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Posted 8 May 2001

Using the WebBrowser control in .NET

, 14 Mar 2002
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Create a web browser completely in C#
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A Web Browser in C#

This article describes creating a web browser completely in C#. The application hosts a Microsoft WebBrowser Control and uses the functions it provides for all control. Here is a screenshot:

A lot of the functions do not work yet; most require some non-.NET programming to work. I stuck to pure .NET programming for this app, because it is meant to demonstrate features of the .NET Framework and not some APIs.

Building the Web Browser

Before you begin, you must generate some assemblies from the WebBrowser typlibs, so that they can be used in our code. Typlibs must be imported for:

  • The WebBrowser control itself, which is in SHDocVw.dll.
  • mshtml.tlb, if you plan to access the DHTML Object Model of the document.

This step is easy. At a command prompt, in a folder you create for this project, type:

aximp c:\windows\system\shdocvw.dll
tlbimp mshtml.tlb

The aximp command should generate two files: AxSHDocVw.dll and SHDocVw.dll. The tlbimp command should generate MSHTML.dll, which contains definitions for the DHTML DOM interfaces, along with about 3000 other types, so it might take a while to import.

Now you can proceed in several ways: You can do all coding by hand, or you can use Visual Studio.NET. I have done it the 'SDK way'. Basically, you have to create a form with:

  • The WebBrowser control itself.
  • A toolbar. Note that not all buttons on the toolbar work as you might expect them to.
  • A status bar. You can add panels for the status message, a progress bar, offline and secure icons, and a zone indicator. I've added these controls as placeholders only, they don't work (yet).
  • An address bar. This should be a panel with a label, a combo box, and a Go button.
  • A main menu for the application.
  • An image list for the toolbar.

Most of the initialisation code shall be added for you and little work needs to be done here. You must remember to add event handlers for the WebBrowser control, the status bar, the menus, the toolbar, the address combo box, and the Go button. All this code is present in the file WebBrowser.cs. In addition, extra dialogs are included in About.cs, ImportExport.cs, and Open.cs.

In the WebBrowser.cs file, you must put in the following statements in the namespace:

namespace ND.WebBrowser
  using System;
  using System.Drawing;
  using System.ComponentModel;
  using System.Windows.Forms;
  using Microsoft.Win32;
  using AxSHDocVw;
  using MSHTML;
  // etc..

Microsoft.Win32 is required because the application loads the URL MRU list from the registry. you can remove the MSHTML reference if you do not need it.

Notice SHDocVw is not included; this causes conflicts with the definitions in AxSHDocVw.dll. Most of the code is simple and calls functions of the WB control.

Menus and Toolbars

The menu and the toolbar are standard Windows Forms stuff. Menu popup events are handled to update the enabled/disabled and checked state of menu items. For example:

protected void mnuFile_Popup(object sender, EventArgs e)
      MenuItem miFile = MenuMain.MenuItems[0];
      miFile.MenuItems[14].Checked = AxWebBrowser.Offline;
      Int32 EnabledTest = Convert.ToInt32(SHDocVw.OLECMDF.OLECMDF_SUPPORTED)
          + Convert.ToInt32(SHDocVw.OLECMDF.OLECMDF_ENABLED);
      miFile.MenuItems[2].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB //Refresh test for Edit
      miFile.MenuItems[3].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB
      miFile.MenuItems[4].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB
      miFile.MenuItems[6].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB
      miFile.MenuItems[7].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB
      miFile.MenuItems[8].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB
      miFile.MenuItems[13].Enabled = EnabledTest.Equals(AxWebBrowser.QueryStatusWB

First, the File menu object is obtained. Then the WB control is used to check the enabled status of commands in the menu. If you are familiar with COM programming, this should be standard code. Otherwise, read the WebBrowser control documentation at <a href="http:"" library="" default.asp?url="/workshop/browser/webbrowser/reference/Objects/WebBrowser.asp"">MSDN: WebBrowser. Most commands are also executed in the standard COM IOleCommandTarget way, like this:

protected void mnuFileSave_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
  Object o = null;
    ref o, ref o);

A null object reference is passed for the input and output arguments of the ExecWB method. Simply because we have no arguments to pass. Some menu commands use methods of the WebBrowser control itself, like Home and Search. The other source files have other dialogs, like the Import & Export dialog.

protected void mnuFileOpen_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
      OpenForm frmOpen = new OpenForm();
      if(frmOpen.DialogResult == DialogResult.OK)
        Object o = null;
        AxWebBrowser.Navigate(frmOpen.Address, ref o, ref o, ref o, ref o);

The Import and Export dialog uses the ShellUIHelper object, documented at <a href="http:"" library="" default.asp?url="/workshop/browser/external/overview/overview.asp"">MSDN: Shell Helper API.

Editing the Document

Instead of calling an external editor, all editing is done by the WebBrowser control itself, using an IE 4 feature which allows documents to make themselves editable. However, our code only invokes the edit mode, and does nothing beyond that.

protected void mnuFileEdit_Click(object sender, EventArgs e)
      IHTMLDocument2 doc;
      object boxDoc = AxWebBrowser.Document;
      doc = (IHTMLDocument2)boxDoc;
      doc.designMode = "On";

The code first gets a reference to the Document object and then unboxes it to get to the IHTMLDocument2 interface. This is necessary because the WebBrowser control returns the document as an object and not an IHTMLDocument2 pointer.

The Finished Code

That just about sums up most of the code. However, a lot of things do not work yet. Here is a short list:

  1. 'Full Screen' and 'View Source' in the application menus.
  2. Enumeration of the user's Favourites and History.
  3. 'Send' submenu of 'File' menu.
  4. Mail button on toolbar.
  5. Edit works to only to a limited extent.
  6. Tools Menu.
  7. Back and Forward drop-downs.
  8. Some pages, especially those with frames, do not load properly. ( ? )
  9. There is no handling for new windows.
  10. Status bar icons (secure, offline, zone) are not displayed.

Most code should be easy to create, and can be done within the .NET Framework. However, some functions, like those for favourites and history, shall involve PInvoke.


This article has no explicit license attached to it but may contain usage terms in the article text or the download files themselves. If in doubt please contact the author via the discussion board below.

A list of licenses authors might use can be found here


About the Author

Nikhil Dabas
President NikSci
India India
No Biography provided

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Comments and Discussions

Generalneed help Pin
superda29-May-07 4:07
membersuperda29-May-07 4:07 
GeneralGreat article - but a word of caution... Pin
Barry M.4-May-07 5:03
memberBarry M.4-May-07 5:03 
Questionbrowser toobar Pin
mitjee18-Apr-07 23:57
membermitjee18-Apr-07 23:57 
QuestionPage cannot display?? Pin
Sandeep B.8-Apr-07 20:58
memberSandeep B.8-Apr-07 20:58 
GeneralCaching problem Pin
jk_just22-Feb-07 19:53
memberjk_just22-Feb-07 19:53 
Questionhow to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
Mystic_7-Feb-07 7:32
memberMystic_7-Feb-07 7:32 
AnswerRe: how to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
jesuscheung19-Mar-07 4:18
memberjesuscheung19-Mar-07 4:18 
GeneralRe: how to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
Mystic_19-Mar-07 4:33
memberMystic_19-Mar-07 4:33 
i hope ur still there. actually what iam doing at the moment is that i am giving an event handler for whole of the document.

private void axWebBrowser1_DocumentComplete(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
mshtml.HTMLDocument doc1=(mshtml.HTMLDocument)axWebBrowser1.Document;
mshtml.HTMLDocumentEvents2_Event eve=(mshtml.HTMLDocumentEvents2_Event)doc1;
eve.onclick+=new HTMLDocumentEvents2_onclickEventHandler(eve_onclick);

its working fine. i mean i get event for every element. problem now is this that i dont have the focus. if i click a check box, for example, iam not about to type in it.
can u help me here
GeneralRe: how to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
jesuscheung19-Mar-07 4:43
memberjesuscheung19-Mar-07 4:43 
GeneralRe: how to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
Mystic_19-Mar-07 4:54
memberMystic_19-Mar-07 4:54 
AnswerRe: how to get the html element and its value when clicked Pin
souidi abderrahmen11-Nov-09 2:17
membersouidi abderrahmen11-Nov-09 2:17 
QuestionHow could I control the navigation to be in just one session? Pin
Par Witch11-Jan-07 3:16
memberPar Witch11-Jan-07 3:16 
QuestionAxWebBrowser Navigate Problem Pin
taiqi28-Nov-06 11:41
membertaiqi28-Nov-06 11:41 
GeneralAccess WebBrowser control's encoding menu programmatically Pin
Vikbol25-Oct-06 3:30
memberVikbol25-Oct-06 3:30 
GeneralRe: Access WebBrowser control's encoding menu programmatically Pin
mshon5-Mar-07 11:30
membermshon5-Mar-07 11:30 
QuestionFavourites Pin
zulbaric20-Oct-06 1:03
memberzulbaric20-Oct-06 1:03 
Questionhow to handle onclick event on the Browser component Pin
Mystic_30-Sep-06 20:43
memberMystic_30-Sep-06 20:43 
QuestionProblem with AxWebBrowser.Document Pin
trupci23-Jul-06 21:26
membertrupci23-Jul-06 21:26 
QuestionSome warning messages during TLBimp... should i panic? Pin
bebangs22-Jun-06 16:17
memberbebangs22-Jun-06 16:17 
Generalhmmm Pin
sorinceldesteptrau8-Jun-06 0:17
membersorinceldesteptrau8-Jun-06 0:17 
GeneralError Loading Page Pin
fari_far27-May-06 18:36
memberfari_far27-May-06 18:36 
Questionaximp command doesn't work Pin
lulaleila2-May-06 7:18
memberlulaleila2-May-06 7:18 
AnswerRe: aximp command doesn't work Pin
Nikhil Dabas2-May-06 8:34
memberNikhil Dabas2-May-06 8:34 
GeneralRe: aximp command doesn't work Pin
wolffighters1-Oct-06 14:11
memberwolffighters1-Oct-06 14:11 
Generalporting to Pin
_kane_19-Mar-06 21:24
member_kane_19-Mar-06 21:24 

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