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C# MIDI Toolkit

, 18 Apr 2007
A toolkit for creating MIDI applications with C#.
csharpmiditoolkitv4_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV4_demo
LSCollections.dll
MidiToolkitDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Multimedia.dll
Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
Message Builders
Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Processing
Sequencing
Midi File Player
Track Classes
UI
StateMachineToolkit.dll
csharpmiditoolkitv5_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV5_demo
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Sanford.Collections.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
EventArgs
Message Builders
Processing
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Sequencing
Track Classes
UI
Sanford.Multimedia.Timers.dll
Sanford.Threading.dll
SequencerDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
miditoolkit_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkit
MidiToolkitDemo
App.ico
MidiToolkitDemo.csproj.user
Multimedia
Multimedia.csproj.user
Multimedia.Midi
Devices
Messages
Message Adaptors
MIDI File
Multimedia.MIDI.csproj.user
Sequencing
Synchronization
UI
miditoolkit_src.zip
MidiToolkit_src
Devices
Messages
MIDI File
Sequencing
TickGenerators
UI
/*
 * Created by: Leslie Sanford
 * 
 * Contact: jabberdabber@hotmail.com
 * 
 * Last modified: 10/06/2004
 */

using System;
using System.IO;

namespace Multimedia.Midi
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Writes data from a Sequence to a MIDI file.
	/// </summary>
	public class MidiFileWriter
	{
        #region MidiFileWriter Members

        #region Constants

        // The format maximum value.
        private const int FormatMax = 2;

        #endregion

        #region Read Only

        // File header ID.
        private static readonly byte[] FileHeaderID =
        {
            (byte)'M',
            (byte)'T',
            (byte)'h',
            (byte)'d',
            (byte) 0,
            (byte) 0,
            (byte) 0,
            (byte) 6
        };

        // Track header ID
        private static readonly byte[] TrackHeaderID =
        {
            (byte)'M',
            (byte)'T',
            (byte)'r',
            (byte)'k'
        };

        #endregion

        #region Fields

        // The MIDI file format.
        private short format = 0;

        // The sequence to write.
        private Sequence seq;

        // For writing the data as a binary file.
        private BinaryWriter writer;

        // For streaming MIDI events.
        private MemoryStream midiStream;

        #endregion

        #region Construction

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the MidiFileWriter class.
        /// </summary>
		public MidiFileWriter()
		{
		}

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the MidiFileWriter class with the
        /// specified file path name, the MIDI file format, and the sequence
        /// to write to a MIDI file.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="path">
        /// The file path name to use to write the MIDI file.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="format">
        /// The MIDI file format.
        /// </param>
        /// <param name="seq">
        /// The sequence to write as a MIDI file.
        /// </param>
        public MidiFileWriter(string path, short format, Sequence seq)
        {
            this.seq = seq;
            Format = format;

            Write(path);
        }

        #endregion

        #region Methods

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the sequence to a MIDI file.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="path">
        /// The file path name to use to write the MIDI file.
        /// </param>
        public void Write(string path)
        {
            FileStream fs = new FileStream(path, FileMode.Create, FileAccess.Write);
            writer = new BinaryWriter(fs);

            try
            {
                WriteFileHeader();
                WriteFormat();
                WriteTrackCount();
                WriteDivision();

                // Write each track.
                for(int i = 0; i < Sequence.Count; i++)
                {
                    WriteTrack(Sequence[i]);
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                writer.Close();
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the file header.
        /// </summary>
        private void WriteFileHeader()
        {
            writer.Write(FileHeaderID);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the MIDI file format.
        /// </summary>
        private void WriteFormat()
        {
            WriteShort(Format);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the track count.
        /// </summary>
        private void WriteTrackCount()
        {
            WriteShort((short)Sequence.Count);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the MIDI file division.
        /// </summary>
        private void WriteDivision()
        {
            WriteShort((short)Sequence.Division);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes short values to file.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="value"></param>
        private void WriteShort(short value)
        {
            int v = value;

            if(BitConverter.IsLittleEndian)
            {
                v = value >> 8;
                v |= value << 8;
            }

            writer.Write((short)v);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Writes the specified track to MIDI file.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="trk">
        /// The track to write to the MIDI file.
        /// </param>
        private void WriteTrack(Track trk)
        {
            writer.Write(TrackHeaderID);

            //
            // The length of the track in bytes will be written to the 
            // MIDI file first. However, at this point, the length is unknown.
            //
            // The track is written to a memory stream first. After this is 
            // done, the length of the track can be retrieved from the stream.
            // This value is written to the MIDI file followed by the contents
            // of the stream.
            //

            midiStream = new MemoryStream();

            MessageWriter msgWriter = new MessageWriter(midiStream);

            // Write each MIDI event to the stream via the message writer.
            for(int i = 0; i < trk.Count; i++)
            {
                msgWriter.WriteNextEvent(trk[i]);
            }

            // Get the length of the track.
            int trackLength = (int)midiStream.Length;

            // Convert value if this platform uses the little endian format.
            if(BitConverter.IsLittleEndian)
            {
                byte[] b = BitConverter.GetBytes(trackLength);
                Array.Reverse(b);
                trackLength = BitConverter.ToInt32(b, 0);
            }

            // Write track length.
            writer.Write(trackLength);

            midiStream.Position = 0;

            // Write the contents of the stream to the MIDI file.
            for(int i = 0; i < midiStream.Length; i++)
            {
                writer.Write((byte)midiStream.ReadByte());
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the MIDI file format.
        /// </summary>
        public short Format
        {
            get
            {
                return format;
            }
            set
            {
                // Enforce preconditions.
                if(value > FormatMax)
                    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("Format", value,
                        "MIDI file format out of range.");
                else if(value == 0 && Sequence.Count > 1)
                    throw new ArgumentException("MIDI file format invalid.",
                        "Format");

                format = value;
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the sequence to write to the MIDI file.
        /// </summary>
        public Sequence Sequence
        {
            get
            {
                return seq;
            }
            set
            {
                if(value != null)
                {
                    seq = value;                    
                }
                else
                {
                    seq = new Sequence();
                }

                if(Sequence.Count <= 1)
                {
                    Format = 0;
                }
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #endregion
	}
}

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This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

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About the Author

Leslie Sanford

United States United States
Aside from dabbling in BASIC on his old Atari 1040ST years ago, Leslie's programming experience didn't really begin until he discovered the Internet in the late 90s. There he found a treasure trove of information about two of his favorite interests: MIDI and sound synthesis.
 
After spending a good deal of time calculating formulas he found on the Internet for creating new sounds by hand, he decided that an easier way would be to program the computer to do the work for him. This led him to learn C. He discovered that beyond using programming as a tool for synthesizing sound, he loved programming in and of itself.
 
Eventually he taught himself C++ and C#, and along the way he immersed himself in the ideas of object oriented programming. Like many of us, he gotten bitten by the design patterns bug and a copy of GOF is never far from his hands.
 
Now his primary interest is in creating a complete MIDI toolkit using the C# language. He hopes to create something that will become an indispensable tool for those wanting to write MIDI applications for the .NET framework.
 
Besides programming, his other interests are photography and playing his Les Paul guitars.

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