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SendKeys in C++

, 14 Jun 2004
A C++ port and enhancement of C#'s / VB's SendKeys function.
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#include "sendkeys.h"

/* 
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
* Copyright (c) 2004 lallous <lallousx86@yahoo.com>
* All rights reserved.
* 
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
*    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
*    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
*    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* 
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
* ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
* FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
* DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
* OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
* HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
* LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
* OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
* SUCH DAMAGE.
* ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 


The Original SendKeys copyright info
---------------------------------------
SendKeys (sndkeys32.pas) routine for 32-bit Delphi.
Written by Ken Henderson
Copyright (c) 1995 Ken Henderson <khen@compuserve.com>

History
----------
04/19/2004
  * Initial version development
04/21/2004
  * Added number of times specifier to special keys
  * Added {BEEP X Y}
  * Added {APPACTIVATE WindowTitle}
  * Added CarryDelay() and now delay works properly with all keys
  * Added SetDelay() method
  * Fixed code in AppActivate that allowed to pass both NULL windowTitle/windowClass

05/21/2004
  * Fixed a bug in StringToVKey() that caused the search for RIGHTPAREN to be matched as RIGHT
  * Adjusted code so it compiles w/ VC6
05/24/2004
  * Added unicode support

Todo
-------
* perhaps add mousecontrol: mousemove+mouse clicks
* allow sending of normal keys multiple times as: {a 10}

*/

const WORD CSendKeys::VKKEYSCANSHIFTON = 0x01;
const WORD CSendKeys::VKKEYSCANCTRLON  = 0x02;
const WORD CSendKeys::VKKEYSCANALTON   = 0x04;
const WORD CSendKeys::INVALIDKEY       = 0xFFFF;

const BYTE CSendKeys::ExtendedVKeys[MaxExtendedVKeys] =
{
    VK_UP, 
    VK_DOWN,
    VK_LEFT,
    VK_RIGHT,
    VK_HOME,
    VK_END,
    VK_PRIOR, // PgUp
    VK_NEXT,  //  PgDn
    VK_INSERT,
    VK_DELETE
};

CSendKeys::CSendKeys()
{
  m_nDelayNow = m_nDelayAlways = 0;
}

// Delphi port regexps:
// ---------------------
// search: .+Name:'([^']+)'.+vkey:([^\)]+)\)
// replace: {"\1", \2}
//
// **If you add to this list, you must be sure to keep it sorted alphabetically
// by Name because a binary search routine is used to scan it.**
//
CSendKeys::key_desc_t CSendKeys::KeyNames[CSendKeys::MaxSendKeysRecs] = 
{
  {_T("ADD"), VK_ADD}, 
  {_T("APPS"), VK_APPS},
  {_T("AT"), '@', true},
  {_T("BACKSPACE"), VK_BACK},
  {_T("BKSP"), VK_BACK},
  {_T("BREAK"), VK_CANCEL},
  {_T("BS"), VK_BACK},
  {_T("CAPSLOCK"), VK_CAPITAL},
  {_T("CARET"), '^', true},
  {_T("CLEAR"), VK_CLEAR},
  {_T("DECIMAL"), VK_DECIMAL}, 
  {_T("DEL"), VK_DELETE},
  {_T("DELETE"), VK_DELETE},
  {_T("DIVIDE"), VK_DIVIDE}, 
  {_T("DOWN"), VK_DOWN},
  {_T("END"), VK_END},
  {_T("ENTER"), VK_RETURN},
  {_T("ESC"), VK_ESCAPE},
  {_T("ESCAPE"), VK_ESCAPE},
  {_T("F1"), VK_F1},
  {_T("F10"), VK_F10},
  {_T("F11"), VK_F11},
  {_T("F12"), VK_F12},
  {_T("F13"), VK_F13},
  {_T("F14"), VK_F14},
  {_T("F15"), VK_F15},
  {_T("F16"), VK_F16},
  {_T("F2"), VK_F2},
  {_T("F3"), VK_F3},
  {_T("F4"), VK_F4},
  {_T("F5"), VK_F5},
  {_T("F6"), VK_F6},
  {_T("F7"), VK_F7},
  {_T("F8"), VK_F8},
  {_T("F9"), VK_F9},
  {_T("HELP"), VK_HELP},
  {_T("HOME"), VK_HOME},
  {_T("INS"), VK_INSERT},
  {_T("LEFT"), VK_LEFT},
  {_T("LEFTBRACE"), '{', true},
  {_T("LEFTPAREN"), '(', true},
  {_T("LWIN"), VK_LWIN},
  {_T("MULTIPLY"), VK_MULTIPLY}, 
  {_T("NUMLOCK"), VK_NUMLOCK},
  {_T("NUMPAD0"), VK_NUMPAD0}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD1"), VK_NUMPAD1}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD2"), VK_NUMPAD2}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD3"), VK_NUMPAD3}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD4"), VK_NUMPAD4}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD5"), VK_NUMPAD5}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD6"), VK_NUMPAD6}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD7"), VK_NUMPAD7}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD8"), VK_NUMPAD8}, 
  {_T("NUMPAD9"), VK_NUMPAD9}, 
  {_T("PERCENT"), '%', true},
  {_T("PGDN"), VK_NEXT},
  {_T("PGUP"), VK_PRIOR},
  {_T("PLUS"), '+', true},
  {_T("PRTSC"), VK_PRINT},
  {_T("RIGHT"), VK_RIGHT},
  {_T("RIGHTBRACE"), '}', true},
  {_T("RIGHTPAREN"), ')', true},
  {_T("RWIN"), VK_RWIN},
  {_T("SCROLL"), VK_SCROLL},
  {_T("SEPARATOR"), VK_SEPARATOR}, 
  {_T("SNAPSHOT"), VK_SNAPSHOT},
  {_T("SUBTRACT"), VK_SUBTRACT}, 
  {_T("TAB"), VK_TAB},
  {_T("TILDE"), '~', true}, 
  {_T("UP"), VK_UP},
  {_T("WIN"), VK_LWIN}
};


// calls keybd_event() and waits, if needed, till the sent input is processed
void CSendKeys::KeyboardEvent(BYTE VKey, BYTE ScanCode, LONG Flags)
{
  MSG KeyboardMsg;

  keybd_event(VKey, ScanCode, Flags, 0);

  if (m_bWait)
  {
    while (::PeekMessage(&KeyboardMsg, 0, WM_KEYFIRST, WM_KEYLAST, PM_REMOVE))
    {
      ::TranslateMessage(&KeyboardMsg);
      ::DispatchMessage(&KeyboardMsg);
    }
  }
}

// Checks whether the specified VKey is an extended key or not
bool CSendKeys::IsVkExtended(BYTE VKey)
{
  for (int i=0;i<MaxExtendedVKeys;i++)
  {
    if (ExtendedVKeys[i] == VKey)
      return true;
  }
  return false;
}

// Generates KEYUP
void CSendKeys::SendKeyUp(BYTE VKey)
{
  BYTE ScanCode = LOBYTE(::MapVirtualKey(VKey, 0));

  KeyboardEvent(VKey, 
                ScanCode, 
                KEYEVENTF_KEYUP | (IsVkExtended(VKey) ? KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY : 0));
}

void CSendKeys::SendKeyDown(BYTE VKey, WORD NumTimes, bool GenUpMsg, bool bDelay)
{
  WORD Cnt = 0;
  BYTE ScanCode = 0;
  bool NumState = false;

  if (VKey == VK_NUMLOCK)
  {
    DWORD dwVersion = ::GetVersion();

    for (Cnt=1; Cnt<=NumTimes; Cnt++)
    {
      if (bDelay)
        CarryDelay();
      // snippet based on:
      // http://www.codeproject.com/cpp/togglekeys.asp
      if (dwVersion < 0x80000000)
      {
        ::keybd_event(VKey, 0x45, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY, 0);
        ::keybd_event(VKey, 0x45, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY | KEYEVENTF_KEYUP, 0);
      }
      else
      {
        // Win98 and later
        if ( ((DWORD)(HIBYTE(LOWORD(dwVersion))) >= 10) )
        {
          // Define _WIN32_WINNT > 0x0400
          // to compile
          INPUT input[2] = {0};
          input[0].type = input[1].type = INPUT_KEYBOARD;
          input[0].ki.wVk = input[1].ki.wVk = VKey;
          input[1].ki.dwFlags = KEYEVENTF_KEYUP;
          ::SendInput(sizeof(input) / sizeof(INPUT), input, sizeof(INPUT));
        }
        // Win95
        else
        {
          KEYBOARDSTATE_t KeyboardState;
          NumState = GetKeyState(VK_NUMLOCK) & 1 ? true : false;
          GetKeyboardState(&KeyboardState[0]);
          if (NumState)
            KeyboardState[VK_NUMLOCK] &= ~1;
          else
            KeyboardState[VK_NUMLOCK] |= 1;

          SetKeyboardState(&KeyboardState[0]);
        }
      }
    }
    return;
  }

  // Get scancode
  ScanCode = LOBYTE(::MapVirtualKey(VKey, 0));

  // Send keys
  for (Cnt=1; Cnt<=NumTimes; Cnt++)
  {
    // Carry needed delay ?
    if (bDelay)
      CarryDelay();

    KeyboardEvent(VKey, ScanCode, IsVkExtended(VKey) ? KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY : 0);
    if (GenUpMsg)
      KeyboardEvent(VKey, ScanCode, KEYEVENTF_EXTENDEDKEY | KEYEVENTF_KEYUP);
  }
}

// Checks whether a bit is set
bool CSendKeys::BitSet(BYTE BitTable, UINT BitMask)
{
  return BitTable & BitMask ? true : false;
}

// Sends a single key
void CSendKeys::SendKey(WORD MKey, WORD NumTimes, bool GenDownMsg)
{
  // Send appropriate shift keys associated with the given VKey
  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANSHIFTON))
    SendKeyDown(VK_SHIFT, 1, false);

  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANCTRLON))
    SendKeyDown(VK_CONTROL, 1, false);

  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANALTON))
    SendKeyDown(VK_MENU, 1, false);

  // Send the actual VKey
  SendKeyDown(LOBYTE(MKey), NumTimes, GenDownMsg, true);

  // toggle up shift keys
  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANSHIFTON))
    SendKeyUp(VK_SHIFT);

  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANCTRLON))
    SendKeyUp(VK_CONTROL);

  if (BitSet(HIBYTE(MKey), VKKEYSCANALTON))
    SendKeyUp(VK_MENU);
}

// Implements a simple binary search to locate special key name strings
WORD CSendKeys::StringToVKey(LPCTSTR KeyString, int &idx)
{
  bool Found = false, Collided;
  int  Bottom = 0, 
       Top = MaxSendKeysRecs,
       Middle = (Bottom + Top) / 2;
  WORD retval = INVALIDKEY;

  idx    = -1;

  do
  {
    Collided = (Bottom == Middle) || (Top == Middle);
    int cmp = _tcsnicmp(KeyNames[Middle].keyName, KeyString, _tcslen(KeyString));
    if (cmp == 0)
    {
      Found = true;
      retval = KeyNames[Middle].VKey;
      idx    = Middle;
      break;
    }
    else
    {
      if (cmp < 0)
        Bottom = Middle;
      else
        Top = Middle;
      Middle = (Bottom + Top) / 2;
    }
  } while (!(Found || Collided));

  return retval;
}

// Releases all shift keys (keys that can be depressed while other keys are being pressed
// If we are in a modifier group this function does nothing
void CSendKeys::PopUpShiftKeys()
{
  if (!m_bUsingParens)
  {
    if (m_bShiftDown)
      SendKeyUp(VK_SHIFT);
    if (m_bControlDown)
      SendKeyUp(VK_CONTROL);
    if (m_bAltDown)
      SendKeyUp(VK_MENU);
    if (m_bWinDown)
      SendKeyUp(VK_LWIN);
    m_bWinDown = m_bShiftDown = m_bControlDown = m_bAltDown = false;
  }
}

// Sends a key string
bool CSendKeys::SendKeys(LPCTSTR KeysString, bool Wait)
{
  WORD MKey, NumTimes;
  TCHAR KeyString[300] = {0};
  bool retval  = false;
  int  keyIdx;

  LPTSTR pKey = (LPTSTR) KeysString;
  TCHAR  ch;

  m_bWait = Wait;

  m_bWinDown = m_bShiftDown = m_bControlDown = m_bAltDown = m_bUsingParens = false;

  while (ch = *pKey)
  {
    switch (ch)
    {
    // begin modifier group
    case _TXCHAR('('):
      m_bUsingParens = true;
      break;

    // end modifier group
    case _TXCHAR(')'):
      m_bUsingParens = false;
      PopUpShiftKeys(); // pop all shift keys when we finish a modifier group close
      break;

    // ALT key
    case _TXCHAR('%'):
      m_bAltDown = true;
      SendKeyDown(VK_MENU, 1, false);
      break;

    // SHIFT key
    case _TXCHAR('+'):
      m_bShiftDown = true;
      SendKeyDown(VK_SHIFT, 1, false);
      break;

    // CTRL key
    case _TXCHAR('^'):
      m_bControlDown = true;
      SendKeyDown(VK_CONTROL, 1, false);
      break;

    // WINKEY (Left-WinKey)
    case '@':
      m_bWinDown = true;
      SendKeyDown(VK_LWIN, 1, false);
      break;

    // enter
    case _TXCHAR('~'):
      SendKeyDown(VK_RETURN, 1, true);
      PopUpShiftKeys();
      break;

    // begin special keys
    case _TXCHAR('{'):
      {
        LPTSTR p = pKey+1; // skip past the beginning '{'
        size_t t;

        // find end of close
        while (*p && *p != _TXCHAR('}'))
          p++;

        t = p - pKey;
        // special key definition too big?
        if (t > sizeof(KeyString))
          return false;

        // Take this KeyString into local buffer
        _tcsncpy(KeyString, pKey+1, t);

        KeyString[t-1] = _TXCHAR('\0');
        keyIdx = -1;

        pKey += t; // skip to next keystring

        // Invalidate key
        MKey = INVALIDKEY;

        // sending arbitrary vkeys?
        if (_tcsnicmp(KeyString, _T("VKEY"), 4) == 0)
        {
          p = KeyString + 4;
          MKey = _ttoi(p);
        }
        else if (_tcsnicmp(KeyString, _T("BEEP"), 4) == 0)
        {
          p = KeyString + 4 + 1;
          LPTSTR p1 = p;
          DWORD frequency, delay;

          if ((p1 = _tcsstr(p, _T(" "))) != NULL)
          {
            *p1++ = _TXCHAR('\0');
            frequency = _ttoi(p);
            delay = _ttoi(p1);
            ::Beep(frequency, delay);
          }
        }
        // Should activate a window?
        else if (_tcsnicmp(KeyString, _T("APPACTIVATE"), 11) == 0)
        {
          p = KeyString + 11 + 1;
          AppActivate(p);
        }
        // want to send/set delay?
        else if (_tcsnicmp(KeyString, _T("DELAY"), 5) == 0)
        {
          // Advance to parameters
          p = KeyString + 5;
          // set "sleep factor"
          if (*p == _TXCHAR('='))
            m_nDelayAlways = _ttoi(p + 1); // Take number after the '=' character
          else
            // set "sleep now"
            m_nDelayNow = _ttoi(p);
        }
        // not command special keys, then process as keystring to VKey
        else
        {
          MKey = StringToVKey(KeyString, keyIdx);
          // Key found in table
          if (keyIdx != -1)
          {
            NumTimes = 1;

            // Does the key string have also count specifier?
            t = _tcslen(KeyNames[keyIdx].keyName);
            if (_tcslen(KeyString) > t)
            {
              p = KeyString + t;
              // Take the specified number of times
              NumTimes = _ttoi(p);
            }

            if (KeyNames[keyIdx].normalkey)
              MKey = ::VkKeyScan(KeyNames[keyIdx].VKey);
          }
        }

        // A valid key to send?
        if (MKey != INVALIDKEY)
        {
          SendKey(MKey, NumTimes, true);
          PopUpShiftKeys();
        }
      }
      break;

      // a normal key was pressed
    default:
      // Get the VKey from the key
      MKey = ::VkKeyScan(ch);
      SendKey(MKey, 1, true);
      PopUpShiftKeys();
    }
    pKey++;
  }

  m_bUsingParens = false;
  PopUpShiftKeys();
  return true;
}

bool CSendKeys::AppActivate(HWND wnd)
{
  if (wnd == NULL)
    return false;

  ::SendMessage(wnd, WM_SYSCOMMAND, SC_HOTKEY, (LPARAM) wnd);
  ::SendMessage(wnd, WM_SYSCOMMAND, SC_RESTORE, (LPARAM) wnd);
  
  ::ShowWindow(wnd, SW_SHOW);
  ::SetForegroundWindow(wnd);
  ::SetFocus(wnd);

  return true;
}

BOOL CALLBACK CSendKeys::enumwindowsProc(HWND hwnd, LPARAM lParam)
{
  enumwindow_t *t = (enumwindow_t *) lParam;

  LPTSTR wtitle = 0, wclass = 0, str = t->str;

  if (!*str)
    str++;
  else
  {
    wtitle = str;
    str += _tcslen(str) + 1;
  }

  if (*str)
    wclass = str;

  bool bMatch(false);

  if (wclass)
  {
    TCHAR szClass[300];
    if (::GetClassName(hwnd, szClass, sizeof(szClass)))
      bMatch |= (_tcsstr(szClass, wclass) != 0);
  }

  if (wtitle)
  {
    TCHAR szTitle[300];
    if (::GetWindowText(hwnd, szTitle, sizeof(szTitle)))
      bMatch |= (_tcsstr(szTitle, wtitle) != 0);
  }

  if (bMatch)
  {
    t->hwnd = hwnd;
    return false;
  }
  return true;
}

// Searchs and activates a window given its title or class name
bool CSendKeys::AppActivate(LPCTSTR WindowTitle, LPCTSTR WindowClass)
{
  HWND w;

  w = ::FindWindow(WindowClass, WindowTitle);
  if (w == NULL)
  {
    // Must specify at least a criteria
    if (WindowTitle == NULL && WindowClass == NULL)
      return false;

    // << Code to serialize the windowtitle/windowclass in order to send to EnumWindowProc()
    size_t l1(0), l2(0);
    if (WindowTitle)
      l1 = _tcslen(WindowTitle);
    if (WindowClass)
      l2 = _tcslen(WindowClass);

    LPTSTR titleclass = new TCHAR [l1 + l2 + 5];

    memset(titleclass, '\0', l1+l2+5);

    if (WindowTitle)
      _tcscpy(titleclass, WindowTitle);

    titleclass[l1] = 0;

    if (WindowClass)
      _tcscpy(titleclass+l1+1, WindowClass);

    // >>

    enumwindow_t t;

    t.hwnd = NULL;
    t.str  = titleclass;
    ::EnumWindows(enumwindowsProc, (LPARAM) & t);
    w = t.hwnd;
    delete [] titleclass;
  }

  if (w == NULL)
    return false;

  return AppActivate(w);
}

// Carries the required delay and clears the m_nDelaynow value
void CSendKeys::CarryDelay()
{
  // Should we delay once?
  if (!m_nDelayNow)
    // should we delay always?
    m_nDelayNow = m_nDelayAlways;

  // No delay specified?
  if (m_nDelayNow)
    ::Sleep(m_nDelayNow); //::Beep(100, m_nDelayNow);

  // clear SleepNow
  m_nDelayNow = 0;
}

/*
Test Binary search
void CSendKeys::test()
{
  WORD miss(0);
  for (int i=0;i<MaxSendKeysRecs;i++)
  {
    char *p = (char *)KeyNames[i].keyName;
    WORD v = StringToVKeyB(p);
    if (v == INVALIDKEY)
    {
      miss++;
    }
  }
}
*/

/*
Search in a linear manner
WORD CSendKeys::StringToVKey(const char *KeyString, int &idx)
{
for (int i=0;i<MaxSendKeysRecs;i++)
{
size_t len = strlen(KeyNames[i].keyName);
if (strnicmp(KeyNames[i].keyName, KeyString, len) == 0)
{
idx = i;
return KeyNames[i].VKey;
}
}
idx = -1;
return INVALIDKEY;
}
*/

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About the Author

Elias Bachaalany
Web Developer
United States United States
Elias (aka lallousx86, @0xeb) has always been interested in the making of things and their inner workings.
 
His computer interests include system programming, reverse engineering, writing libraries, tutorials and articles.
 
In his free time, and apart from researching, his favorite reading topics include: dreams, metaphysics, philosophy, psychology and any other human/mystical science.
 
Former employee of Hex-Rays (the creators of IDA Pro), was responsible about many debugger plugins, IDAPython project ownership and what not.
 
Elias currently works at Microsoft as a software security engineer.
 
More articles and blog posts can be found here:
 
- http://lallousx86.wordpress.com/
- http://0xeb.wordpress.com/
- http://www.hexblog.com/?author=3

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