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Anatomy of HTML5/JavaScript Single Page Application in Samples (basics, navigation, composition, communications with the server)

, 20 Dec 2012
Describes Single Page Applications and a new BPF Framework that helps to develop SPAs.
BPF.zip
BPF
bpf.js.bundle
bpf.min.js.map
UsefulBPFPlugins
SPA_ARTICLE_CODE.zip
SPA_ARTICLE_CODE
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample.csproj.user
ChainOfPluginsCompositionSample.v11.suo
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ComplexProductNavigationTest
ComplexProductNavigationTest.csproj.user
ComplexProductNavigationTest.v11.suo
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
CompositionAndNavigationSample
CompositionAndNavigationSample.csproj.user
CompositionAndNavigationSample.v11.suo
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HTML
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation.csproj.user
HierarchicalSPAWithNavigation.v11.suo
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ParameterizedPluginSample
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
ParameterizedPluginSample.sln~
ParameterizedPluginSample.v11.suo
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ParamNavigationTest
ParamNavigationTest.v11.suo
ParamNavigationTest
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
HTML
ParamNavigationTest.csproj.user
Properties
Scripts
BPF
ViewModels
TestResults
SilverlightPluginSample
ClientBin
AnimatedBanner.xap
MultiplePointPathAnimation.xap
RunningLetters.xap
HTML
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SilverlightPluginSample.csproj.user
SilverlightPluginSample.v11.suo
SimpleCompositionSample
HTML
Images
busy_indicator.gif
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SimpleCompositionSample.csproj.user
SimpleCompositionSample.v11.suo
SimpleProductNavigationTest
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
SimpleProductNavigationTest.csproj.user
SimpleProductNavigationTest.v11.suo
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Models
Properties
Scripts
Service References
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer.suo
SPA_POSTingObjectToServer.v11.suo
SPAComplexObjectGetter
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Models
Properties
Scripts
SPAComplexObjectGetter.csproj.user
SPAComplexObjectGetter.sln~
SPAComplexObjectGetter.suo
SPAComplexObjectGetter.v11.suo
SPAServerStringCommunications
App_Data
App_Start
Controllers
Global.asax
Properties
Scripts
SPAServerStringCommunications.csproj.user
SPAServerStringCommunications.suo
SPAServerStringCommunications.v11.suo
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp
Properties
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp.csproj.user
TwoPageOrdinaryHTMLApp.suo
TwoPageSPA
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
TwoPageSPA.csproj.user
TwoPageSPA.suo
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
BPF
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation.csproj.user
TwoPageSPAWithNavigation.v11.suo
TwoPageSPAWithTabs
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
packages
jQuery.1.8.3
Content
Scripts
jQuery.1.8.3.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2
Content
Content
themes
base
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
minified
images
ui-bg_flat_0_aaaaaa_40x100.png
ui-bg_flat_75_ffffff_40x100.png
ui-bg_glass_55_fbf9ee_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_65_ffffff_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_dadada_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_75_e6e6e6_1x400.png
ui-bg_glass_95_fef1ec_1x400.png
ui-bg_highlight-soft_75_cccccc_1x100.png
ui-icons_222222_256x240.png
ui-icons_2e83ff_256x240.png
ui-icons_454545_256x240.png
ui-icons_888888_256x240.png
ui-icons_cd0a0a_256x240.png
Scripts
jQuery.UI.Combined.1.9.2.nupkg
Tools
common.ps1
install.ps1
uninstall.ps1
Properties
Scripts
TwoPageSPAWithTabs.csproj.user
TwoPageSPAWithTabs.suo
//     Underscore.js 1.4.0
//     http://underscorejs.org
//     (c) 2009-2012 Jeremy Ashkenas, DocumentCloud Inc.
//     Underscore may be freely distributed under the MIT license.

(function() {

  // Baseline setup
  // --------------

  // Establish the root object, `window` in the browser, or `global` on the server.
  var root = this;

  // Save the previous value of the `_` variable.
  var previousUnderscore = root._;

  // Establish the object that gets returned to break out of a loop iteration.
  var breaker = {};

  // Save bytes in the minified (but not gzipped) version:
  var ArrayProto = Array.prototype, ObjProto = Object.prototype, FuncProto = Function.prototype;

  // Create quick reference variables for speed access to core prototypes.
  var push             = ArrayProto.push,
      slice            = ArrayProto.slice,
      concat           = ArrayProto.concat,
      unshift          = ArrayProto.unshift,
      toString         = ObjProto.toString,
      hasOwnProperty   = ObjProto.hasOwnProperty;

  // All **ECMAScript 5** native function implementations that we hope to use
  // are declared here.
  var
    nativeForEach      = ArrayProto.forEach,
    nativeMap          = ArrayProto.map,
    nativeReduce       = ArrayProto.reduce,
    nativeReduceRight  = ArrayProto.reduceRight,
    nativeFilter       = ArrayProto.filter,
    nativeEvery        = ArrayProto.every,
    nativeSome         = ArrayProto.some,
    nativeIndexOf      = ArrayProto.indexOf,
    nativeLastIndexOf  = ArrayProto.lastIndexOf,
    nativeIsArray      = Array.isArray,
    nativeKeys         = Object.keys,
    nativeBind         = FuncProto.bind;

  // Create a safe reference to the Underscore object for use below.
  var _ = function(obj) {
    if (obj instanceof _) return obj;
    if (!(this instanceof _)) return new _(obj);
    this._wrapped = obj;
  };

  // Export the Underscore object for **Node.js**, with
  // backwards-compatibility for the old `require()` API. If we're in
  // the browser, add `_` as a global object via a string identifier,
  // for Closure Compiler "advanced" mode.
  if (typeof exports !== 'undefined') {
    if (typeof module !== 'undefined' && module.exports) {
      exports = module.exports = _;
    }
    exports._ = _;
  } else {
    root['_'] = _;
  }

  // Current version.
  _.VERSION = '1.4.0';

  // Collection Functions
  // --------------------

  // The cornerstone, an `each` implementation, aka `forEach`.
  // Handles objects with the built-in `forEach`, arrays, and raw objects.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `forEach` if available.
  var each = _.each = _.forEach = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (nativeForEach && obj.forEach === nativeForEach) {
      obj.forEach(iterator, context);
    } else if (obj.length === +obj.length) {
      for (var i = 0, l = obj.length; i < l; i++) {
        if (iterator.call(context, obj[i], i, obj) === breaker) return;
      }
    } else {
      for (var key in obj) {
        if (_.has(obj, key)) {
          if (iterator.call(context, obj[key], key, obj) === breaker) return;
        }
      }
    }
  };

  // Return the results of applying the iterator to each element.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `map` if available.
  _.map = _.collect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var results = [];
    if (nativeMap && obj.map === nativeMap) return obj.map(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      results[results.length] = iterator.call(context, value, index, list);
    });
    return results;
  };

  // **Reduce** builds up a single result from a list of values, aka `inject`,
  // or `foldl`. Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduce` if available.
  _.reduce = _.foldl = _.inject = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
    var initial = arguments.length > 2;
    if (nativeReduce && obj.reduce === nativeReduce) {
      if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
      return initial ? obj.reduce(iterator, memo) : obj.reduce(iterator);
    }
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (!initial) {
        memo = value;
        initial = true;
      } else {
        memo = iterator.call(context, memo, value, index, list);
      }
    });
    if (!initial) throw new TypeError('Reduce of empty array with no initial value');
    return memo;
  };

  // The right-associative version of reduce, also known as `foldr`.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `reduceRight` if available.
  _.reduceRight = _.foldr = function(obj, iterator, memo, context) {
    var initial = arguments.length > 2;
    if (nativeReduceRight && obj.reduceRight === nativeReduceRight) {
      if (context) iterator = _.bind(iterator, context);
      return arguments.length > 2 ? obj.reduceRight(iterator, memo) : obj.reduceRight(iterator);
    }
    var length = obj.length;
    if (length !== +length) {
      var keys = _.keys(obj);
      length = keys.length;
    }
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      index = keys ? keys[--length] : --length;
      if (!initial) {
        memo = obj[index];
        initial = true;
      } else {
        memo = iterator.call(context, memo, obj[index], index, list);
      }
    });
    if (!initial) throw new TypeError('Reduce of empty array with no initial value');
    return memo;
  };

  // Return the first value which passes a truth test. Aliased as `detect`.
  _.find = _.detect = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var result;
    any(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) {
        result = value;
        return true;
      }
    });
    return result;
  };

  // Return all the elements that pass a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `filter` if available.
  // Aliased as `select`.
  _.filter = _.select = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var results = [];
    if (nativeFilter && obj.filter === nativeFilter) return obj.filter(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
    });
    return results;
  };

  // Return all the elements for which a truth test fails.
  _.reject = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    var results = [];
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (!iterator.call(context, value, index, list)) results[results.length] = value;
    });
    return results;
  };

  // Determine whether all of the elements match a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `every` if available.
  // Aliased as `all`.
  _.every = _.all = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
    var result = true;
    if (nativeEvery && obj.every === nativeEvery) return obj.every(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (!(result = result && iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
    });
    return !!result;
  };

  // Determine if at least one element in the object matches a truth test.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `some` if available.
  // Aliased as `any`.
  var any = _.some = _.any = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator || (iterator = _.identity);
    var result = false;
    if (nativeSome && obj.some === nativeSome) return obj.some(iterator, context);
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      if (result || (result = iterator.call(context, value, index, list))) return breaker;
    });
    return !!result;
  };

  // Determine if the array or object contains a given value (using `===`).
  // Aliased as `include`.
  _.contains = _.include = function(obj, target) {
    var found = false;
    if (nativeIndexOf && obj.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return obj.indexOf(target) != -1;
    found = any(obj, function(value) {
      return value === target;
    });
    return found;
  };

  // Invoke a method (with arguments) on every item in a collection.
  _.invoke = function(obj, method) {
    var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    return _.map(obj, function(value) {
      return (_.isFunction(method) ? method : value[method]).apply(value, args);
    });
  };

  // Convenience version of a common use case of `map`: fetching a property.
  _.pluck = function(obj, key) {
    return _.map(obj, function(value){ return value[key]; });
  };

  // Convenience version of a common use case of `filter`: selecting only objects
  // with specific `key:value` pairs.
  _.where = function(obj, attrs) {
    if (_.isEmpty(attrs)) return [];
    return _.filter(obj, function(value) {
      for (var key in attrs) {
        if (attrs[key] !== value[key]) return false;
      }
      return true;
    });
  };

  // Return the maximum element or (element-based computation).
  // Can't optimize arrays of integers longer than 65,535 elements.
  // See: https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=80797
  _.max = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
      return Math.max.apply(Math, obj);
    }
    if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return -Infinity;
    var result = {computed : -Infinity};
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
      computed >= result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
    });
    return result.value;
  };

  // Return the minimum element (or element-based computation).
  _.min = function(obj, iterator, context) {
    if (!iterator && _.isArray(obj) && obj[0] === +obj[0] && obj.length < 65535) {
      return Math.min.apply(Math, obj);
    }
    if (!iterator && _.isEmpty(obj)) return Infinity;
    var result = {computed : Infinity};
    each(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      var computed = iterator ? iterator.call(context, value, index, list) : value;
      computed < result.computed && (result = {value : value, computed : computed});
    });
    return result.value;
  };

  // Shuffle an array.
  _.shuffle = function(obj) {
    var rand;
    var index = 0;
    var shuffled = [];
    each(obj, function(value) {
      rand = _.random(index++);
      shuffled[index - 1] = shuffled[rand];
      shuffled[rand] = value;
    });
    return shuffled;
  };

  // An internal function to generate lookup iterators.
  var lookupIterator = function(value) {
    return _.isFunction(value) ? value : function(obj){ return obj[value]; };
  };

  // Sort the object's values by a criterion produced by an iterator.
  _.sortBy = function(obj, value, context) {
    var iterator = lookupIterator(value);
    return _.pluck(_.map(obj, function(value, index, list) {
      return {
        value : value,
        index : index,
        criteria : iterator.call(context, value, index, list)
      };
    }).sort(function(left, right) {
      var a = left.criteria;
      var b = right.criteria;
      if (a !== b) {
        if (a > b || a === void 0) return 1;
        if (a < b || b === void 0) return -1;
      }
      return left.index < right.index ? -1 : 1;
    }), 'value');
  };

  // An internal function used for aggregate "group by" operations.
  var group = function(obj, value, context, behavior) {
    var result = {};
    var iterator = lookupIterator(value);
    each(obj, function(value, index) {
      var key = iterator.call(context, value, index, obj);
      behavior(result, key, value);
    });
    return result;
  };

  // Groups the object's values by a criterion. Pass either a string attribute
  // to group by, or a function that returns the criterion.
  _.groupBy = function(obj, value, context) {
    return group(obj, value, context, function(result, key, value) {
      (_.has(result, key) ? result[key] : (result[key] = [])).push(value);
    });
  };

  // Counts instances of an object that group by a certain criterion. Pass
  // either a string attribute to count by, or a function that returns the
  // criterion.
  _.countBy = function(obj, value, context) {
    return group(obj, value, context, function(result, key, value) {
      if (!_.has(result, key)) result[key] = 0;
      result[key]++;
    });
  };

  // Use a comparator function to figure out the smallest index at which
  // an object should be inserted so as to maintain order. Uses binary search.
  _.sortedIndex = function(array, obj, iterator, context) {
    iterator = iterator == null ? _.identity : lookupIterator(iterator);
    var value = iterator.call(context, obj);
    var low = 0, high = array.length;
    while (low < high) {
      var mid = (low + high) >>> 1;
      iterator.call(context, array[mid]) < value ? low = mid + 1 : high = mid;
    }
    return low;
  };

  // Safely convert anything iterable into a real, live array.
  _.toArray = function(obj) {
    if (!obj) return [];
    if (obj.length === +obj.length) return slice.call(obj);
    return _.values(obj);
  };

  // Return the number of elements in an object.
  _.size = function(obj) {
    return (obj.length === +obj.length) ? obj.length : _.keys(obj).length;
  };

  // Array Functions
  // ---------------

  // Get the first element of an array. Passing **n** will return the first N
  // values in the array. Aliased as `head` and `take`. The **guard** check
  // allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.first = _.head = _.take = function(array, n, guard) {
    return (n != null) && !guard ? slice.call(array, 0, n) : array[0];
  };

  // Returns everything but the last entry of the array. Especially useful on
  // the arguments object. Passing **n** will return all the values in
  // the array, excluding the last N. The **guard** check allows it to work with
  // `_.map`.
  _.initial = function(array, n, guard) {
    return slice.call(array, 0, array.length - ((n == null) || guard ? 1 : n));
  };

  // Get the last element of an array. Passing **n** will return the last N
  // values in the array. The **guard** check allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.last = function(array, n, guard) {
    if ((n != null) && !guard) {
      return slice.call(array, Math.max(array.length - n, 0));
    } else {
      return array[array.length - 1];
    }
  };

  // Returns everything but the first entry of the array. Aliased as `tail` and `drop`.
  // Especially useful on the arguments object. Passing an **n** will return
  // the rest N values in the array. The **guard**
  // check allows it to work with `_.map`.
  _.rest = _.tail = _.drop = function(array, n, guard) {
    return slice.call(array, (n == null) || guard ? 1 : n);
  };

  // Trim out all falsy values from an array.
  _.compact = function(array) {
    return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !!value; });
  };

  // Internal implementation of a recursive `flatten` function.
  var flatten = function(input, shallow, output) {
    each(input, function(value) {
      if (_.isArray(value)) {
        shallow ? push.apply(output, value) : flatten(value, shallow, output);
      } else {
        output.push(value);
      }
    });
    return output;
  };

  // Return a completely flattened version of an array.
  _.flatten = function(array, shallow) {
    return flatten(array, shallow, []);
  };

  // Return a version of the array that does not contain the specified value(s).
  _.without = function(array) {
    return _.difference(array, slice.call(arguments, 1));
  };

  // Produce a duplicate-free version of the array. If the array has already
  // been sorted, you have the option of using a faster algorithm.
  // Aliased as `unique`.
  _.uniq = _.unique = function(array, isSorted, iterator, context) {
    var initial = iterator ? _.map(array, iterator, context) : array;
    var results = [];
    var seen = [];
    each(initial, function(value, index) {
      if (isSorted ? (!index || seen[seen.length - 1] !== value) : !_.contains(seen, value)) {
        seen.push(value);
        results.push(array[index]);
      }
    });
    return results;
  };

  // Produce an array that contains the union: each distinct element from all of
  // the passed-in arrays.
  _.union = function() {
    return _.uniq(concat.apply(ArrayProto, arguments));
  };

  // Produce an array that contains every item shared between all the
  // passed-in arrays.
  _.intersection = function(array) {
    var rest = slice.call(arguments, 1);
    return _.filter(_.uniq(array), function(item) {
      return _.every(rest, function(other) {
        return _.indexOf(other, item) >= 0;
      });
    });
  };

  // Take the difference between one array and a number of other arrays.
  // Only the elements present in just the first array will remain.
  _.difference = function(array) {
    var rest = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    return _.filter(array, function(value){ return !_.contains(rest, value); });
  };

  // Zip together multiple lists into a single array -- elements that share
  // an index go together.
  _.zip = function() {
    var args = slice.call(arguments);
    var length = _.max(_.pluck(args, 'length'));
    var results = new Array(length);
    for (var i = 0; i < length; i++) {
      results[i] = _.pluck(args, "" + i);
    }
    return results;
  };

  // Converts lists into objects. Pass either a single array of `[key, value]`
  // pairs, or two parallel arrays of the same length -- one of keys, and one of
  // the corresponding values.
  _.object = function(list, values) {
    var result = {};
    for (var i = 0, l = list.length; i < l; i++) {
      if (values) {
        result[list[i]] = values[i];
      } else {
        result[list[i][0]] = list[i][1];
      }
    }
    return result;
  };

  // If the browser doesn't supply us with indexOf (I'm looking at you, **MSIE**),
  // we need this function. Return the position of the first occurrence of an
  // item in an array, or -1 if the item is not included in the array.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `indexOf` if available.
  // If the array is large and already in sort order, pass `true`
  // for **isSorted** to use binary search.
  _.indexOf = function(array, item, isSorted) {
    var i = 0, l = array.length;
    if (isSorted) {
      if (typeof isSorted == 'number') {
        i = (isSorted < 0 ? Math.max(0, l + isSorted) : isSorted);
      } else {
        i = _.sortedIndex(array, item);
        return array[i] === item ? i : -1;
      }
    }
    if (nativeIndexOf && array.indexOf === nativeIndexOf) return array.indexOf(item, isSorted);
    for (; i < l; i++) if (array[i] === item) return i;
    return -1;
  };

  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `lastIndexOf` if available.
  _.lastIndexOf = function(array, item, fromIndex) {
    if (nativeLastIndexOf && array.lastIndexOf === nativeLastIndexOf) return array.lastIndexOf(item, fromIndex);
    var i = (fromIndex != null ? fromIndex : array.length);
    while (i--) if (array[i] === item) return i;
    return -1;
  };

  // Generate an integer Array containing an arithmetic progression. A port of
  // the native Python `range()` function. See
  // [the Python documentation](http://docs.python.org/library/functions.html#range).
  _.range = function(start, stop, step) {
    if (arguments.length <= 1) {
      stop = start || 0;
      start = 0;
    }
    step = arguments[2] || 1;

    var len = Math.max(Math.ceil((stop - start) / step), 0);
    var idx = 0;
    var range = new Array(len);

    while(idx < len) {
      range[idx++] = start;
      start += step;
    }

    return range;
  };

  // Function (ahem) Functions
  // ------------------

  // Reusable constructor function for prototype setting.
  var ctor = function(){};

  // Create a function bound to a given object (assigning `this`, and arguments,
  // optionally). Binding with arguments is also known as `curry`.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Function.bind` if available.
  // We check for `func.bind` first, to fail fast when `func` is undefined.
  _.bind = function bind(func, context) {
    var bound, args;
    if (func.bind === nativeBind && nativeBind) return nativeBind.apply(func, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    if (!_.isFunction(func)) throw new TypeError;
    args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    return bound = function() {
      if (!(this instanceof bound)) return func.apply(context, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
      ctor.prototype = func.prototype;
      var self = new ctor;
      var result = func.apply(self, args.concat(slice.call(arguments)));
      if (Object(result) === result) return result;
      return self;
    };
  };

  // Bind all of an object's methods to that object. Useful for ensuring that
  // all callbacks defined on an object belong to it.
  _.bindAll = function(obj) {
    var funcs = slice.call(arguments, 1);
    if (funcs.length == 0) funcs = _.functions(obj);
    each(funcs, function(f) { obj[f] = _.bind(obj[f], obj); });
    return obj;
  };

  // Memoize an expensive function by storing its results.
  _.memoize = function(func, hasher) {
    var memo = {};
    hasher || (hasher = _.identity);
    return function() {
      var key = hasher.apply(this, arguments);
      return _.has(memo, key) ? memo[key] : (memo[key] = func.apply(this, arguments));
    };
  };

  // Delays a function for the given number of milliseconds, and then calls
  // it with the arguments supplied.
  _.delay = function(func, wait) {
    var args = slice.call(arguments, 2);
    return setTimeout(function(){ return func.apply(null, args); }, wait);
  };

  // Defers a function, scheduling it to run after the current call stack has
  // cleared.
  _.defer = function(func) {
    return _.delay.apply(_, [func, 1].concat(slice.call(arguments, 1)));
  };

  // Returns a function, that, when invoked, will only be triggered at most once
  // during a given window of time.
  _.throttle = function(func, wait) {
    var context, args, timeout, throttling, more, result;
    var whenDone = _.debounce(function(){ more = throttling = false; }, wait);
    return function() {
      context = this; args = arguments;
      var later = function() {
        timeout = null;
        if (more) {
          result = func.apply(context, args);
        }
        whenDone();
      };
      if (!timeout) timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
      if (throttling) {
        more = true;
      } else {
        throttling = true;
        result = func.apply(context, args);
      }
      whenDone();
      return result;
    };
  };

  // Returns a function, that, as long as it continues to be invoked, will not
  // be triggered. The function will be called after it stops being called for
  // N milliseconds. If `immediate` is passed, trigger the function on the
  // leading edge, instead of the trailing.
  _.debounce = function(func, wait, immediate) {
    var timeout, result;
    return function() {
      var context = this, args = arguments;
      var later = function() {
        timeout = null;
        if (!immediate) result = func.apply(context, args);
      };
      var callNow = immediate && !timeout;
      clearTimeout(timeout);
      timeout = setTimeout(later, wait);
      if (callNow) result = func.apply(context, args);
      return result;
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that will be executed at most one time, no matter how
  // often you call it. Useful for lazy initialization.
  _.once = function(func) {
    var ran = false, memo;
    return function() {
      if (ran) return memo;
      ran = true;
      memo = func.apply(this, arguments);
      func = null;
      return memo;
    };
  };

  // Returns the first function passed as an argument to the second,
  // allowing you to adjust arguments, run code before and after, and
  // conditionally execute the original function.
  _.wrap = function(func, wrapper) {
    return function() {
      var args = [func];
      push.apply(args, arguments);
      return wrapper.apply(this, args);
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that is the composition of a list of functions, each
  // consuming the return value of the function that follows.
  _.compose = function() {
    var funcs = arguments;
    return function() {
      var args = arguments;
      for (var i = funcs.length - 1; i >= 0; i--) {
        args = [funcs[i].apply(this, args)];
      }
      return args[0];
    };
  };

  // Returns a function that will only be executed after being called N times.
  _.after = function(times, func) {
    if (times <= 0) return func();
    return function() {
      if (--times < 1) {
        return func.apply(this, arguments);
      }
    };
  };

  // Object Functions
  // ----------------

  // Retrieve the names of an object's properties.
  // Delegates to **ECMAScript 5**'s native `Object.keys`
  _.keys = nativeKeys || function(obj) {
    if (obj !== Object(obj)) throw new TypeError('Invalid object');
    var keys = [];
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) keys[keys.length] = key;
    return keys;
  };

  // Retrieve the values of an object's properties.
  _.values = function(obj) {
    var values = [];
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) values.push(obj[key]);
    return values;
  };

  // Convert an object into a list of `[key, value]` pairs.
  _.pairs = function(obj) {
    var pairs = [];
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) pairs.push([key, obj[key]]);
    return pairs;
  };

  // Invert the keys and values of an object. The values must be serializable.
  _.invert = function(obj) {
    var result = {};
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) result[obj[key]] = key;
    return result;
  };

  // Return a sorted list of the function names available on the object.
  // Aliased as `methods`
  _.functions = _.methods = function(obj) {
    var names = [];
    for (var key in obj) {
      if (_.isFunction(obj[key])) names.push(key);
    }
    return names.sort();
  };

  // Extend a given object with all the properties in passed-in object(s).
  _.extend = function(obj) {
    each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
      for (var prop in source) {
        obj[prop] = source[prop];
      }
    });
    return obj;
  };

  // Return a copy of the object only containing the whitelisted properties.
  _.pick = function(obj) {
    var copy = {};
    var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    each(keys, function(key) {
      if (key in obj) copy[key] = obj[key];
    });
    return copy;
  };

   // Return a copy of the object without the blacklisted properties.
  _.omit = function(obj) {
    var copy = {};
    var keys = concat.apply(ArrayProto, slice.call(arguments, 1));
    for (var key in obj) {
      if (!_.contains(keys, key)) copy[key] = obj[key];
    }
    return copy;
  };

  // Fill in a given object with default properties.
  _.defaults = function(obj) {
    each(slice.call(arguments, 1), function(source) {
      for (var prop in source) {
        if (obj[prop] == null) obj[prop] = source[prop];
      }
    });
    return obj;
  };

  // Create a (shallow-cloned) duplicate of an object.
  _.clone = function(obj) {
    if (!_.isObject(obj)) return obj;
    return _.isArray(obj) ? obj.slice() : _.extend({}, obj);
  };

  // Invokes interceptor with the obj, and then returns obj.
  // The primary purpose of this method is to "tap into" a method chain, in
  // order to perform operations on intermediate results within the chain.
  _.tap = function(obj, interceptor) {
    interceptor(obj);
    return obj;
  };

  // Internal recursive comparison function for `isEqual`.
  var eq = function(a, b, aStack, bStack) {
    // Identical objects are equal. `0 === -0`, but they aren't identical.
    // See the Harmony `egal` proposal: http://wiki.ecmascript.org/doku.php?id=harmony:egal.
    if (a === b) return a !== 0 || 1 / a == 1 / b;
    // A strict comparison is necessary because `null == undefined`.
    if (a == null || b == null) return a === b;
    // Unwrap any wrapped objects.
    if (a instanceof _) a = a._wrapped;
    if (b instanceof _) b = b._wrapped;
    // Compare `[[Class]]` names.
    var className = toString.call(a);
    if (className != toString.call(b)) return false;
    switch (className) {
      // Strings, numbers, dates, and booleans are compared by value.
      case '[object String]':
        // Primitives and their corresponding object wrappers are equivalent; thus, `"5"` is
        // equivalent to `new String("5")`.
        return a == String(b);
      case '[object Number]':
        // `NaN`s are equivalent, but non-reflexive. An `egal` comparison is performed for
        // other numeric values.
        return a != +a ? b != +b : (a == 0 ? 1 / a == 1 / b : a == +b);
      case '[object Date]':
      case '[object Boolean]':
        // Coerce dates and booleans to numeric primitive values. Dates are compared by their
        // millisecond representations. Note that invalid dates with millisecond representations
        // of `NaN` are not equivalent.
        return +a == +b;
      // RegExps are compared by their source patterns and flags.
      case '[object RegExp]':
        return a.source == b.source &&
               a.global == b.global &&
               a.multiline == b.multiline &&
               a.ignoreCase == b.ignoreCase;
    }
    if (typeof a != 'object' || typeof b != 'object') return false;
    // Assume equality for cyclic structures. The algorithm for detecting cyclic
    // structures is adapted from ES 5.1 section 15.12.3, abstract operation `JO`.
    var length = aStack.length;
    while (length--) {
      // Linear search. Performance is inversely proportional to the number of
      // unique nested structures.
      if (aStack[length] == a) return bStack[length] == b;
    }
    // Add the first object to the stack of traversed objects.
    aStack.push(a);
    bStack.push(b);
    var size = 0, result = true;
    // Recursively compare objects and arrays.
    if (className == '[object Array]') {
      // Compare array lengths to determine if a deep comparison is necessary.
      size = a.length;
      result = size == b.length;
      if (result) {
        // Deep compare the contents, ignoring non-numeric properties.
        while (size--) {
          if (!(result = eq(a[size], b[size], aStack, bStack))) break;
        }
      }
    } else {
      // Objects with different constructors are not equivalent, but `Object`s
      // from different frames are.
      var aCtor = a.constructor, bCtor = b.constructor;
      if (aCtor !== bCtor && !(_.isFunction(aCtor) && (aCtor instanceof aCtor) &&
                               _.isFunction(bCtor) && (bCtor instanceof bCtor))) {
        return false;
      }
      // Deep compare objects.
      for (var key in a) {
        if (_.has(a, key)) {
          // Count the expected number of properties.
          size++;
          // Deep compare each member.
          if (!(result = _.has(b, key) && eq(a[key], b[key], aStack, bStack))) break;
        }
      }
      // Ensure that both objects contain the same number of properties.
      if (result) {
        for (key in b) {
          if (_.has(b, key) && !(size--)) break;
        }
        result = !size;
      }
    }
    // Remove the first object from the stack of traversed objects.
    aStack.pop();
    bStack.pop();
    return result;
  };

  // Perform a deep comparison to check if two objects are equal.
  _.isEqual = function(a, b) {
    return eq(a, b, [], []);
  };

  // Is a given array, string, or object empty?
  // An "empty" object has no enumerable own-properties.
  _.isEmpty = function(obj) {
    if (obj == null) return true;
    if (_.isArray(obj) || _.isString(obj)) return obj.length === 0;
    for (var key in obj) if (_.has(obj, key)) return false;
    return true;
  };

  // Is a given value a DOM element?
  _.isElement = function(obj) {
    return !!(obj && obj.nodeType === 1);
  };

  // Is a given value an array?
  // Delegates to ECMA5's native Array.isArray
  _.isArray = nativeIsArray || function(obj) {
    return toString.call(obj) == '[object Array]';
  };

  // Is a given variable an object?
  _.isObject = function(obj) {
    return obj === Object(obj);
  };

  // Add some isType methods: isArguments, isFunction, isString, isNumber, isDate, isRegExp.
  each(['Arguments', 'Function', 'String', 'Number', 'Date', 'RegExp'], function(name) {
    _['is' + name] = function(obj) {
      return toString.call(obj) == '[object ' + name + ']';
    };
  });

  // Define a fallback version of the method in browsers (ahem, IE), where
  // there isn't any inspectable "Arguments" type.
  if (!_.isArguments(arguments)) {
    _.isArguments = function(obj) {
      return !!(obj && _.has(obj, 'callee'));
    };
  }

  // Optimize `isFunction` if appropriate.
  if (typeof (/./) !== 'function') {
    _.isFunction = function(obj) {
      return typeof obj === 'function';
    };
  }

  // Is a given object a finite number?
  _.isFinite = function(obj) {
    return _.isNumber(obj) && isFinite(obj);
  };

  // Is the given value `NaN`? (NaN is the only number which does not equal itself).
  _.isNaN = function(obj) {
    return _.isNumber(obj) && obj != +obj;
  };

  // Is a given value a boolean?
  _.isBoolean = function(obj) {
    return obj === true || obj === false || toString.call(obj) == '[object Boolean]';
  };

  // Is a given value equal to null?
  _.isNull = function(obj) {
    return obj === null;
  };

  // Is a given variable undefined?
  _.isUndefined = function(obj) {
    return obj === void 0;
  };

  // Shortcut function for checking if an object has a given property directly
  // on itself (in other words, not on a prototype).
  _.has = function(obj, key) {
    return hasOwnProperty.call(obj, key);
  };

  // Utility Functions
  // -----------------

  // Run Underscore.js in *noConflict* mode, returning the `_` variable to its
  // previous owner. Returns a reference to the Underscore object.
  _.noConflict = function() {
    root._ = previousUnderscore;
    return this;
  };

  // Keep the identity function around for default iterators.
  _.identity = function(value) {
    return value;
  };

  // Run a function **n** times.
  _.times = function(n, iterator, context) {
    for (var i = 0; i < n; i++) iterator.call(context, i);
  };

  // Return a random integer between min and max (inclusive).
  _.random = function(min, max) {
    if (max == null) {
      max = min;
      min = 0;
    }
    return min + (0 | Math.random() * (max - min + 1));
  };

  // List of HTML entities for escaping.
  var entityMap = {
    escape: {
      '&': '&amp;',
      '<': '&lt;',
      '>': '&gt;',
      '"': '&quot;',
      "'": '&#x27;',
      '/': '&#x2F;'
    }
  };
  entityMap.unescape = _.invert(entityMap.escape);

  // Regexes containing the keys and values listed immediately above.
  var entityRegexes = {
    escape:   new RegExp('[' + _.keys(entityMap.escape).join('') + ']', 'g'),
    unescape: new RegExp('(' + _.keys(entityMap.unescape).join('|') + ')', 'g')
  };

  // Functions for escaping and unescaping strings to/from HTML interpolation.
  _.each(['escape', 'unescape'], function(method) {
    _[method] = function(string) {
      if (string == null) return '';
      return ('' + string).replace(entityRegexes[method], function(match) {
        return entityMap[method][match];
      });
    };
  });

  // If the value of the named property is a function then invoke it;
  // otherwise, return it.
  _.result = function(object, property) {
    if (object == null) return null;
    var value = object[property];
    return _.isFunction(value) ? value.call(object) : value;
  };

  // Add your own custom functions to the Underscore object.
  _.mixin = function(obj) {
    each(_.functions(obj), function(name){
      var func = _[name] = obj[name];
      _.prototype[name] = function() {
        var args = [this._wrapped];
        push.apply(args, arguments);
        return result.call(this, func.apply(_, args));
      };
    });
  };

  // Generate a unique integer id (unique within the entire client session).
  // Useful for temporary DOM ids.
  var idCounter = 0;
  _.uniqueId = function(prefix) {
    var id = idCounter++;
    return prefix ? prefix + id : id;
  };

  // By default, Underscore uses ERB-style template delimiters, change the
  // following template settings to use alternative delimiters.
  _.templateSettings = {
    evaluate    : /<%([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
    interpolate : /<%=([\s\S]+?)%>/g,
    escape      : /<%-([\s\S]+?)%>/g
  };

  // When customizing `templateSettings`, if you don't want to define an
  // interpolation, evaluation or escaping regex, we need one that is
  // guaranteed not to match.
  var noMatch = /(.)^/;

  // Certain characters need to be escaped so that they can be put into a
  // string literal.
  var escapes = {
    "'":      "'",
    '\\':     '\\',
    '\r':     'r',
    '\n':     'n',
    '\t':     't',
    '\u2028': 'u2028',
    '\u2029': 'u2029'
  };

  var escaper = /\\|'|\r|\n|\t|\u2028|\u2029/g;

  // JavaScript micro-templating, similar to John Resig's implementation.
  // Underscore templating handles arbitrary delimiters, preserves whitespace,
  // and correctly escapes quotes within interpolated code.
  _.template = function(text, data, settings) {
    settings = _.defaults({}, settings, _.templateSettings);

    // Combine delimiters into one regular expression via alternation.
    var matcher = new RegExp([
      (settings.escape || noMatch).source,
      (settings.interpolate || noMatch).source,
      (settings.evaluate || noMatch).source
    ].join('|') + '|$', 'g');

    // Compile the template source, escaping string literals appropriately.
    var index = 0;
    var source = "__p+='";
    text.replace(matcher, function(match, escape, interpolate, evaluate, offset) {
      source += text.slice(index, offset)
        .replace(escaper, function(match) { return '\\' + escapes[match]; });
      source +=
        escape ? "'+\n((__t=(" + escape + "))==null?'':_.escape(__t))+\n'" :
        interpolate ? "'+\n((__t=(" + interpolate + "))==null?'':__t)+\n'" :
        evaluate ? "';\n" + evaluate + "\n__p+='" : '';
      index = offset + match.length;
    });
    source += "';\n";

    // If a variable is not specified, place data values in local scope.
    if (!settings.variable) source = 'with(obj||{}){\n' + source + '}\n';

    source = "var __t,__p='',__j=Array.prototype.join," +
      "print=function(){__p+=__j.call(arguments,'');};\n" +
      source + "return __p;\n";

    try {
      var render = new Function(settings.variable || 'obj', '_', source);
    } catch (e) {
      e.source = source;
      throw e;
    }

    if (data) return render(data, _);
    var template = function(data) {
      return render.call(this, data, _);
    };

    // Provide the compiled function source as a convenience for precompilation.
    template.source = 'function(' + (settings.variable || 'obj') + '){\n' + source + '}';

    return template;
  };

  // Add a "chain" function, which will delegate to the wrapper.
  _.chain = function(obj) {
    return _(obj).chain();
  };

  // OOP
  // ---------------
  // If Underscore is called as a function, it returns a wrapped object that
  // can be used OO-style. This wrapper holds altered versions of all the
  // underscore functions. Wrapped objects may be chained.

  // Helper function to continue chaining intermediate results.
  var result = function(obj) {
    return this._chain ? _(obj).chain() : obj;
  };

  // Add all of the Underscore functions to the wrapper object.
  _.mixin(_);

  // Add all mutator Array functions to the wrapper.
  each(['pop', 'push', 'reverse', 'shift', 'sort', 'splice', 'unshift'], function(name) {
    var method = ArrayProto[name];
    _.prototype[name] = function() {
      var obj = this._wrapped;
      method.apply(obj, arguments);
      if ((name == 'shift' || name == 'splice') && obj.length === 0) delete obj[0];
      return result.call(this, obj);
    };
  });

  // Add all accessor Array functions to the wrapper.
  each(['concat', 'join', 'slice'], function(name) {
    var method = ArrayProto[name];
    _.prototype[name] = function() {
      return result.call(this, method.apply(this._wrapped, arguments));
    };
  });

  _.extend(_.prototype, {

    // Start chaining a wrapped Underscore object.
    chain: function() {
      this._chain = true;
      return this;
    },

    // Extracts the result from a wrapped and chained object.
    value: function() {
      return this._wrapped;
    }

  });

}).call(this);

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About the Author

Nick Polyak
Architect AWebPros
United States United States
I have 15 years of experience developing enterprise software, starting from C++ and Java on UNIX and moving towards C# on Windows platforms.
I am fascinated by the new .NET technologies especially WPF, Silverlight and LINQ.
Recently I decided to make a move and start my own contracting consulting and mentoring company AWebPros.
I can be contacted via my web site awebpros.com or through my blog at nickssoftwareblog.com

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