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C# MIDI Toolkit

, 18 Apr 2007 MIT
A toolkit for creating MIDI applications with C#.
csharpmiditoolkitv4_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV4_demo
LSCollections.dll
MidiToolkitDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Multimedia.dll
Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
Message Builders
Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Processing
Sequencing
Midi File Player
Track Classes
UI
StateMachineToolkit.dll
csharpmiditoolkitv5_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV5_demo
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Sanford.Collections.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
EventArgs
Message Builders
Processing
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Sequencing
Track Classes
UI
Sanford.Multimedia.Timers.dll
Sanford.Threading.dll
SequencerDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
miditoolkit_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkit
MidiToolkitDemo
App.ico
MidiToolkitDemo.csproj.user
Multimedia
Multimedia.csproj.user
Multimedia.Midi
Devices
Messages
Message Adaptors
MIDI File
Multimedia.MIDI.csproj.user
Sequencing
Synchronization
UI
miditoolkit_src.zip
MidiToolkit_src
Devices
Messages
MIDI File
Sequencing
TickGenerators
UI
/*
 * Created by: Leslie Sanford
 * 
 * Contact: jabberdabber@hotmail.com
 * 
 * Last modified: 06/26/2004
 */

using System;
using System.ComponentModel;
using System.Collections;
using System.Diagnostics;
using Multimedia;

namespace Multimedia.Midi
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Generates ticks for Midi timing.
	/// </summary>
	public class TickGenerator : Component
	{
        #region TickGenerator Members

        #region Constants

        /// <summary>
        /// The minimum tempo value allowed (250 bpm).
        /// </summary>
        public const int TempoMin = 240000;

        /// <summary>
        /// The maximum tempo value allowed (8 bpm).
        /// </summary>
        public const int TempoMax = 7500000;

        /// <summary>
        /// The minimum pulses per quarter note allowed.
        /// </summary>
        public const int PpqnMin = 24;

        /// <summary>
        /// The maximum pulses per quarter note allowed.
        /// </summary>
        public const int PpqnMax = 960;

        // The default temp (120 bpm).
        private const int DefaultTempo = 500000;

        // The default pulses per quarter note.
        private const int DefaultPpqn = 96;

        #endregion

        #region Fields

        // Timer interrupt in microseconds.
        private int period;

        // Tempo in microseconds.
        private int tempo;

        // Pulses per quarter note.
        private int pulsesPerQuarterNote;

        // Whole part of the running tick calculation.
        private int nTicks;

        // Fractional part of the running tick calculation.
        private int fTicks;

        // Period interval multiplied by pulses per quarter note.
        private int trTime;

        // Provides timing events.
        private Timer timer;        

		/// <summary>
		/// Required designer variable.
		/// </summary>
		private System.ComponentModel.Container components = null;

        #endregion

        /// <summary>
        /// Occurs when a tick is generated.
        /// </summary>
        public event EventHandler Tick;

        /// <summary>
        /// 
        /// </summary>
        public event EventHandler TempoChanged;

        #region Construction

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes an instance of the TickGenerator class with the 
        /// specified component container.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="container">
        /// The container the tick generator should add itself to.
        /// </param>
		public TickGenerator(System.ComponentModel.IContainer container)
		{
			//
			// Required for Windows.Forms Class Composition Designer support
			//
			container.Add(this);
			InitializeComponent();

            InitializeTickGenerator();            
		}

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes a new instance of the TickGenerator class.
        /// </summary>
		public TickGenerator()
		{
			//
			// Required for Windows.Forms Class Composition Designer support
			//
			InitializeComponent();

            InitializeTickGenerator();
		}

        #endregion

        #region Methods

		/// <summary> 
		/// Clean up any resources being used.
		/// </summary>
		protected override void Dispose( bool disposing )
		{
            if(IsRunning())
            {
                Stop();
            }

			if( disposing )
			{
				if(components != null)
				{
					components.Dispose();
				}
			}

			base.Dispose( disposing );
		}

		#region Component Designer generated code
		/// <summary>
		/// Required method for Designer support - do not modify
		/// the contents of this method with the code editor.
		/// </summary>
		private void InitializeComponent()
		{
			components = new System.ComponentModel.Container();
		}
		#endregion

        /// <summary>
        /// Starts the tick generator.
        /// </summary>
        public void Start()
        {
            // If the tick generator is not already running.
            if(!IsRunning())
            {
                // Start the timer.
                timer.Start(); 
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Stops the tick generator.
        /// </summary>
        public void Stop()
        {
            // If the tick generator is running.
            if(IsRunning())
            {
                // Stop the timer.
                timer.Stop();
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Indicates wheter or not the tick generator is running.
        /// </summary>
        /// <returns>
        /// <b>true</b> if the tick generator is running; otherwise, 
        /// <b>false</b>.
        /// </returns>
        public bool IsRunning()
        {
            return timer.IsRunning();
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Initializes tick generator.
        /// </summary>
        private void InitializeTickGenerator()
        {
            TimerCaps caps = Timer.Capabilities;
            timer = new Timer(new TimerCallback(OnTick), null, caps.periodMin, 
                0, TimerMode.Periodic);
            period = caps.periodMin * 1000;
            Tempo = DefaultTempo;
            pulsesPerQuarterNote = DefaultPpqn;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Reset tick generator.
        /// </summary>
        private void Reset()
        {
            // Keeps track of whether or not the tick generator was running.
            bool wasRunning = false;

            // If the tick generator is running.
            if(IsRunning())
            {
                // Stop tick generator.
                Stop();

                // Indicate that the tick generator was running.
                wasRunning = true;
            }

            // Initialize tick variables.
            nTicks = fTicks = 0;
            trTime = period * pulsesPerQuarterNote;

            // If the tick generator was running.
            if(wasRunning)
            {
                // Start the tick generator again.
                Start();
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Handles tick events from the multimedia timer.
        /// </summary>
        /// <param name="state">
        /// State information (ignorned here).
        /// </param>
        private void OnTick(object state)
        {
            // Calculate whole part of running tick count.
            nTicks = (fTicks + trTime) / tempo;

            // Calculate fractional part of running tick count.
            fTicks += trTime - nTicks * tempo;
            
            // While there are ticks.
            while(nTicks > 0 && Tick != null)
            {
                // Trigger tick event.
                Tick(this, EventArgs.Empty);

                nTicks--;
            }
        }

        #endregion

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the tempo in microseconds.
        /// </summary>
        public int Tempo
        {
            get
            {
                return tempo;
            }
            set
            {
                // Enforce preconditions.
                if(value < TempoMin || value > TempoMax)
                    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("Tempo", value,
                        "Tempo out of range.");

                // Set the tempo.
                tempo = value;

                if(TempoChanged != null)
                    TempoChanged(this, new EventArgs());
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the pulses per quarter note.
        /// </summary>
        public int Ppqn
        {
            get
            {
                return pulsesPerQuarterNote;
            }
            set
            {
                // Enforce preconditions.
                if(value < PpqnMin || value > PpqnMax || 
                    value % PpqnMin != 0)
                    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("Ppqn", value,
                        "Pulses per quarter note out of range.");
                
                // Set the ticks per beat.
                pulsesPerQuarterNote = value;

                // Reset tick generator.
                Reset();
            }
        }

        #endregion
    }
}

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This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

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About the Author

Leslie Sanford

United States United States
Aside from dabbling in BASIC on his old Atari 1040ST years ago, Leslie's programming experience didn't really begin until he discovered the Internet in the late 90s. There he found a treasure trove of information about two of his favorite interests: MIDI and sound synthesis.
 
After spending a good deal of time calculating formulas he found on the Internet for creating new sounds by hand, he decided that an easier way would be to program the computer to do the work for him. This led him to learn C. He discovered that beyond using programming as a tool for synthesizing sound, he loved programming in and of itself.
 
Eventually he taught himself C++ and C#, and along the way he immersed himself in the ideas of object oriented programming. Like many of us, he gotten bitten by the design patterns bug and a copy of GOF is never far from his hands.
 
Now his primary interest is in creating a complete MIDI toolkit using the C# language. He hopes to create something that will become an indispensable tool for those wanting to write MIDI applications for the .NET framework.
 
Besides programming, his other interests are photography and playing his Les Paul guitars.

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