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C# MIDI Toolkit

, 18 Apr 2007
A toolkit for creating MIDI applications with C#.
csharpmiditoolkitv4_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV4_demo
LSCollections.dll
MidiToolkitDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Multimedia.dll
Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
Message Builders
Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Processing
Sequencing
Midi File Player
Track Classes
UI
StateMachineToolkit.dll
csharpmiditoolkitv5_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkitV5_demo
MidiWatcher
Properties
Settings.settings
Sanford.Collections.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.dll
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi
Clocks
Device Classes
InputDevice Class
OutputDevice Classes
Messages
EventArgs
Message Builders
Processing
Sanford.Multimedia.Midi.csproj.user
Sequencing
Track Classes
UI
Sanford.Multimedia.Timers.dll
Sanford.Threading.dll
SequencerDemo
Properties
Settings.settings
miditoolkit_demo.zip
CSharpMidiToolkit
MidiToolkitDemo
App.ico
MidiToolkitDemo.csproj.user
Multimedia
Multimedia.csproj.user
Multimedia.Midi
Devices
Messages
Message Adaptors
MIDI File
Multimedia.MIDI.csproj.user
Sequencing
Synchronization
UI
miditoolkit_src.zip
MidiToolkit_src
Devices
Messages
MIDI File
Sequencing
TickGenerators
UI
#region License

/* Copyright (c) 2005 Leslie Sanford
 * 
 * Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy 
 * of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to 
 * deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the 
 * rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or 
 * sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is 
 * furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
 * 
 * The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in 
 * all copies or substantial portions of the Software. 
 * 
 * THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR 
 * IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, 
 * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE 
 * AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER 
 * LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, 
 * OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN 
 * THE SOFTWARE.
 */

#endregion

#region Contact

/*
 * Leslie Sanford
 * Email: jabberdabber@hotmail.com
 */

#endregion

using System;

namespace Sanford.Multimedia.Midi
{
	/// <summary>
	/// Provides basic functionality for generating tick events with pulses per 
    /// quarter note resolution.
	/// </summary>
	public abstract class PpqnClock : IClock
    {
        #region PpqnClock Members

        #region Fields

        /// <summary>
        /// The default tempo in microseconds: 120bpm.
        /// </summary>
        public const int DefaultTempo = 500000;

        /// <summary>
        /// The minimum pulses per quarter note value.
        /// </summary>
        public const int PpqnMinValue = 24;

        // The number of microseconds per millisecond.
        private const int MicrosecondsPerMillisecond = 1000;

        // The pulses per quarter note value.
        private int ppqn = PpqnMinValue;

        // The tempo in microseconds.
        private int tempo = DefaultTempo;

        // The product of the timer period, the pulses per quarter note, and
        // the number of microseconds per millisecond.
        private int periodResolution;

        // The number of ticks per MIDI clock.
        private int ticksPerClock;

        // The running fractional tick count.
        private int fractionalTicks = 0;

        // The timer period.
        private readonly int timerPeriod;
        
        // Indicates whether the clock is running.
        protected bool running = false;

        #endregion

        #region Construction

        protected PpqnClock(int timerPeriod)
        {
            #region Require

            if(timerPeriod < 1)
            {
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("timerPeriod", timerPeriod,
                    "Timer period cannot be less than one.");
            }

            #endregion

            this.timerPeriod = timerPeriod;

            CalculatePeriodResolution();
            CalculateTicksPerClock();
        }

        #endregion

        #region Methods

        protected int GetTempo()
        {
            return tempo;
        }        

        protected void SetTempo(int tempo)
        {
            #region Require

            if(tempo < 1)
            {
                throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException(
                    "Tempo out of range.");
            }

            #endregion

            this.tempo = tempo;
        }

        protected void Reset()
        {
            fractionalTicks = 0;
        }

        protected int GenerateTicks()
        {
            int ticks = (fractionalTicks + periodResolution) / tempo;
            fractionalTicks += periodResolution - ticks * tempo;

            return ticks;
        }

        private void CalculatePeriodResolution()
        {
            periodResolution = ppqn * timerPeriod * MicrosecondsPerMillisecond;
        }

        private void CalculateTicksPerClock()
        {
            ticksPerClock = ppqn / PpqnMinValue;
        }

        protected virtual void OnTick(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = Tick;

            if(handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, EventArgs.Empty);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnStarted(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = Started;

            if(handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnStopped(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = Stopped;

            if(handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        protected virtual void OnContinued(EventArgs e)
        {
            EventHandler handler = Continued;

            if(handler != null)
            {
                handler(this, e);
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #region Properties

        public int Ppqn
        {
            get
            {
                return ppqn;
            }
            set
            {
                #region Require

                if(value < PpqnMinValue)
                {
                    throw new ArgumentOutOfRangeException("Ppqn", value,
                        "Pulses per quarter note out of range.");
                }
                else if(value % PpqnMinValue != 0)
                {
                    throw new ArgumentException(
                        "Pulses per quarter note is not a multiple of 24.");
                }

                #endregion

                ppqn = value;

                CalculatePeriodResolution();
                CalculateTicksPerClock();
            }
        }

        public abstract int Ticks
        {
            get;
        }

        public int TicksPerClock
        {
            get
            {
                return ticksPerClock;
            }
        }

        #endregion

        #endregion

        #region IClock Members

        public event System.EventHandler Tick;

        public event System.EventHandler Started;

        public event System.EventHandler Continued;

        public event System.EventHandler Stopped;

        public bool IsRunning
        {
            get
            {
                return running;
            }
        }

        #endregion
    }
}

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License

This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The MIT License

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About the Author

Leslie Sanford

United States United States
Aside from dabbling in BASIC on his old Atari 1040ST years ago, Leslie's programming experience didn't really begin until he discovered the Internet in the late 90s. There he found a treasure trove of information about two of his favorite interests: MIDI and sound synthesis.
 
After spending a good deal of time calculating formulas he found on the Internet for creating new sounds by hand, he decided that an easier way would be to program the computer to do the work for him. This led him to learn C. He discovered that beyond using programming as a tool for synthesizing sound, he loved programming in and of itself.
 
Eventually he taught himself C++ and C#, and along the way he immersed himself in the ideas of object oriented programming. Like many of us, he gotten bitten by the design patterns bug and a copy of GOF is never far from his hands.
 
Now his primary interest is in creating a complete MIDI toolkit using the C# language. He hopes to create something that will become an indispensable tool for those wanting to write MIDI applications for the .NET framework.
 
Besides programming, his other interests are photography and playing his Les Paul guitars.

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