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C# MIDI Toolkit

, 18 Apr 2007
A toolkit for creating MIDI applications with C#.
csharpmiditoolkitv4_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV4_demo
LSCollections.dll
MidiToolkitDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Multimedia.dll
Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
Message Builders
Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Processing
Sequencing
Midi File Player
Track Classes
UI
StateMachineToolkit.dll
csharpmiditoolkitv5_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV5_demo
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Sanford.Collections.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
EventArgs
Message Builders
Processing
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Sequencing
Track Classes
UI
Sanford.Multimedia.Timers.dll
Sanford.Threading.dll
SequencerDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
miditoolkit_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkit
MidiToolkitDemo
App.ico
MidiToolkitDemo.csproj.user
Multimedia
Multimedia.csproj.user
Multimedia.Midi
Devices
Messages
Message Adaptors
MIDI File
Multimedia.MIDI.csproj.user
Sequencing
Synchronization
UI
miditoolkit_src.zip
MidiToolkit_src
Devices
Messages
MIDI File
Sequencing
TickGenerators
UI
#region License

/* Copyright (c) 2006 Leslie Sanford
 * 
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy 
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to 
 * deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the 
 * rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or 
 * sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is 
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 * 
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in 
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software. 
 * 
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR 
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, 
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE 
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER 
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, 
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN 
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

#endregion

#region Contact

/*
 * Leslie Sanford
 * Email: jabberdabber@hotmail.com
 */

#endregion

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.IO;

namespace Multimedia.Midi
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Writes a Track to a Stream.
	/// </summary>
    internal class TrackWriter
    {
        private static readonly byte[] TrackHeader =
            {
                (byte)'M',
                (byte)'T',
                (byte)'r',
                (byte)'k'
            };

        // The Track to write to the Stream.
        private Track track = new Track();

        // The Stream to write to.
        private Stream stream;

        // Running status.
        private int runningStatus = 0;        

        // The Track data in raw bytes.
        private List<byte> trackData = new List<byte>();

        public void Write(Stream strm)
        {
            this.stream = strm;

            trackData.Clear();

            stream.Write(TrackHeader, 0, TrackHeader.Length);

            foreach(MidiEvent e in track.Iterator())
            {                
                WriteVariableLengthValue(e.DeltaTicks);

                switch(e.MidiMessage.MessageType)
                {
                    case MessageType.Channel:
                        Write((ChannelMessage)e.MidiMessage);
                        break;

                    case MessageType.SystemExclusive:
                        Write((SysExMessage)e.MidiMessage);
                        break;

                    case MessageType.Meta:
                        Write((MetaMessage)e.MidiMessage);
                        break;

                    case MessageType.SystemCommon:
                        Write((SysCommonMessage)e.MidiMessage);
                        break;

                    case MessageType.SystemRealtime:
                        Write((SysRealtimeMessage)e.MidiMessage);
                        break;
                }
            }

            byte[] trackLength = BitConverter.GetBytes(trackData.Count);

            if(BitConverter.IsLittleEndian)
            {
                Array.Reverse(trackLength);
            }

            stream.Write(trackLength, 0, trackLength.Length);

            foreach(byte b in trackData)
            {
                stream.WriteByte(b);
            }
        }

        private void WriteVariableLengthValue(int value)
        {
            int v = value;
            int buffer = v & 0x7F;

            v >>= 7;

            while(v > 0)
            {
                buffer <<= 8;
                buffer |= (v & 0x7F) | 0x80;
                v >>= 7;
            }

            trackData.Add((byte)buffer);

            while((buffer & 0x80) == 0x80)
            {
                buffer >>= 8;
                trackData.Add((byte)buffer);
            }
        }

        private void Write(ChannelMessage message)
        {
            if(runningStatus != message.Status)
            {
                trackData.Add((byte)message.Status);
                runningStatus = message.Status;
            }

            trackData.Add((byte)message.Data1);

            if(ChannelMessage.DataBytesPerType(message.Command) == 2)
            {
                trackData.Add((byte)message.Data2);
            }
        }

        private void Write(SysExMessage message)
        {
            // System exclusive message cancel running status.
            runningStatus = 0;

            trackData.Add((byte)message.Status);

            WriteVariableLengthValue(message.Length - 1);

            trackData.AddRange(message.GetBytes());
        }

        private void Write(MetaMessage message)
        {
            trackData.Add((byte)message.Status);
            trackData.Add((byte)message.MetaType);

            WriteVariableLengthValue(message.Length);

            trackData.AddRange(message.GetBytes());
        }

        private void Write(SysCommonMessage message)
        {
            // Escaped messages cancel running status.
            runningStatus = 0;

            // Escaped message.
            trackData.Add((byte)0xF7);

            trackData.Add((byte)message.Status);

            switch(message.SysCommonType)
            {
                case SysCommonType.MidiTimeCode:
                    trackData.Add((byte)message.Data1);
                    break;

                case SysCommonType.SongPositionPointer:
                    trackData.Add((byte)message.Data1);
                    trackData.Add((byte)message.Data2);
                    break;

                case SysCommonType.SongSelect:
                    trackData.Add((byte)message.Data1);
                    break;
            }
        }

        private void Write(SysRealtimeMessage message)
        {
            // Escaped messages cancel running status.
            runningStatus = 0;

            // Escaped message.
            trackData.Add((byte)0xF7);

            trackData.Add((byte)message.Status);
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Gets or sets the Track to write to the Stream.
        /// </summary>
        public Track Track
        {
            get
            {
                return track;
            }
            set
            {
                #region Require

                if(value == null)
                {
                    throw new ArgumentNullException("Track");
                }

                #endregion

                runningStatus = 0;
                trackData.Clear();

                track = value;
            }
        }
    }
}

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This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

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About the Author

Leslie Sanford

United States United States
Aside from dabbling in BASIC on his old Atari 1040ST years ago, Leslie's programming experience didn't really begin until he discovered the Internet in the late 90s. There he found a treasure trove of information about two of his favorite interests: MIDI and sound synthesis.
 
After spending a good deal of time calculating formulas he found on the Internet for creating new sounds by hand, he decided that an easier way would be to program the computer to do the work for him. This led him to learn C. He discovered that beyond using programming as a tool for synthesizing sound, he loved programming in and of itself.
 
Eventually he taught himself C++ and C#, and along the way he immersed himself in the ideas of object oriented programming. Like many of us, he gotten bitten by the design patterns bug and a copy of GOF is never far from his hands.
 
Now his primary interest is in creating a complete MIDI toolkit using the C# language. He hopes to create something that will become an indispensable tool for those wanting to write MIDI applications for the .NET framework.
 
Besides programming, his other interests are photography and playing his Les Paul guitars.

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