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Implementation of a B-Tree Database Class

, 29 Jun 2006
An article and source code regarding the implmentation of B-Trees in C++.
 BTreeDB.h  -  Header file that contains the definition of the BTreeDB
               class. This class contains code to put records into the
               database, search for and extract records from the database,
               traverse the database, and delete records from the database.

               There are a couple of omissions here. Firstly, there is no
               "compact" functionality. Deletion doesn't free space in the
               the database; rather it just just makes nodes inaccessible.
               The implication here is that if you do a lot of insertions
               and a lot of deletions, the file is going to grow and never

               Secondly, there is nothing here that makes the BTreeDB
               object thread safe. In the current incarnation, this
               functionality should be imposed from outside.

 begin     : April 2004
 copyright : (C) 2004 by Phil Cairns
 email     :

 This code may be used in compiled form in any way you desire (including
 commercial use). The code may be redistributed unmodified by any means
 providing it is not sold for profit without the authors written consent,
 and providing that this notice and the authors name and all copyright
 notices remains intact.

 This software is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty. Use
 it at your own risk!

#if !defined(__btreedb_h_)
#define __btreedb_h_

#include "DbObj.h"
#include "TreeNode.h"

namespace Database
	class BTreeDB : public Database::RefCount
		typedef bool (*traverseCallback)(const DbObjPtr&, const DbObjPtr&, int depth);
		enum ESeqPos
			ESP_START = 0,	// start iterating through the entire tree
			ESP_KEY,		// start from the key provided
			ESP_CONT	// continue from the last position
		enum ESeqDirection
			ESD_FORWARD = 0,	// iterate forwards through the tree
			ESD_BACKWARD		// seek backwards through the tree

		BTreeDB(const std::string& fileName, size_t recSize = -1, size_t keySize = -1, size_t minDegree = 2, compareFn cfn = 0);

		size_t _recSize;		// size of the records to be stored
		size_t _keySize;		// number of bytes that comprise the key
		std::string _fileName;		// name of the database file
		compareFn _compFunc;
		size_t _minDegree;
		TreeNodePtr _root;
		FILE* _dataFile;
		size_t _nodeSize;

		struct SFileHeader
			long rootPos;
			size_t recSize;
			size_t keySize;
			size_t minDegree;

	private:	// internal data manipulation functions (see Cormen, Leiserson, Rivest).
		static int _defaultCompare(const DbObjPtr& obj1, const DbObjPtr& obj2);
		static int _searchCompare(const DbObjPtr& obj1, const DbObjPtr& obj2);
		static bool _searchCallback(const DbObjPtr& obj, const DbObjPtr& ref, int depth);
		TreeNodePtr _allocateNode();
		void _split(TreeNodePtr& parent, size_t childNum, TreeNodePtr& child);
		TreeNodePtr _merge(TreeNodePtr& parent, size_t objNo);
		void _insert(const DbObjPtr& key);
		void _insertNonFull(TreeNodePtr& node, const DbObjPtr& key);
		void _traverse(const TreeNodePtr& node, const DbObjPtr& ref, traverseCallback cbfn, int depth=0);
		NodeKeyLocn _search(const TreeNodePtr& node, const DbObjPtr& key, compareFn cfn = 0);
		bool _seqNext(NodeKeyLocn& locn, DbObjPtr& rec);
		bool _seqPrev(NodeKeyLocn& locn, DbObjPtr& rec);
		bool _flush(TreeNodePtr& node, FILE* f);
		bool _delete(TreeNodePtr& node, const DbObjPtr& key);
		NodeKeyLocn _findPred(TreeNodePtr& node);
		NodeKeyLocn _findSucc(TreeNodePtr& node);

		bool open();
		bool del(const DbObjPtr& key);
		bool put(const DbObjPtr& rec);
		bool get(const NodeKeyLocn& locn, DbObjPtr& rec);
		bool get(const DbObjPtr& key, DbObjPtr& rec);
		void traverse(const DbObjPtr& ref = 0, traverseCallback cbfn = 0);
		void findAll(const DbObjPtr& key, DBOBJVECTOR& results);
		NodeKeyLocn search(const DbObjPtr& key, compareFn cfn = 0);
		bool seq(NodeKeyLocn& locn, DbObjPtr& rec, ESeqDirection sdir = ESD_FORWARD);
		bool flush();

		size_t getRecSize() const { return _recSize; }
		size_t getKeySize() const { return _keySize; }
		std::string getFileName() const { return _fileName; }
	typedef Database::Ptr<BTreeDB> BTreeDBPtr;


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