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Introducing the Model Thread View Thread Pattern

, 1 May 2010 BSD
Reduce threading code, and increase UI responsiveness with a new pattern extending MVVM.
Mtvt_2010_5_1__12_15.zip
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//===================================================================================
// Microsoft patterns & practices
// Composite Application Guidance for Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight
//===================================================================================
// Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
// THIS CODE AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY
// OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
// LIMITED TO THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
// FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
//===================================================================================
// The example companies, organizations, products, domain names,
// e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted
// herein are fictitious.  No association with any real company,
// organization, product, domain name, email address, logo, person,
// places, or events is intended or should be inferred.
//===================================================================================
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Text;
using System.Windows.Threading;
using System.Windows;

namespace Microsoft.Practices.Composite.Presentation.Commands
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Handles management and dispatching of EventHandlers in a weak way.
    /// </summary>
    internal static class WeakEventHandlerManager
    {
        ///<summary>
        /// Invokes the handlers 
        ///</summary>
        ///<param name="sender"></param>
        ///<param name="handlers"></param>
        public static void CallWeakReferenceHandlers(object sender, List<WeakReference> handlers)
        {
            if (handlers != null)
            {
                // Take a snapshot of the handlers before we call out to them since the handlers
                // could cause the array to me modified while we are reading it.
                EventHandler[] callees = new EventHandler[handlers.Count];
                int count = 0;

                //Clean up handlers
                count = CleanupOldHandlers(handlers, callees, count);

                // Call the handlers that we snapshotted
                for (int i = 0; i < count; i++)
                {
                    CallHandler(sender, callees[i]);
                }
            }
        }

        private static void CallHandler(object sender, EventHandler eventHandler)
        {
            DispatcherProxy dispatcher = DispatcherProxy.CreateDispatcher();

            if (eventHandler != null)
            {
                if (dispatcher != null && !dispatcher.CheckAccess())
                {
                    dispatcher.BeginInvoke((Action<object, EventHandler>)CallHandler, sender, eventHandler);
                }
                else
                {
                    eventHandler(sender, EventArgs.Empty);
                }
            }
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// Hides the dispatcher mis-match between Silverlight and .Net, largely so code reads a bit easier
        /// </summary>
        private class DispatcherProxy
        {
            Dispatcher innerDispatcher;

            private DispatcherProxy(Dispatcher dispatcher)
            {
                innerDispatcher = dispatcher;
            }

            public static DispatcherProxy CreateDispatcher()
            {
                DispatcherProxy proxy = null;
#if SILVERLIGHT
                if (Deployment.Current == null)
                    return null;

                proxy = new DispatcherProxy(Deployment.Current.Dispatcher);
#else
                if (Application.Current == null)
                    return null;

                proxy = new DispatcherProxy(Application.Current.Dispatcher);
#endif
                return proxy;

            }

            public bool CheckAccess()
            {
                return innerDispatcher.CheckAccess();
            }

            public DispatcherOperation BeginInvoke(Delegate method, params Object[] args)
            {
#if SILVERLIGHT
                return innerDispatcher.BeginInvoke(method, args);
#else
                return innerDispatcher.BeginInvoke(method, DispatcherPriority.Normal, args);
#endif
            }
        }

        private static int CleanupOldHandlers(List<WeakReference> handlers, EventHandler[] callees, int count)
        {
            for (int i = handlers.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)
            {
                WeakReference reference = handlers[i];
                EventHandler handler = reference.Target as EventHandler;
                if (handler == null)
                {
                    // Clean up old handlers that have been collected
                    handlers.RemoveAt(i);
                }
                else
                {
                    callees[count] = handler;
                    count++;
                }
            }
            return count;
        }

        ///<summary>
        /// Adds a handler to the supplied list in a weak way.
        ///</summary>
        ///<param name="handlers">Existing handler list.  It will be created if null.</param>
        ///<param name="handler">Handler to add.</param>
        ///<param name="defaultListSize">Default list size.</param>
        public static void AddWeakReferenceHandler(ref List<WeakReference> handlers, EventHandler handler, int defaultListSize)
        {
            if (handlers == null)
            {
                handlers = (defaultListSize > 0 ? new List<WeakReference>(defaultListSize) : new List<WeakReference>());
            }

            handlers.Add(new WeakReference(handler));
        }

        ///<summary>
        /// Removes an event handler from the reference list.
        ///</summary>
        ///<param name="handlers">Handler list to remove reference from.</param>
        ///<param name="handler">Handler to remove.</param>
        public static void RemoveWeakReferenceHandler(List<WeakReference> handlers, EventHandler handler)
        {
            if (handlers != null)
            {
                for (int i = handlers.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)
                {
                    WeakReference reference = handlers[i];
                    EventHandler existingHandler = reference.Target as EventHandler;
                    if ((existingHandler == null) || (existingHandler == handler))
                    {
                        // Clean up old handlers that have been collected
                        // in addition to the handler that is to be removed.
                        handlers.RemoveAt(i);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

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This article, along with any associated source code and files, is licensed under The BSD License

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About the Author

Daniel Vaughan
President Outcoder
Switzerland Switzerland
Daniel Vaughan is a Microsoft MVP and co-founder of Outcoder, a Swiss software and consulting company dedicated to creating best-of-breed user experiences and leading-edge back-end solutions, using the Microsoft stack of technologies--in particular WPF, WinRT, Windows Phone, and also Xamarin.Forms.
 
Daniel is the author of Windows Phone 8 Unleashed and Windows Phone 7.5 Unleashed, both published by SAMS.
 
Daniel is the developer behind several acclaimed Windows Phone apps including Surfy, Intellicam, and Splashbox; and is the creator of a number of popular open-source projects including Calcium SDK, and Clog.
 
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