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i am curious how that was done before we had int64 data types available, using only int32 data type seems a challenge.

using int64 data type i would take the left most 32 bits, convert to int32, multiply that by 2^32, and lastly add the right most 32 bits to get the final result.

**What I have tried:**

it seems like a catch-22 ! I need the int64 data structure to implement the int64 data structure!

i am hoping there is another method besides using biginteger to do this?

using int64 data type i would take the left most 32 bits, convert to int32, multiply that by 2^32, and lastly add the right most 32 bits to get the final result.

it seems like a catch-22 ! I need the int64 data structure to implement the int64 data structure!

i am hoping there is another method besides using biginteger to do this?

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One way would be to read the 64-bit value into two **uint32_t** variables, and then use multiple-precision division to extract the decimal digits (in reverse order). For example, given **hi, lo** containing the 64-bit value, you can extract the lowest significant decimal digit by:

Repeat until all digits are extracted (from least significant to most significant).

**Note that I have not tested this code!**

C++

hi_quot = hi / 10; /* divide high part by 10 */ hi_rem = hi % 10; hi_rem = (hi_rem << 16) % 10; /* use modulus arithmetic to calculate remainder of high part */ hi_rem = (hi_rem << 16) % 10; lo_quot = lo / 10; /* divide low part by 10 */ lo_rem = lo % 10; rem = (hi_rem + lo_rem) % 10; /* use modulus arithmetic to calculate the digit */ hi = hi_quot; /* use "magic numbers" to combine hi_rem, lo_quot */ lo = hi_rem * 0x19999999 + (6 * hi_rem) / 10 + lo_quot;

Repeat until all digits are extracted (from least significant to most significant).

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vbnet-rich
28-Apr-22 10:23am

Daniel - i am not sure what the magic numbers purpose is here, but i tried the code above (using an int32) and got an ovflw on the magic number calc... i can see in int64 variables the result and method i need; i've started with n1_long=1234567890123456, which won't fit in an int32, so i split the long into 2 int32 chunks, using n1_long >> 32 giving the left chunk value= 287445; n1_long Mod 2^32 giving the right chunk value= 1015724736; (I did those ops using bit shifts on the original int64 binary n1_long, and all future ops can be done using bit add's, bit-multiplies etc... My question is when i'm done and ready to present the result (a 64-bit long integer), how do i display a 2^63 or uint64 value, using just int32 data types. The DECIMAL data type (16bytes long vs 8bytes fo int64) would also work as Richard M noted above, but i'd like to see if this can be done using int32 data types alone. Ultimately, i'd like to extend this method to provide an int128 structure of 2-int64 chunks; but the catch-22 delimna i see is: i need the int64 data type to support this method, and looking ahead, i will need the int128 data type (or biginteger) to support the proposed extension to my_int128.

Daniel Pfeffer
29-Apr-22 5:25am

all variables, the "magical constant" 0x19999999, and the result must all be unsigned 32-bit values. If the results are signed, then they may overflow the signed 32-bit representation.

If an unsigned 32-bit value is unavailable, you could handle this (with extra complexity) by splitting the 64-bit value into four 16-bit values, each stored in a signed 32-bit variable, and using multiple-precision division to extract the digits in a similar manner.

If an unsigned 32-bit value is unavailable, you could handle this (with extra complexity) by splitting the 64-bit value into four 16-bit values, each stored in a signed 32-bit variable, and using multiple-precision division to extract the digits in a similar manner.

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Math from scratch, part one | Fabulous adventures in coding[^]

That series might give you some idea of how you could build up an 64-bit integer from smaller components.