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Good Day,

It's me again. This question is one of the questions in ACM ICPC 2006 - Philippines.

Basically, you need to express a large number as a product of its Primes.

For example:
120 = 2x2x2x3x5 (or 2^3x3^1x5^1)

I'm lost on how to begin to tackle this problem. Please advice.

Thank you.

Posted

Ian Uy wrote:
I'm lost on how to begin to tackle this problem. Please advice.


As a college student, you really should be able to do this. It's basic math.

What you will want to search for is called "prime factorization." The easiest-to-understand technique is called "trial division."

On paper, you start by writing down your large number (let's call it 'n'). Then try to think of another number which divides evenly into n without any remainder. That number is a factor of n. It's easiest to start with small numbers.

In your example, what number divides evenly into 120? How about 2? Yes, 120/2=60. So write down 2 and 60 (those are factors of 120, but not necessarily prime).

Then try to factor each number you wrote down (the 2 and the 60). Are there any numbers (other than 1) that divide into 2 evenly? No, so 2 is a "prime factor" of 120 (i.e. 2 cannot be divided any further).

How about the 60? 60/2=30. So, there is another 2 that is a prime factor of 120. So far we have the factors of 120=2,2,30. Now factor the 30 and keep going.

Keep going until you run out of numbers that can be divided evenly. Those will be your prime factors.

120 factored = 2,60 (2 is prime)
60 factored = 2,30 (2 is prime)
30 factored = 2,15 (2 is prime)
15 factored = 3,5 (both 3 and 5 are prime)
Done.

The prime factors of 120 are (from the parentheses above) 2,2,2,3,5.

Now try writing that in code and see what you come up with. You can use this Table of Prime Factors[^] to check your answers.
   
You do not need to divide by all numbers, only by primes. If the number is evenly divided by a prime, then keep dividing by that prime until the result leaves a remainder, then go to the next prime. There exists (google primes) a site on which there is a list of the primes for the first million numbers, the second million numbers ... to the first 15 million numbers.

Dave Augustine.
   



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