (html !== undefined)) {
            if (typeof html != 'string')
                html = html.toString();

            // jQuery contains a lot of sophisticated code to parse arbitrary HTML fragments,
            // for example <tr> elements which are not normally allowed to exist on their own.
            // If you've referenced jQuery we'll use that rather than duplicating its code.
            if (typeof jQuery != 'undefined') {
                jQuery(node)['html'](html);
            } else {
                // ... otherwise, use KO's own parsing logic.
                var parsedNodes = ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment(html);
                for (var i = 0; i < parsedNodes.length; i++)
                    node.appendChild(parsedNodes[i]);
            }
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('utils.parseHtmlFragment', ko.utils.parseHtmlFragment);
ko.exportSymbol('utils.setHtml', ko.utils.setHtml);

ko.memoization = (function () {
    var memos = {};

    function randomMax8HexChars() {
        return (((1 + Math.random()) * 0x100000000) | 0).toString(16).substring(1);
    }
    function generateRandomId() {
        return randomMax8HexChars() + randomMax8HexChars();
    }
    function findMemoNodes(rootNode, appendToArray) {
        if (!rootNode)
            return;
        if (rootNode.nodeType == 8) {
            var memoId = ko.memoization.parseMemoText(rootNode.nodeValue);
            if (memoId != null)
                appendToArray.push({ domNode: rootNode, memoId: memoId });
        } else if (rootNode.nodeType == 1) {
            for (var i = 0, childNodes = rootNode.childNodes, j = childNodes.length; i < j; i++)
                findMemoNodes(childNodes[i], appendToArray);
        }
    }

    return {
        memoize: function (callback) {
            if (typeof callback != "function")
                throw new Error("You can only pass a function to ko.memoization.memoize()");
            var memoId = generateRandomId();
            memos[memoId] = callback;
            return "<!--[ko_memo:" + memoId + "]-->";
        },

        unmemoize: function (memoId, callbackParams) {
            var callback = memos[memoId];
            if (callback === undefined)
                throw new Error("Couldn't find any memo with ID " + memoId + ". Perhaps it's already been unmemoized.");
            try {
                callback.apply(null, callbackParams || []);
                return true;
            }
            finally { delete memos[memoId]; }
        },

        unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants: function (domNode, extraCallbackParamsArray) {
            var memos = [];
            findMemoNodes(domNode, memos);
            for (var i = 0, j = memos.length; i < j; i++) {
                var node = memos[i].domNode;
                var combinedParams = [node];
                if (extraCallbackParamsArray)
                    ko.utils.arrayPushAll(combinedParams, extraCallbackParamsArray);
                ko.memoization.unmemoize(memos[i].memoId, combinedParams);
                node.nodeValue = ""; // Neuter this node so we don't try to unmemoize it again
                if (node.parentNode)
                    node.parentNode.removeChild(node); // If possible, erase it totally (not always possible - someone else might just hold a reference to it then call unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants again)
            }
        },

        parseMemoText: function (memoText) {
            var match = memoText.match(/^\[ko_memo\:(.*?)\]$/);
            return match ? match[1] : null;
        }
    };
})();

ko.exportSymbol('memoization', ko.memoization);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.memoize', ko.memoization.memoize);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.unmemoize', ko.memoization.unmemoize);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.parseMemoText', ko.memoization.parseMemoText);
ko.exportSymbol('memoization.unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants', ko.memoization.unmemoizeDomNodeAndDescendants);
ko.extenders = {
    'throttle': function(target, timeout) {
        // Throttling means two things:

        // (1) For dependent observables, we throttle *evaluations* so that, no matter how fast its dependencies
        //     notify updates, the target doesn't re-evaluate (and hence doesn't notify) faster than a certain rate
        target['throttleEvaluation'] = timeout;

        // (2) For writable targets (observables, or writable dependent observables), we throttle *writes*
        //     so the target cannot change value synchronously or faster than a certain rate
        var writeTimeoutInstance = null;
        return ko.dependentObservable({
            'read': target,
            'write': function(value) {
                clearTimeout(writeTimeoutInstance);
                writeTimeoutInstance = setTimeout(function() {
                    target(value);
                }, timeout);
            }
        });
    },

    'notify': function(target, notifyWhen) {
        target["equalityComparer"] = notifyWhen == "always"
            ? function() { return false } // Treat all values as not equal
            : ko.observable["fn"]["equalityComparer"];
        return target;
    }
};

function applyExtenders(requestedExtenders) {
    var target = this;
    if (requestedExtenders) {
        for (var key in requestedExtenders) {
            var extenderHandler = ko.extenders[key];
            if (typeof extenderHandler == 'function') {
                target = extenderHandler(target, requestedExtenders[key]);
            }
        }
    }
    return target;
}

ko.exportSymbol('extenders', ko.extenders);

ko.subscription = function (target, callback, disposeCallback) {
    this.target = target;
    this.callback = callback;
    this.disposeCallback = disposeCallback;
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'dispose', this.dispose);
};
ko.subscription.prototype.dispose = function () {
    this.isDisposed = true;
    this.disposeCallback();
};

ko.subscribable = function () {
    this._subscriptions = {};

    ko.utils.extend(this, ko.subscribable['fn']);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'subscribe', this.subscribe);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'extend', this.extend);
    ko.exportProperty(this, 'getSubscriptionsCount', this.getSubscriptionsCount);
}

var defaultEvent = "change";

ko.subscribable['fn'] = {
    subscribe: function (callback, callbackTarget, event) {
        event = event || defaultEvent;
        var boundCallback = callbackTarget ? callback.bind(callbackTarget) : callback;

        var subscription = new ko.subscription(this, boundCallback, function () {
            ko.utils.arrayRemoveItem(this._subscriptions[event], subscription);
        }.bind(this));

        if (!this._subscriptions[event])
            this._subscriptions[event] = [];
        this._subscriptions[event].push(subscription);
        return subscription;
    },

    "notifySubscribers": function (valueToNotify, event) {
        event = event || defaultEvent;
        if (this._subscriptions[event]) {
            ko.utils.arrayForEach(this._subscriptions[event].slice(0), function (subscription) {
                // In case a subscription was disposed during the arrayForEach cycle, check
                // for isDisposed on each subscription before invoking its callback
                if (subscription && (subscription.isDisposed !== true))
                    subscription.callback(valueToNotify);
            });
        }
    },

    getSubscriptionsCount: function () {
        var total = 0;
        for (var eventName in this._subscriptions) {
            if (this._subscriptions.hasOwnProperty(eventName))
                total += this._subscriptions[eventName].length;
        }
        return total;
    },

    extend: applyExtenders
};


ko.isSubscribable = function (instance) {
    return typeof instance.subscribe == "function" && typeof instance["notifySubscribers"] == "function";
};

ko.exportSymbol('subscribable', ko.subscribable);
ko.exportSymbol('isSubscribable', ko.isSubscribable);

ko.dependencyDetection = (function () {
    var _frames = [];

    return {
        begin: function (callback) {